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Annual Report/on the Botanic Gardens, Singapore, 

FOR THE YEAR 1 888. 


Introduction. 



i. The various changes in the staff during the past year, together with the fact 
that 1 did not arrive in the Colony till the close of the year, prevents the Report from 
being as full as it otherwise would have been. 

The late Mr. Cantley took leave of absence on account of ill-health in Decem- 
ber, 1887, and the charge of the Gardens was taken by Mr. Derry, Assistant Superin- 
tendent of Forests, Malacca, while Mr. Fox was still absent from the Colony on 
leave. Mr. Fox returned in April, 1888, and superintehded the Gardens till my 
arrival in November. 

Visitors. 


2. The number of visitors to the Gardens increasedtsomewhat last year, the 
greatest number being noticed on Mail days and Sunday aff^n-oons-. 

The Band of the 82nd Regiment performed as usuMvon moonlight nights, 
and was much appreciated by the general public, as evidenced by their attendance 
in large numbers. 

Flower Beds. 


3. The flower beds around the band-stand have been replanted from time to 
time, and have been kept bright with coloured foliage plants. The beds below the 
terrace, formerly occupied by rose plants, have been entirely replanted with other 
kinds of flowering plants, as the roses, from cutting, had become somewhat unsightly. 
It is intended, however, to replant the roses when a sufficient stock has been obtained 
and made available. The flower bed design on the site of the old aviaries, formerly 
planted with English annuals, has been converted into a bulb garden. This has been 
most successful, as at all times a number of the plants are in flower. The most flori- 
ferous of these seem to be Crinnm asiaticum and C. seylanmum , the tuberose 
(/'olianthes Tuberosa), several Hippeastrums , and Zephyranthes. From the Bulb 
Garden to the entrance to the Fernery a border has been made and planted with 
shade-loving plants, such as Carinas, Alpinias, Calatheas, etc., all of which seem 
likely to do well, although at the end of the year they were much injured by a small 
species of beetle which devoured the leaves at night. 

Plant Borders. 


4. The plant borders fringing the carriage-drive leading from the band-stand 
to Garden Road, have been replanted and manured. The mounds at the end of the 
lake, originally intended for a Rock Garden, have been covered with suitable plants, 
which have grown rapidly and well. Plant borders have also been made along the 
two sides of the manure tank, so as to screen it as much as possible from view. 

Lakes. 

5. The main lake has been cleared of weeds and rubbish from time to 
time. The Committee have authorised the purchase of a small boat, which 
will be very useful, not only in clearing the weeds in otherwise inaccessible 
spots, but also in replanting the island. A large lizard ( Hydrosaurus salvator ) 
haunted the lake for part of the year, and did much damage to the water- 
fowl. It has since been captured and destroyed. The upper end of the lake, 
where the stream comes in, requires planting, and will be a very suitable place to 
cultivate some of the Eichornias , Sagittarias and other beautiful semi-aquatics. The 
Nymphea pond was thoroughly cleansed in 1887, some hundreds of cart-loads of 
mud being taken from it, so* that during the past year the water lilies have grown 
and flowered well. I look forward to making this very interesting, by introducing some 
of the best of the indigenous aquatics, as well as some from Brazil and other distant 
countries. The Victoria Regia lily has grown and flowered well. 


2 


Lawns. * 

6. The lawns have been maintained in good order, but the turf is much 
cracked by the sun’s heat in the dry weather. The ordinary turf grasses do not seem 
to cover the ground thickly enough in parts to prevent the Assuring of the soil. 
Desmodium triflorum seems to be the most valuable plant for turfing in the drier 
spots. But the whole question of making lawns in places so hot and dry as the 
Gardens requires much attention. 

7. But little planting has been done on the lawns, except to fill up blank 
spaces. I hope shortly, however, to plant some of the barer places more thickly with 
palms and other trees, and so overcome the unfinished appearance of the Gardens in 
these parts. A number of the palms have fallen victims to the attacks of the red 
weevil f Calandra palmarum) and the elephant beetle (Oryctes nasicornis) so well 
known for the injury they cause to the coco-nut palms. The former is the more 
injurious in the Gardens. It seems to attack and destroy not only Cocos nucifera, 
but also Corypha gebanga, Cocos plumosa, Martinezia ca ryotsefol la, Verschaffeltia 
splendida ) Livistona chinensis , and several other palms are more or less injured. 
The eggs of the beetle are laid at the base of the leaf stalks, and the larvae burrow 
through the terminal shoot, or cabbage, and so destroy the growing point. The 
trees require to be carefully examined and overhauled from time to time, and the 
insects destroyed by the insertion of a flexible iron wire barbed at the point into their 
burrows. 

Soils. 

8. The soil in almost every part of the Gardens is exceedingly poor and deficient 
in the salts most necessary for the growth of plants. With a view of ameliorating 
this, if possible, a selection of six specimens of soil from various parts of the Gardens 
was made and submitted to Mr. John Hughes, F.C.S., of London, for analysis. The 
specimens range from a peaty swamp soil through various argillaceous strata, to a 
sandy hill soil. The following table gives the results of Mr. Hughes’ exhaustive 
analvsis: — 

J 

Analysis of six Samples of Singapore Soil , representing the ordinary 
hilly and low-lying or swampy soils. 


[ Nos. 1, 2 and 3 frofti low ground Experimental Garden ; Nos. 4, 5 and 6, high 
ground Military Reserve, Tanglin. ] 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

Water expelled at °2i2 F., 
Organic matter and com- 

84-63 1 

19.040 

H.645 

18.940 

26.190 

25.810 

bined water,* 

10.056 

S'- 1 49 

3.926 

2. 1 90 

2.882 

6.684 

Oxides of iron, 

.324 

3*4 j 6 

.871 

2 -5°5 

1 .087 

r-373 

Alumina, 

1.94^ 

2.526 

2.219 

1. 125 

1.2 1 9 

2.248 

Lime, 

.081 

-151 

.200 

.262 

.065 

. 1-24; 

Magnesia, 

.010 

.029 

.064 

.029 

.036 

.024 

Potash, 

.036 

.022 

.052 

.062 

•059 

.-031 

Soda, 

.009 

.007 

•037 

.016 

.020 

•013 

Thuplinic acid, 

.010 

.020 

.021 

•051 

.018 

.023: 

Sulphuric acid, 

.030 

.028 

.017 

.038 

.019 

.030 

Carbonic acid, 

.049 

.162 

.256 

•389 

.147 

•555 

Chlorine, 

.01 1 

.003 

.002 

.004 

.003 

.005. 

Silica and Silicates, f . . 

18.866 

85,7.86 

91.015 

9i-7 6 7 

92.654 

15-01 1 


1 

100.000 

100.000 

100.000 

100.000 

100.060 

100.000 

*Containing Nitrogen, . . 
f Coarse sand separated on 

1-097 

.045 

0*30 

.017 

.030 

.1.23 

washing, ... 

5.010 

51.940 

62.520 

20.182 

* 7-230 

43.272 


3 




Roads and Walks . 

m ■ ' * 4 

9. These have occupied considerable time and attention throughout the year, 
no less than five hundred cubic yards of road metal having been used: The follow- 
ing roads have been thoroughly re-formed : — The carriage drive leading from the front 
entrance to the band-stand ; the drive leading from the office entrance to the band- 
stand, and from thence to its junction with Garden Road. A special band of twelve 
Klings was employed on this work, and the result is very satisfactory. 


Plant House. 

10. This has continued to look bright with Crotons, Calatheas, and other foliage 
plants, as well as many orchids. Of these, there is now a fairly good collection of the 
Eastern kinds, thanks in great measure to many kind donors. The group has 
received, and is still receiving, much attention from amateurs here, and has taken the 
place of Crotons in popularity. Many of the smaller species, rarely seen in cultiva- 
tion, such as Erias , Cirrhopetala, Bulbophylla, Thelasis, are represented, as well as 
the more showy Dendrobia, Coelogyn.es, Phaloenopsis and Cypripedia ; great improve- 
ments have been effected in their cultivation by the use of a species of moss ( Leuco - 
bryum) which is eminently suited for basket cultivation, but is unfortunately rather 
scarce in the island, and difficult to procure. Many of the orchids, too, have been 
re-potted, or transferred to baskets or blocks of wood where it seemed that this style 
of culture would improve them. The species which thrive best here are naturally 
those which are commonly grown in the East India House, while those of the 
cooler houses are more shy of flowering here, on account of excess of heat and moisture. 
Their chief enemies are one or two species of beetles, snails, white ants, and a small 
species of wood-louse which nibblesfthe roots. 


Buildings. 

11. Little has been done beyond repairs where necessary,, such as re-roofing the 
cooly lines, the Police watchmen’s quarters, etc. A tool store and carpenter’s shop is 
now a pressing desideratum, as the building at present used is in a most dilapidated 
and rotten condition. The Committee have, however, approved of a new building 
being erected chargeable to this year’s vote. A small building will also be erected this 
year on the north side of the plant-house for the accommodation of the rapidly in- 
creasing collection of orchids, the present orchid nursery being unsuitable for them. 


Aviary . 


i-2. During the year, the Aviary has been put in thorough repair and re-painted 
at the cost of $150. Mr. Davison, the Curator of the Raffles Museum, has been 
good enough to name the animals and birds. A number of specimens have been 
added, both by purchase and donation, among the most interesting of which are the 
rare Horsfield Hawk-eagle ( Limnetis Horsfieldii) and the lesser Malayan Hornbill, 

Experimental Garden Vegetables. 

13. The exhaustive experiments in the cultivation of European vegetables, 
which was initiated and partly carried out by the late Superintendent, ceased in the 
early part of the year. It appears that, although success attended the trial of some 
varieties, speaking generally, the result must be considered a failure. Great difficulty 
seems to be experienced in getting the Chinese market gardeners to take up the cul- 
tivation of European vegetables, or indeed of any newly introduced plants, despite 
the fact that the European population would readily purchase them. 

The following list, taken from Office records, comprises those vegetables worth 
cultivation : — 

Tomatos, .. . Very good especially the Cherry Tomato. The 

larger kinds are best grown in tubs. 

Jerusalem Artichokes, .. Very good. 

Turnips, . Fair. 

Onions, ... Fair. 

Carrots, . . Early Short-horn fair, but flavour inferior. 

Of tropical vegetables, the Cho-cho ( Sechium edule), though growing readily, 
has as yet fruited but scantily. 

Fruits. 




M* In the Kew Bulletin for October, 1888, a short account is published of the 


4 


fruits of the Straits Settlements, with a list shewing the large exports of fruit from 
the Colony (chiefly preserved pine-apples) a great deal of which is derived from 
Penang, Malacca and the Native States. The annual value of the preserved fruit ex- 
ported is $ioq,ooo. The import of fruit chiefly consists of plantains from the Dutch 
islands, oranges and Japanese persimmon {Diospyros kaki) from China, pumeloes 
and mangos from Siam. As a whole the fruit grown in the Colony, if ever of good 
strains, appears to deteriorate, owing doubtless to the poverty of the soil ; but there is 
no doubt but that careful cultivation might improve it greatly. 

15. The following fruits have been just introduced : — Barbados cherry (Mai- 
pighia urens), Brazil cherry (. Eugenia brasiliensis), Figs [Ficus carica ), Queensland 
plum ( Davidsonia pruriens ), Water melon ( Citrullus vulgaris ), Kei apple [Abena 
cajfra). All these are young plants and have not as yet borne fruit, except the figs. 
The figs seem likely to be a success, the few fruits which have been borne already 
are of good quality and size; and care will be taken to. propagate the plant. The 
Coco plum (Chrysobalanus Icaco ) thrives very well and fruits heavily, but the fruit 
is almost uneatable. The Tree Tomato (Cyphomandra betacea) is quite a failure 
as regards culture here, the climate being too hot. 

Various Economic Plants. 

Patchouli. 

16. The attention of planters has been called to the cultivation of this plant 
through the published correspondence of Mr. Curtis, the Assistant Superintendent 
of Forests, Penang, the authorities at Kew, and^some experts in London. I quote a 
letter from Messrs. PlESSE '& Lubtn, of New Bond Street, London, referring to a 
sample of the dried leaves sent from Penang : — 

“ The sample No. 2 is excellent. The commercial value we estimate to be 
“ about £80 or £100 per ton. No. 2 is less valuable pro rata , for the weight of stalks, 
“ which have no odour, and yield no attar on distillation. No. 3 [Urena lobata ) you 
u correctly describe as being used for the adulteration of the genuine leaves. The 
“ demand for leaves and attar of Patchouli is both steady and continuous. The attar 
“ fetches about 2/6 to 3/0 per oz. weight.” 

17. Patchouly grows as easily and well here as in Penang, and from the above 
extracts it will be seen that by cultivation patchouly may well be one of the 
minor products of the Colony. Detailed information as to methods of cultivation 
has been supplied in answer to various enquiries, but at the same time a caution 
has been given that the demand is limited, and that a large quantity thrown on the 
market would render it comparatively valueless, and that care should be taken not to 
grow it exclusively. 

Coca. 

18. The Kew Bulletin for January gives a very full description of this plant, with 
analysis of leaves received from Jamaica, St. Lucia, India, Java, Ceylon and British 
Guiana, from which it appears that leaves yielding 80 per cent, of the Alkaloid Cocaine 
are valued at 6 d. to 8d. per pound. The plant grows very well here, and might be 
easily cultivated, but the demand is limited, and though small and exceptionally fine 
samples might find a market in Europe, the supply from South America is so large that, 
without further extension of cultivation, that country could swamp the cocaine market 
were it to send in one-eightieth of the amount it could produce. From this it will be 
seen that extensive cultivation here would not pay, but small quantities might be 
grown at a profit. 

Cubebs. 

19. There is a great demand for cubeb plants by planters just now, on account 
of the high price this pepper commands. It grows well in Singapore, but there is 
some difficulty in procuring the right species, as undoubtedly many of the plants sent 
nut from Java as cubebs are merely forms of the wild and valueless Piper caninum. 
A figure of the true species has been published in the Kew Bulletin, so that it can be 
now readily recognised by us. 

Pepper. 

20. The cultivation of pepper is steadily increasing, and prices are well 
maintained. 


5 




Cocoa . 

21. The cocoa plants introduced from Trinidad through Ceylon in 1883 are now 
fruiting well, and there seems to be no reason for the plants being a failure here if 
properly cultivated. The series in the Gardens comprises a considerable number of 
varieties, differing in colour and form of the fruit, all of which seem to do well. It is 
probable that in parts of the Peninsula where the soil is richer than in Singapore the 
cultivation of this plant would be very profitable. 

Tapioca. 

22. During the year, six varieties of the best kinds of tapioca used in British 
Guiana were received. They are highly esteemed in South America, and form a 
considerable portion of the food of the natives. They have grown very well here, and 
we have now a sufficient stock for distribution. 

Rubbers. 


23. The various kinds of rubbers mentioned in former Reports continue to 
grow well. 1 here is at present, however, little demand for young plants, a circumstance 
which would seem to point to the necessity of Government planting largely, as plant- 
ers, as a rule, prefer to plant crops having a quicker return. Meanwhile the consump- 
tion of rubber is increasing, and it seems probable that, with only natural reproduc- 
tion to meet the demand, at no distant date the supply will become very limited. 


Library. 

24. The Library has been re-arranged and catalogued, and the following books 
have been added : — 

Herschell — M eteorology, presented by the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Gibson and Dalzells — B ombay Flora, „ 

Trinius — A grostographia, ,, 

„ De Graminibus Unifloris and Sesquifloris, ,, 

,, Clavis Agrostographiae, 

Dozy and Molkenboer — B ryologia Javanica, „ 

BlumE — T abelle Javanischen Orchideen. it 

Hasskarl — H ortus Bogoriensis. 

o )) 

DeCAISNE — H erbarii Timoriensis Descriptio. ,, 

Kurz — Burmese Flora, 3 parts. )f 

Walker and Arn # OT — ProdromusFloraelndiae Orientals, Vol. I. ,, 

„ Pugillus Plantarum Indiae Orientalis. „ 

Guillemin— leones Lithographies Australiae. ,, 

Kew Bulletin, for 1888. „ 

Hooker’s leones Plantarum, Vols. 1, 2 — 5, Series III, presented by the 
Bentham Trustees. 

P. Sagot — L es Differentes Esp&ces de Musa; presented by Dr. Trimen, 
Peradeniya, Ceylon. 

Thwaites — O n Genus Ancistrocladus, n 

Ondaatje — O bservations on Vegetable Produces of Ceylon. ,, 

W. Ferguson — G rasses Indigenous to Ceylon. )t 

H. Trimen — V ascular Cryptograms of Ceylon. t) 

Kelaart — N otes on Cultivation of Cotton in Ceylon. M 

Dyer — O rigin of Cassia Lignea. tt 

Ridley, H. N.— Monographs of Liparis, Microstylis and Orestia; presented 
by the Author. 

„ Monocotyledonous Plants of New Guinea, ,, 

„ Cyperaceae of W. Tropical Africa, ,, 

,, Scitaminae of Angola, }) 

,, Fresh-water Hydrocharidese of Africa, Jt 

„ Orchids of Tropical Africa, „ 

„ Orchids of Madagascar, M 

Durand — I ndex to Genera Plantarum, purchased. 

Veitch — prehid Manual, Vols. I, II, III, „ 

Nicholson— D ictionary of Gardening, „ 

Williams — O rchid Growers’ Manual, ,, 

,, Choice Stove and Green House Plants, „ 

Garden and Forest Reports were received from Ceylon, Jamaica, Trinidad, Bri- 
this Guiana, Natal, Calcutta, Adelaide, and Sydney ; and the Illustration Horticole. 


6 


« 


Florida Despatch and Chemist and Druggist for the year 1888, were presented 
by their respective Editors. 

Herbarium. 

25. The Herbarium has been partially arranged, but the absence of any Curator 
during the greater portion of the year prevented much being done. 

A fine series of Cupuliferse , Euphorbiaceae and Ficus from the Peninsula was pre- 
sented by Dr. King of Calcutta, and these have been incorporated with the Herbari- 
um, and specimens have been also received from Mr. Curtis of Penang. 

Ex-Establishment. 

Government House Domain. 

26. Under His Excellency’s personal direction, the department has effected a great 
improvement at the entrance to Government House Grounds, by the removal of a 
number of unsightly and worn out fruit trees, and the substitution of clumps of palms 
in their stead. Other trees in the grounds have been pruned and manured where 
necessary. 

People’ s Park. 

27. This Recreation and Pleasure Ground, which has just been handed over by the 
Government to the Municipality, was designed, and planted entirely by the depart- 
ment. Some thousands of trees and shrubs were used for this purpose. The plants 
have grown and look well, and the Park has already become an ornament to the town 
and a favourite resort for the Chinese, w r ho principally form the residents of the 
locality. 


28. The usual exchanges in plants and seeds took place during the year. The 
number of plants received from abroad w^as 690, and 206 parcels of seeds. The num- 
ber of plants sent abroad was 1,278, and 40 parcels of seeds. 


The following have been the chief contributors 


Royal Gardens, Kew, 

Botanic Gardens, Hongkong, 

„ „ Bangalore, 

„ ,, Trinidad, 

,, „ Saharunpur, 

„ ,, British Guiana, 

„ ,, Adelaide, 

„ „ Ceylon, 

„ „ Jamaica, 

„ ,, Buitenzorg, ... 

„ „ Melbourne, ... 


The following were purchased : — 
Messrs. John Laing & Co,,.. 
„ Cannell & Son, .. 

,, Carter & Co., 

„ Sutton & Co., 

„ Paul & Son, 


Plants. Packets of Seeds. 

19 

6 

59 

6 

27 

70 

29 „ 

5° 2 sacks. 

2 
1 

21 


12 


37 

36 

76 

16 


The following are the chief contributors wdthin the Settlements: 


H. E. Governor Sir Cecil C. Smith, k.c.M.g., seeds of Bauhinia bidens. 

W. BOXALL, Esq., Cypripedium claptonense , Vanda Parishii. 

W. Valentine, Esq., Cypripedium Godefroyae. 

J. C. RavenswAY, Esq., Saccolabium Blumei, Vanda tricolor , Begonia sp. 

W. Nanson, Esq., Cypripedium Lawrencianum, Dendrobium formosum 
D. album, Calanthe vestita, VErides crispum var. Warneri and Vanda Rox- 
burghii. % 

C. Curtis, Esq., Penang, Cypripedium niveum, C. barbatum, Bonapartea 
juncea, Pteris sp., Didymocarpus sp., Calanthe cecilioe, C. curculigoides. 

H. C. Johnston, Esq Phalcenopsis violacea, Phal. grand ifior a, Cypripe- 
dium niveum, and Saccolabium H endersonianum. 

A. Gentle, Esq., Tacsonia sp., and Ipomea bona-nox. 


7 


2g. The chief recipients were : — 

Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Botanic Gardens, Trinidad. 

Adelaide. 

Hongkong. 

„ Saigon. 

British Resident, Selangor. 

British Resident, Pahang. ^ ... 

The Malay College, the Government Schools, and other institutions. 

Messrs. Low & Co., London. 

I-L C. Johnston, Esq. 

A. Gentle, Esq. 

A. F. Ayre, Esq. 

R. C. Falkner, Esq. 

A. R. Venning, Esq. 

Mrs. Culling Hanbury, England. 

J. C. Ravensway, Esq. 

The Assistant Superintendents, Forest Departments, Penang and Malacca. 
30. Attached is the usual return of Revenue and Expenditure. 


Botanic Gardens, 
Singapore , 11 th March, i88g. 


H. N. RIDLEY, 

Director . 


% 


Botanic Gardens, Singapore. — Statement of the Receipts and Expenditure, for the year 1888 . 


Receipts. 


By Balance in Bank, 

,, Government Grant, 

„ Sale of Plants and Flowers, 

,, Interest on Current Account, 
„ Overdraft refunded, 


* 


$ c. 


7 49 

8,500 00 


3i3 77 
37 80 
10 00 


Mason, 
Carpenters, 
Printers (label), 
Aviary Keeper, 
Peon, 

Coolies, 


Expenditure 

Salaries. 


Bills. 


I c. 

37 20 
157 02 
160 27 
83 99 
79 i4 
3,308 22 

3,825 84 


$8,869 06 


Purchase of Plants and Seeds, 
Inspector-General of Police, 

Directors Transport and Personal Allowai 
Assistant Superintendent’s Transport, 
Birds’ Food, 

Manure and Cartage, 

Wood for Constructive Purposes, 

Purchase of Tools, and Repairs, 

,, Flower-pots and Tubs, 

Freight on Plants and Seeds, 

Laterite, 

Petty Expenses, 

Botanical Books, 

Repairs to Buildings, 

Garden Seats, 

Analysis of Soil, 

Miscellaneous, 


e, 


251 32 
360 00 
76 16 
36 66 
198 86 
254 81 
102 78 

377 6 4 
201 46 
64 71 
641 50 
147 85 

137 32 

344 So- 
177 20 
126 88 
152 00 

3.651 95 


7.477 79 

Balance in Bank , ... 1 ,39 1 1 7 < 


$8,869 06 


H. N. RIDLEY, 

Director. 


Annual Report on the Forests of Singapore, 
for the year 1888. 


1. The changes in the staff consequent on the death of Mr. Cantley, the late 
Superintendent, together with the small grant allowed this year (viz., $2,500} has pre- 
vented any very extensive works being carried out in this Department. Mr. FLANAGAN, 
the Forest Overseer, left the service in October, and was succeeded by Mr. 
Goodenough. 

Area. 

2. The total area of forests now under conservation has been increased from 13,043 
to 13,133 acres by the addition of a piece of land at Bedoh taken over from the Land 
Office in September. This piece of land consists at present chiefly of lalang ground, 
but parts are damp and the soil rich, and it may prove of value when put under 
timber. 

The cost of demarcation was $25.28. 

Boundaries. 

3. These have been kept in good order — the paths maintained and kept clear of 
weeds, and the streams bridged — by the constant attention of the Forest Watchmen, 
and have been inspected and patrolled by the Forest Overseer and occasionally also by 
myself. As the boundary paths now extend for a length of 80 miles, the amount of work 
entailed in this will be easily understood to be considerable, when the small number 
of men employed is taken into account. 

Collecting Plants and Seeds. 

4. The Forest men have been instructed to collect in quantity any seeds or fruits 
found fallen from the trees in the forests and to send them in to the Gardens, where 
they are planted and as soon as they have germinated and are fit to transplant are 
removed to the different places which require re -planting. Besides seeds and fruits, 
they have sent in young plants of various ornamental and useful species and, under 
my instructions, have recommenced sending in specimens for the herbarium. 

Nurseries . 

5. With the exception of the experimental nursery, little has been done in raising 
young stock. In the Jurong nursery there is a good series of young trees many of 
which are now ready to be planted out, and I hope shortly to be able to plant some 
of the waste lands on a more extensive scale. 

In the Bukit Timah nursery seeds of forest trees have been planted and have, 
for the most part, germinated well. It is intended to make nurseries round all the 
watchmen's quarters, whence young plants can be easily transferred to places re- 
quiring re-planting. 

In the Tanglin experimental nursery a large number of serdya and other useful 
timber trees have been raised from seed, and some of these have been planted out in the 
Military Reserve. Over 8,000 young plants of Para Rubber (Hevea Brazil iensis) were 
raised from seed sent from Ceylon. The young seedlings grew very rapidly, the 
largest of which have been put out in the Military Reserve. Others will be planted 
out in low-lying positions, such as the marshes of Jurong reserve, which are the most 
suitable localities for this species. 


2 


The attempt to grow teak here on a large scale can only be described as a com- 
plete failure. The trees require the best soil that we possess, and there are but few 
spots in the Colony where it will grow at all. 

Mahogany does a little better, and in some forests maybe planted with advantage, 
but its cultivation here cannot be considered very successful. The bilion trees intro- 
duced from Borneo all perished, but I hope to be able soon to give this valuable 
timber tree another trial. 

Military Reserve. 

6. The young trees of seraya and other native timber trees planted out here in 
1884-1885 had some difficulty in coping with the strong lalang grass and other 
worthless plants. The under-growth was, however, cleared away, and this improved 
matters considerably. The reserve, however, is by a natural reproduction becoming 
stocked with tembusu (Fagroea peregrina) a very hard and durable timber much 
valued in Burma. The trees here are somewhat straggly in growth, but by planting 
them closely together this may be remedied. 

Fires. 

7. Three fires occurred during the year, two of which were serious, large tracts of 
forest on the North-East side of Bukit Timah and in the Jurong reserve being des- 
troyed. A smaller fire occurred at Bukit Mandi passing over into the Sembawang 
reserve. Although every effort was made to discover the cause of these fires, the 
origin was never traced. 

Prosecutions. 

8. Ten cases of prosecutions were instituted during the year, for timber-cutting 
and encroachments. Of these, two cases were withdrawn, and the remainder convicted. 
The fines inflicted amounted to $410, of which $310 were paid. 

Rules for Forest Watchmen. 

9. A code of rules for Forest Watchmen was drawn up and printed in English and 
Malay, and copies were sent to all the stations. 

Extirpation of Lalang. 

10. A very large proportion of the forest reserves is at present covered with lalang 
grass (fmperata cylindrica Cyr) which is not only useless, but very injurious, 
both by reason of its inflammability, and also on account of its preventing any cul- 
tivation of the land covered by it, except with a great deal of labour and expense. 
The subject, therefore, of the growth of lalang and its extermination is one of 
paramount importance. 

Wherever the land is burnt, or having been under cultivation is suffered to run 
to waste, it is soon covered with lalang , whatever may have been the previous vege- 
tation. In comparatively rare cases, e.g., portion of the land burnt last year on the 
North-East side of Bukit Timah, the ground is covered with bracken (Pteris 
aquilina) or Gleichenia linearis. This, I believe, to be due to the more sandy 
nature of the ground at this spot. It is noticeable that lalang will not grow on 
sandy or wet soil or under shade. 

In a few spots, the lalang grounds might be flooded for a time, and the plant thus 
destroyed, but owing to the configuration of the island this can rarely be done. 

The treatment of the soil by chemicals such as salt, sulphate of iron, &c„ apart 
from the heavy expense connected with it, is liable to have a very injurious effect on 
the plants with which the ground is afterwards afforested even for many years. 

The introduction of some more actively growing plant to combat and destroy the 
lalang has been proposed, and the well-known lantana (L. mixta) was suggested 
for this purpose. In every way this would be a most undesirable proceeding. To 
substitute for one noxious weed which, by its strength of constitution and vitality, is 
most injurious to cultivation, a plant yet stronger is merely to go from bad to worse, 
and as far as lantana is concerned the question has long been settled. In many 
places the lantana may be seen holding a precarious tenure in the midst of a lalang 
field and quite unable to compete with it. 


6 


3 


The most hopeful plan for dealing with it lies in mechanical means. The plant 
must be hoed up and burnt and the ground re-planted. Lalang reproduces itself not 
only by its feathery seeds, but more constantly by its underground rhizomes. Hoe- 
ing it merely breaks these rhizomes into bits, and unless every bit is destroyed, the 
plant will reproduce itself from pieces of rhizomes left in the soil. Hence it is 
always said that lalang requires to be hoed up three times before it is destroyed. 

To fire the plant as it grows, apart from the risk of injury to the timber-forests, 
only makes matters worse, for the fire merely burns the foliage and does not hurt the 
underground rhizomes, and the plants after burning usually bear fruit, which is car- 
ried by the wind all over the country again. 

By constant clearing of the ground for a few years and at the same time planting 
with trees, the land may be eventually re-afforested with timber, but the expense of 
doing this on a large scale will be. very great. When the trees are tall enough 
to throw a shade upon the ground, the lalang quickly disappears, nor can it penetrate 
even into forest glades if but a few trees bar its progress. 

The question really resolves itself into one of expense. To're-afforest the Whole 
of the lalang country in the forest reserves with timber would entail, the employ- 
ment of a large number of men for several years in clearing the lalang and re-planting 
the trees. The military reserve is an instance of this. It was commenced in 1885, and 
consists of 100 acres on which a band of 10 men has been employed each year for at 
least a portion of the year, and even previous to that plants likely to destroy the 
lalang had been planted there. Even at present it requires a constant clearing to 
prevent the recurrence of the lalang. The plan I would suggest for combatting the 
lalang is to plant gradually patches of ground at first with shade trees and bushes, 
perhaps of little or no value for other purposes, but which would form a compact but 
spreading head of foliage so as to shade the ground, then keeping down the weeds 
will be a comparatively easy matter. The present staff of watchmen will form little 
nurseries of trees in this manner round each of their quarters which they will be able 
to develop according as they have time from their other works. As the shade trees 
kill down the weeds, more valuable timber trees will be planted among them and in 
time a piece of valuable forest will be the result. 

During my inspection of the forest reserves, I have noted the chief trees and 
shrubs which will grow through lalang both indigenous and introduced. Many plants 
will not grow in it at all, others grow through it eventually when assisted but do not 
kill it, while some with a little assistance will grow through and kill it. 

Section (I).— Trees and shrubs that will grow through lalang without killing it: — 

. - D [Adinand ra ditmosa). 

^ (jTeop-tedp) [Map pa javanica). 

Singapore Rhododendron (Melastoma malabathricum). 

Teak (Tectona grandis), in a very few rich soils. 

Andong Cantley {Dracaena Cantleyi ). 

Several species of wild Figs (Ficus spp.) 

(Embelia vibes). 

Gutta Jelutong (Dyera costulata ). 

Of section (I), teak, as stated elsewhere, is to all intents and purposes a failure here. 
Adinandra might be used as an accessory in keeping out lalang, but though exceed- 
ingly common, is difficult to propagate artificially. Dyera in certain spots is very 
common and is well deserving of encouragement on account of the rubber it 
produces. It gives little shade, being a tall straight tree, but not only can it grow 
through the grass, but in one spot I found plants which had at some time been under 
fire, throwing up side shoots, showing that the plant can stand burning. The remain- 
ing trees and bushes in this section call for no comment. 

Section (II). — Trees and shrubs which grow through lalang and kill it : — 

Arnotto (Bixa orellana). 

Croton-oil ( Croton Tiglium). 

Flowering Cassia ( Cassia florida). 

Tembusu (Fagrcea peregrina ). 

Tuba ( Derris elliptica). 

Mauritius Hemp (Fourcroya gigantea). 

Of these, the Arnotto reproduces itself very rapidly and forms a low dense bush, under 
which nothing can grow. Croton seems likely to do well, but has not yet had a fair 
trial. Cassia florida is very successful, and eventually forms a fairly large tree. 





6 " 

Tuba (Derr is scandens) is stated to destroy lalang if planted among it, but I have had 
no opportunity of verifying it. Fourcroya gigantea will also grow among and destroy 
the lalang to a certain extent. Fagroeaperegrina, as mentioned previously, is also 
a success. Besides which, I hope to try the purple Jatropha and some species 
of Erythrina. 

Of course, it will be understood that in any case the process will be a slow one, and 
it will be along time before the injury caused by the early destruction of the forests 
throughout the Colony is healed, but we may hope that as years go on it may be 
found possible to work more rapidly. 


H. N. RIDLEY, 


Director of Gardens and Forests, 


S.S. 


Revenue and Expenditure of the Forest Department L , Singapore , 

for the year 1888. 


Revenue. 


Expenditure. 


Government vote available, . . , 

$ c. 


$ c. 

2,500 00 

Salaries — Forest Watchmen, 
Experimental Nursery, Tang- 
lin, ' 

Transport, . • ... 

1,582 18 

45 o 59 
248 74 

J 


Allowances, ... * 

Miscellaneous and Petty Ex- 
penditure, 

Balance, 

16 60 

165 88 
36 01 


$ 2 , 500 OO 


$2,500 00 


- 


H. N. RIDLEY, 

Director of Gardens and Forests, S.S. 


5 


Annual Report on the Forests of Penang, for the 

year 1888. 


I.— Forest Reserves. 

1 No addition has been made to the reserved forests during the fyear, but 
the areas demarcated in previous years have been surveyed, and prove to be of greater 

extent than the original estimate by 1,321 acres. . 

2 The total area under protection in the Island of Penang is 10,226 acres or a 
little less than 16 square miles ; the total area of the Island being 107 square miles. 

3 The greater portion of these forests are on the hill ranges at altitudes vary- 
ing from 800 ft. to 2,750 ft, and although containing many excellent kinds of timber, 
would not at present pay for working ; consequently the duties of the Department are 
for the present mainly protective. 

4 During the early part of the year, these duties were not satisfactorily per- 
formed, but the appointment of Mr. I. Abrams to the post of Sergeant of Forest 
Guards' in June resulted in a decided improvement. 

5. Twenty-four persons were prosecuted for forest offences during, the year, 
mainly for illicit cutting of timber, sixteen of whom were convicted, and eight 
discharged. The total amount of fines inflicted amount to $105, which, with the 
exception of $5, were all paid. 

6. The boundaries have been kept clear at a cost of $128.35. 

7. New quarters for the Sergeant of Forest Guards have been erected, at a cost 
of $240, and alterations to the Assistant Superintendent’s bungalow cost $329.32. 

8. A fire occurred in the village reserve at Kubang Ulu in January, which 
destroyed 10,000 young Mahogany trees planted out the previous . season. The 
origin of this fire was not clearly ascertained, but from an examination of the spot 
immediately after, I am of opinion that it was owing to carelessness on the part of 
some person using the public foot-path at some distance from the reserve. It is 
worthy of note in connection with this that a clear path, fourteen feet broad, was 
useless in arresting the progress of fire travelling through lalang grass, and it is 
doubtful whether double that width would have been of any use. 

9. The vacancies caused by this fire have been filled up to the extent of the 
remaining stock of young Mahogany plants in the Nursery, but judging from the 
progress made, both here and in Penang, this tree is not likely to be of great value 
in this Settlement. 

10. In accordance with instructions received from His Excellency the Governor, 
the Assistant Superintendent visited the Dindings in January and July, with a view 
to obtaining information as to the condition of agriculture, and to assist in settling 
approximately the forest areas to be reserved. Copies of the reports submitted as 
the result of these visits are annexed. {Appendices B C D.) 

11. As this district supplies a large proportion of the timber used in Penang, 
and contains the only large workable forests of the Colony at this end of the Settle- 
ment, no time should be lost in putting them under proper management. 

12. The total expenditure in connection with the maintenance of Forest Re- 
serves is $1,690.36, as shown in statement of expenditure annexed. (Appendix A.) 


II. — Kubang Ulu Nursery. 

13. Little new work has been undertaken in this nursery, as it was hoped that 

a more suitable site would have been acquired and laid out during the year, in accord- * 
ance with the suggestion put forward in last annual report, but unfortunately the 
year closed without this being carried into effect. 

14. I would again point out the necessity of acquiring suitable land on which 
to test the value of new and little cultivated vegetable products. 

15. Through the kindness of THOMPSON Low, Esquire, of Caledonia Estate, 

I am enabled to give the result of an analysis of twelve varieties of the sugar-canes 
referred to in last year’s report as having been introduced from the Mauritius. (Ap- 
pendix E.) 

16. Some of these promise to be in advance of any kind at present cultivated 
in this Settlement, but their real value cannot be estimated until they have been 
grown on better land than is at my command. 


* 


% 


6 


1 7. A large number of Liberian coffee plants were raised from seeds ripened 
in Perak, some of which have been planted in the Dindings. Plants were offered free 
of cost to the Malays and Achinese in the neighbourhood, but they did not avail 
themselves to the extent that is to be desired. 

18. A few pepper plants put out in 1885 were bearing a good crop of fruit at 
the end of the year, but there is nO necessity for experimenting w r ith this, as its culti- 
vation is thoroughly established at Ara Kuda, from whence thousands of cuttings and 
plants are now sold to the Native States. 

19. One thousand eight hundred and twenty (1,820) trees for planting the road- 
sides in Province Wellesley have been supplied from this nursery during the year. 

Ill . — Hill Nursery and Bungalow Garden. 

20. * The special grant of $1,000 for the improvement of the Bungalow Garden 
admitted of much necessary work being done. The working of the nursery and 
garden together, instead of from separate votes as in previous years, is also an 
advantage. 

21. The top of Gun Hill has been cleared, levelled, and laid out as tastefully 
as the site would admit. A rustic summer-house, and a temporary plant shed, have 
been erected, and the latter filled with plants requiring a lower temperature than is 
obtainable in other gardens. Most of the Cattley as, Odontoglossums, Rhododendrons, 
&c., have been removed to this shed, as being not only cooler, but easier of access 
to persons occupying the bungalows. 

22. The “ Round,” near the entrance to the Convalescent Bungalow, has been 
cut down six feet, and the area of the site enlarged with the soil removed. Grevillia 
robusta and Juniperus virginiana have been planted around the outer edge, and this 
site is now available for tennis, &c. 

23. The approach to the Convalescent Bungalow, which was in an untidy condi- 
tion, has been cleared, dug over, sloped and turfed. 

24. The long continuous flower beds on the terraces have been broken up into 
irregular groups, and entirely re-planted, the intervening spaces being turfed. 

25. The rose beds have been deeply trenched, and, as far as possible, re-planted 
with grafted or budded plants propagated on the spot, and these are doing much 
better than plants on their own roots. Many new varieties have been introduced 
from Calcutta, and it is hoped that by the end of another year the garden will be well 
stocked with young thriving plants. 

26. The area available for vegetable cultivation has been greatly extended during 
the year, by cutting away the jungle and forming additional terraces. The cultiva- 
tion of vegetables will, in future, be principally confined to this garden as it is in close 
proximity to the stables and piggery, the latter having been put up for the express 
purpose of obtaining manure. 

27. The five pigs purchased in December, 1887, have increased during the year 
to twenty-one; the total cost of food being $76.01. 

28. The general up-keep of roads, paths, &c., always an important item where 
the rainfall is heavy as in Penang, has been well attended to by Mr. Chandler, as 
well as the supervision of coolies employed on the various improvements already de- 
tailed. It is to be regretted that this Officer is leaving, as it takes at least a year for 
a man with no previous experience of working coolies or gardening, to acquire the 
knowledge necessary .for carrying on the work economically and expeditiously. 

29. The capabilities of this garden have never been fully developed, no one 
with a practical knowledge of the cultivation of plants having been stationed on the 
spot, and the Officers appointed to the post of Signal Sergeant leave, or are removed, 
by the time they begin to take an interest in this subject. 

30. In the Experimental Nursery there has been a greater amount of fever than 
usual among the men employed, and very frequent changes. 

31. Since the promotion of Mr. P. NlEUKEY to the post of Overseer, Waterfall 
Garden, in June last, no competent man has been in charge of this nursery. Appli- 
cations were made to the Singapore and Calcutta Botanic Gardens, but in neither case 
could a man be spared. An advertisement was then inserted in the local newspaper, 
but the applicants were none of them of the class to be desired. Eventually a Ceylon 
man, whose testimonials as to general character were satisfactory, but with no previ- 
ous knowledge of garden work, was taken on probation, but during the absence on 
leave of the Assistant Superintendent in November he left under the plea of ill- 
health. 


7 


72. In spite of this difficulty, the general up-keep has been fairly maintained, anp 

the voung stock made satisfactory progress. 

77 *” The tree tomatoes continue to bear, and one of the apple trees from 
Australia produced eight fruits of large size and fair flavour. The oranges and 

citrons should commence bearing next year. . , 

7±. The olives continue to make progress, one tree having attained a height of . 
twelve feet, with a circumference of six inches at the base, but there is no sign of its 

producing fruit. 

IV . — Waterfall Garden. 


,, The result of the labour and thought expended in the formation of this 
parden'is only now Beginning to be realised, and I have no hesitation in saying that 
the community, both European and Native, appreciate the change that has been 

wrought in four years. , , 

^6. In addition to the benefit of a public garden to the community, the clearing 

of the Waterfall Valley has, I think, had a beneficial effect on the climate of the 
neighbourhood. The late Mr. HOGAN, who at one time owned this property, and 
attempted to grow nutmegs and cloves on a portion of it, informed me that he could 
get no one to remain on the spot on account of the fever. 

77. Owing to the poor gravelly nature of the soil, the expense of preparing holes 
for specimen trees, &c. is greater than in most other places, but the natural advan- 
tages of the surroundings, from a landscape gardening point of view, m a great 

measure compensate for this defect. . 

^8. The works of extension and improvement have been steadily pursued during 
the year, as means and circumstances permitted, but the greater portion of the money 
available for these purposes has been absorbed in the construction of a substantial 
bridge, forty-eight feet long, at the top of the grounds. This work was kindly under- 
taken by the Public Works Department, and cost $2,336.80. 

39. One area of land has been cleared and added to the garden on the east side 
of the stream, near the entrance, and a site for a band-stand provided by cutting 
down and terracing a natural mound on this land. . 

40. The area laid out at the end of the year is thirty-five acres ; out of a total of 
seventy-five acres acquired from the Municipal Commissioners. 

41. The narrow strip of land between the band-stand and stream has been 
acquired by purchase, and will admit of a great improvement being made in 1889. 

42. An unsightly swamp above the Office has been converted into an irregular- 
shaped pond, one hundred and twenty feet long by twenty to forty feet broad, and 
planted with the Victoria regia and other lilies. The only difficulty in connection 
with this is the large quantity of sand brought down by the rains from the hill road, 
and I see no way of preventing this. 

43. A bridge, 25 feet long, on the contour road, which was put up temporarily 
in 1885 with materials obtainable on the spot, has been replaced by substantial beams 
and planks that will last for many years. The material cost $100.07, and the work, as 
in all other cases with the exception of the large bridge mentioned in para. 37, was 
executed by the garden coolies. 

44. An extra shed for the cultivation of ferns, has been erected in the nurse- 
ry, close to the stream, and answers its purpose well. The plants have improved 

greatly since being removed to this site. » 

45. As many of the plants and trees as circumstances would admit, have been 
labelled with strong Chengal labels, but this can only be attended to at odd times, as 
other and more pressing work is generally on hand. 

46. The grounds of the Assistant Superintendent’s quarters, overlooking the 
garden, have been laid out and planted, and with the building form a prominent fea- 
ture in the landscape. The house has been occupied since the 1st February. 

47. Thinning put the jungle in the ravine above the upper plant shed was com- 

menced in November, in order that the formation of a natural rockery might be com- 
menced early in 1889. , , , 

48. The usual routine works of mowing, sweeping and attending to roads and 
paths, have been carried out at a considerable expenditure in labour, especially dur- 
ing the months of September and October, when the heavy rains did some damage 
to the roads. 


8 


49- There is still great difficulty in obtaining suitable labourers at a reasonable 
price, and this will probably continue so long as there is a large demand in the Native 
States at a high rate of wages. 

50. The stock of plants in pots has greatly increased during the year, and 
some of those previously obtained have grown into good specimens. 

51. The Assistant Superintendent while on leave towards the end of the year 
obtained over six hundred plants and . trees, chiefly of an ornamental nature, from 
Burma and India ; a large proportion being from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Cal- 
cutta. Many interesting plants were also obtained from the Agri- Horticultural Socie- 
ties of India and Burma, and from Mr. C. Maries, Superintendent of State Gardens, 
Gwalior. 

52. The plants in pots are housed in temporary sheds of various kinds, accord- 
ing to the requirements of the plants cultivated, but it is hoped that the time is not 
far distant when means will be provided for erecting more substantial and elegant 
shelter. 

53. The light structures of T iron in the Botanic Gardens and Nurseries of Cal- 

cutta are, for elegance, economy and durability, preferable to anything I know of, 
and, with slight modification, quite suited to the requirements of plant cultivation in 
this climate. • 

54. In July, the use of the Government Steam-launch was granted for four 
days, for the purpose of visiting the Langkawi Islands to collect orchids and other 
plants suitable for cultivation in the garden, and for exchange. A copy of the report 
on this trip is annexed (Appendix F.) 

55. The idea of forming an ornamental lake at the top of the grounds, sug- 
gested in my last annual report, remains in abeyance, the Municipal Commissioners 
being uncertain whether this site will be required in connection with the water sup- 
ply or not. Its unsightly appearance will be brought still more prominently into 
view when the approaches to the new bridge are completed. 

56. The total cost of maintenance of this garden for the year is $3,496.43, and 
the construction of bridge and other new works $2,500. 

V. — General. 

57. Four hundred species of Penang plants have been added to the herbarium, 
and duplicates of each forwarded to the Royal Gardens, Kew, for determination. Two 
hundred and seventy surplus specimens have been presented to other botanical esta- 
blishments, and eighty received in exchange. 

58. One thousand one hundred and twenty-two plants, and sixty-three packets 
of seeds, exclusive of those obtained by purchase, were received during the year; and 
two-thousand five hundred and forty-one plants, and sixty-one packets of seeds dis- 
tributed, exclusive of those supplied for road-sides. A list of the principal donors and 
recipients is given in Appendix G. 


Penang, 

jrst January, 1889. 


C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests, Penang . 




APPENDIX A. 


Revenue and Expenditure of the Forests and Gardens Department , Penang, 1888 . 


Revenue. 


Grant for Maintenance of Forest 
Reserves, ... ...j 


Grant for Improvement of Bun- \ 
galotv Garden,,., ... ) 


1 1 ,000 .00 


Expenditure. 


$4,000.00 


Salaries of Establishment. 

S 


c. 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests, 

1,500 

00 

Overseers of Waterfall Garden, 

300 

00 

„ of Hill Nursery, 

i54 

00 

Sergeant of Forest Guards, 

192 

25 

Total, ... 

2,146 

25 

Salaries. 



Forest Guards, 

426 

00 

Office Assistant and Messenger, 

202 

33 

Coolies — Up-keep of Nursery and Planting 



Waste Land, ... 

255 

10 

Coolies — Clearing Boundaries, 

128 

25 

Bills. 



Tools and Materials, ... 

12 

02 

Alteration of Assistant Superintendent’s 


32 

Bungalow, * 

329 

Construction of Quarters for Sergeant of Fo- 


00 

rest Guards, 

240 

Frefght on Plants, ... 

18 

52 

Forest Guards' Transport, 

IS 

75 

Petty Expenses, 

23 

42 

Oil for Forest Guards’ Station, 

13 

50 

Purchase of Stoppered Bottles, 

12 

00 

„ Drying Paper, 

4 

75 

Advertising, 

3 

40 

House-rent for Coolies, 

6 

00 

Total, ... 

1,690 

36 

Balance, ... 

2,309 

64 

Grand Total, ... 

4,000 

00 

Salaries. 



Coolies, 

749 

4i 

Bills. 



T ools arid Materials, 

85 

81 

Purchase of*Flower Pots, 

27 

29 

Carrying up Manure, 

86 

45 

Cartage, 

3 

25 

Bone Dust, 

4i 

33 

Petty Expenses, 

4 

• 

94 

Total, ... 

998 

48 

Balance, . . . 

1 

53 

Grand Total, ... 

1,000 

00 


IO 


Revenue and Expenditure of the Forests and Gardens Department , 
Penang, 1888 , — Continued. 


Revenue. 


Grant for Maintenance of Expt. ) 
Nursery and Bungalow Garden, ) 


Grant for laying out of Waterfall ) 
Garden, ... ... j 


Grant for Maintenance of Water - 1 
fall Garden, ... ... j 


Grant for Travelling and Person- 
al Allowances, 




Total Revenue from Sale of Grass, 
Plants, &c., (paid in to Revenue 
Account), 


Si, 750.00 


3,500.00 


,500.00 


Expenditure. 


$700.00^ 


Salaries . 




$ 

c. 

Coolies and Tindal, Bungalow Garden and 



Experimental Nursery, 

1 >435 

50 

Bills. 



' Tools and Materials (for Plant Shed. &c.), 

119 

06 

\ Rice for Cattle, 

76 

01 

| Cartage, 

2 

00 

Purchase of Plants, 

101 

00 

Repairs of Overseers’ Quarters, 

9 

00 

Total, ... 

1,742 

57 

Balance, ... 

7 

43 

Grand Total, ... 

L750 

00 

To Purchase of Land, .... 

160 

30 

,, Materials, 

147 

78 

Construction of Bridge, 

2 , I 9 I 

92 

Total, ... 

2,500 

00 

Salaries. 



Coolies and Gardeners, 

2,629 

85 

Bills. 



Manure, 

150 

40 

Cartage, 

46 

OS 

) Tools and Materials (new Plant Sheds, &c.), 

301 

30 

Purchase of Plants and Seeds,... 

76 

5i 

„ Pots, ... 

40 

61 

„ Plant Tubs, 

62 

So 

Petty Expenses, 

75 

3i 

Materials for Bridge, 

100 

01 

Chicks for Plant Sheds, 

13 

83 

Total, ... 

3,496 

37 

Balance, ... 

3 

63 

Grand Total, ... 

3,5oo 

00 

Pony Allowance, ... 

396 

00 

House-rent (one Month), 

35 

00 

Cost of Botanical Tours, 

105 

77 

Inspection Duty, Dindings, 

68 

10 

Transport and Field Allowances, 

36 

14 

Total, ... 

641 

01 

Balance, ... 

58 

99 

Total ... 

700 

00 

Total Expenditure of the Department, 

Ii3,2i5 

04 


jist January, i88g. 


C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests, Penang , 


APPENDIX B. 

Report on the Forests of the Dindings. 


As pointed out in my report on the agricultural condition of this District, the 
timber and other forest produce constitutes a most valuable crop, in many places of 
greater value, all things considered, than anything that could be put on the land were 

the existing forests destroyed. . , , j t 

2 The District has not been surveyed, but the approximate area is two hundred 

square miles, of which, so far as I can judge from a hurried visit, at least two-thirds 
are more or less covered with forests containing a large proportion of valuable timber 
trees such as Chengal, Damar laut, Tampenis , Merebau, M eranti , and others of more 
or less value; which, properly managed, will prove a permanent source o revenue 

'z The population is scanty, and consequently there are but few ol the difficulties 
to be met with that have been encountered in demarcating and settling the reserved 

areas in other parts of the Straits Settlements. . . 

4. The facilities for removing and marketing the produce in Penang are greater 

than in any other Crown forests at this end of the Settlement. 

5. Local steamers call regularly at Pangkor for fire-wood, and as the trade 
between Penang and Lower Perak increases, the demand for fire-wood is certain to 
increase also, thus affording a market for produce that is often wasted or of little 


6. Other sources of revenue are, damar, wood-oil, rotans, getah, bertarn, &c., 
lal of which will have to be taken into, consideration in the future administration of 
these forests. 

7. The present system of allowing Chinese to cut where and how they choose, 
on payment of royalty to the Government varying from three to nine cents per cu- 
bic foot for logs up to twenty feet in length, and a proportionally higher sum for 
greater lengthy will, in a few years, destroy all the more valuable timbers. In some 
places this is already the case, as I am informed by the District Officer, who remarks, 
and my own observations agree, that one of the most valuable timbers — chengal — will 
soon be exhausted unless protection and a different system of working be applied. 

8. The same thing has happened in Penang with the best form of damar laut, 

( Shorea sp.) which is specifically distinct from, and vastly superior to, the timber 
now generally known under that name. 

Old Malays inform me that the best form of damar laut, known as No. satu was 
plentiful thirty or forty years ago, but I know from experience that at the present time 
it is difficult to find a single tree. 

9. The revenue derived from forest produce in the Dindings during the past 
three years amounts to $2o,6ri.oi, but I have no information what proportion of that 
sum is derived from minor products. I think, however, it may be safely assumed that 
for this sum half a million cubic feet of timber have been removed, and a large quan- 
tity wasted, as there is under the present system no incentive to economy in working. 

10. The suggestions I have to offer are that a large proportion of this District, — 

(а) be declared Forest Reserve, and worked on a system that will ensure natural 

reproduction from seed, and also ensure that the quantity of timber removed 
does not exceed the annual yield of the forest ; 

(б) to do this the reserved area must first be marked out in blocks, and com- 

partments, for convenience in working, the boundaries surveyed, and suita- 
ble maps prepared ; 

(c) by careful examination the contents of each compartment should be ascertain- 

ed, the kinds and proportion of timber trees and other revenue-yielding pro- 
duce noted, and the approximate normal yearly increase ascertained ; 

(d) trees to be removed during the year from the compartment or compartments 

to be operated on should be marked by a competent person, and then sold 
by auction standing, removed by Government agency, or under a modifica* 
tion of the present system, as experience may prove best ; 

(e) restriction should be placed on the manufacture of “ Sagors ” by which pro- 

cess the greater portion of a whole tree (generally Chengal) of the first class 
is entirely wasted, to form the bottom portion of a native boat; 

(/) the cutting of certain valuable trees that are becoming scarce, to be specifi- 
ed after careful examination, to be entirely prohibited for a number of 


years ; 


12 


(g) the protection of getah trees, rotans, and other minor products, should re- 
ceive attention, and artificial reproduction resorted to, if necessary, though 
immediate protective measures will probably render this unnecessary except 
in the case of very scarce and valuable trees, &c. ; 

(k) separate reserves for fire-wood should be established on the banks of the 
rivers, where th$ vegetation is principally bakau. 

11. The need of a small protective staff in order to check the illicit removal of 
timber, &c., is already felt by the District Officer, and the system I have ventured to 
suggest cannot be carried out without the assistance of intelligent men. 

12. The object should not be to obtain the greatest possible immediate revenue, 
but to bring the forests into the condition in which they will produce the best kinds 
of timbers, and prove a permanent source of wealth. 


C. CURTIS. 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests, Penang . 


APPENDIX C. 

Penang 30th July, 1888 . 

Sir, — I have the honour to report that, in accordance with the Governor’s in- 
struction to visit the Dindings and assist the District Officer in settling the area and 
position of Forest Reserves, I left Penang on the 7th instant and returned on 
the 14th instant. 

2. Mr. MEREWETHER was ready to start immediately on my arrival in Pangkor, 
and we proceeded at once in the Steam-lanuch to Telok Sera. 

3. On the following day we took a sampan, and went up the Bruas River in 
order to examine the mangrove swamps in which much of the firevwood used by 
local steamers is cut. Landed at Pangkalan Bdru and walked across to the Perak 
boundary near Sungei Tuntong. 

4. On the third morning we started from Telok Sera, and walked over nine 
miles of excellent new bridle-path which passes through some of the best land in the 
District. Took a sampan and went down the river to Kota Siam and joined the 
launch, which had been sent around by the Dindings River, and proceeded up the 
Raja Itam River. 

5. The fourth day we walked through abandoned ladang land to Gunong 
Tunggal, a long isolated hill about 500 feet in height, from the top of which Pe- 
nang can be seen. 

6. The fifth and sixth days were spent in Pangkor examining the forests, and 
collecting specimens of such trees, &c. as were in flower or fruit, and in deciding as 
far as possible the position of the areas to be conserved. 

7. On a previous occasion I had an opportunity of examining the southern 
portion of the District, and with the experience gained during these two visits, and 
from information supplied by Mr. MEREWETHER, I am of opinion that it is desirable 
to establish reserves in places shown approximately in enclosed plan. 

8. Pangkor Island has been cleared of the best timbers wherever it could be 
worked out with ease, but there is still a great deal high up the hills, and in places 
more or less difficult of access. 

The land has not been cultivated, and there is a good covering of young trees of 
various kinds, a fair proportion of which will grow into valuable timber. The 
l^nd is in a condition to receive seeds of the better class' of tress if a sufficient 
number be allowed to remain long enough to arrive at a seed-bearing age, and I, 
therefore, advise that the whole Island be closed for a time. 

9. Telok Sera reserve includes the highest range in the District, the greater 
^portion of which is unsuited for agricultural purposes. The roads from Sungei Satal 

to Kota Siam and Sungei Glam are excellent boundaries, and all the demarcation 
necessary is to run a line nearly east from the latter place until the Kota Siam Road 
is reached. 

10. Tanjong Burong is a flat swamp well covered with young mangrove trees, 
which, if protected, will grow into a valuable crop of fire-wood, for which there is a 
steady demand. In order to demarcate this reserve, it is only necessary to open one 
line from near the mouth of the Bruas River to the Perak boundary. 


13 


i Gunong Tunggal is in the midst of a large area of land suitable for agricul- 
tural purposes, but the hill itself is in general too steep for cultivation. It contains 
a large proportion of damar laut ( Shorea gratissima Dyer) of a large size, and other 
good timbers. 

There are also a good many climbing gutta plants, “getah grip,” (a species of 
Willoughbeia), which the Malays in the neighbourhood requested permission to be 
allowed to tap. There are no existing boundaries in the form of rivers or paths that 
can be utilised, and a good forest boundary, by connecting it with Sungei Raja Itam, 
would serve the double purpose of defining the area to be reserved and providing an 
opening into the agricultural land around the base of the hill. 

12. Tanjong Hantu is a rocky point of land covered with small timber of good 
quality, and is sufficiently well defined by the road from Simpit to Telok Sera and 
Sungei Puya on the landward side, and the sea on the other. 

13. Lumut Reserve includes a range of low hills covered with small useful tim- 
ber, the boundaries of which are sufficiently well defined on two sides. 

14. It is impossible to state with any approach to accuracy what the acreage of 
these areas amounts to, as the District has not been surveyed, and the accompanying 
plan is intended rather to show the relative positions than the areas. 

15. There is still a large stock of Digterocarpeae and other valuable timbers in 
the Dindings, for which there will be a demand at no distant time, but the Chinese 
will not go far back, except in the case of valuable trees such as chengal, until they 
have quite exhausted the forests bordering the streams, and unfortunately in these 
places they clear out everything of value, leaving none for seed-bearing, and destroy- 
ing thousands of saplings. 

16. All cutting within the reserves should be at once stopped, and as there is a 
sufficiency of timber for present wants in other places, it will not greatly affect any 
one. When these areas are worked it must be on a plan that will ensure natural re- 
production of the best timbers. 

17. A small staff of Forest Guards will be necessary in order to prevent illicit 
cutting and, no doubt, these can be utilised by the District Officer, under whom they 
should be placed, to check the produce taken out of unreserved forests under passes 
issued by his office. 

18. No specially qualified Forester is, for the present, necessary; demarcation, 
survey and protection, being the immediate requirements of the District. 

19. Chengal is even scarcer than I had anticipated, and unless the cutting is 
prohibited there will not be a tree remaining in two or three years. 

Ebony is the only other tree that I would at present recommend to be placed in 
this class, though I may at some future time with a more intimate knowledge of the 
contents of the forests, have to suggest others. 

C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests, Penang . 


APPENDIX D. 

Penang, jist January, iS 8 g . 

SiR, — I have the honour to report, for the information of His Excellency the 
Governor, that, in accordance with instructions, I proceeded to the Dindings on January 
19th, taking with me a case of economic plants in pots, the weather being too dry at 
the time for lifting plants from the open ground. 

2. During six days I travelled over as much of the District as was possible with- 
out the aid of a steam-launch, which was unfortunately in dock, and examined the 
state of agriculture and nature of the soil. . 

3. With the exception of Lumut Estate, on which tapioca and sugar are grown, 
the principal cultivated products appear to be coco-nuts and patchouly, both of 
which give a good return. The tapioca crop is looking well, aiid the machinery for 
manufacturing flour will be erected shortly. 

4. Pepper is being tried on a small scale in three or four different parts of the 
District, and grows well, especially near the District Officer’s house at Pangkor, but 
the proper method of cultivation is not understood by the owners. The plants have 
been allowed to grow up to the tops of the supports, instead of being layered as is 
done by the Achinese planters in Province Wellesley. I explained to them practically, 
by treating plants in their presence, that when a pepper plant begins to branch it 



should be taken down from its support, the lower leaves removed, and the stem up 
to the junction of the branches layered down in a previously prepared hole as near 
the support as is consistent with the safety of its roots, and the soil then replaced. 
Treated in this manner, roots are emitted along the whole length of the stem that has 
been buried, the plant is better able to withstand drought, and fruit is produced from 
near the ground up to any height that may be desired. 

5. At R4ja Itarn, which was reached by walking for five or six miles along the 
boundary line that divides the Dindings from Perak, I saw near a native house a plant 
of China grass ( Rhea or Ramie ) which has attracted considerable attention of late on 
account of its valuable fibre. The owner of the garden stated that he was in the 
habit of cutting it down for the manufacture of fishing lines about once a month. At 
the time T saw it the shoots were four or five feet high, and as clean as could be de- 
sired. The soil at this place is a peculiar clayey loam of a light colour. 

6. There are a variety of soils in the District, some of which would produce 
cloves, nutmegs, pepper, Liberian coffee, chocolate, indigo, coco-nuts, paddy, &c. 

7. In order to encourage the cultivation of economic products other than those 
mentioned in para. 8, which are already established, especially pepper, coffee, cloves 
and nutmegs, I would suggest the formation of a small nursery in Pangkor, of about 
an acre in extent, where plants could be raised or planted temporarily on their arrival 
from Penang or Singapore, previous to distribution to intelligent natives willing to 
give them a fair trial. 

8. After careful examination, in company with the District Officer, we came to 
the conclusion that the most suitable place for this purpose would be a piece of land 
near the Recreation Ground, which combines the advantages of fairly good land with 
an abundant water supply, and is sufficiently near the District Officer’s quarters to 
allow of his personal supervision. 

9. This land would have to be cleared and fenced to keep out animals, and a 
small house put up to accommodate two gardeners, who would be sufficient to carry 
on the work when it is fairly started. 

10. The cost of clearing, fencing and stocking this nursery, including young 
plants of cloves, nutmegs and pepper to be purchased this year, need not exceed 
$500, and the other up-keep would be the salaries of two Javanese at about $18 per 
mensem. 

I discussed the matter thoroughly with Mr. Merewether, who takes an intense 
interest in the matter, and one of the first things done would be to raise a quantity of 
dadap and pepper plants for distribution, a supply of seeds of the former being avail- 
able on the spot. 

11. There is regular communication betw r een Penang and Pangkor, and seeds 
are easily transmitted, and an Officer of this Department could occasionally run down 
for a day or two to give practical instruction. 

At present there is no accommodation for visitors to the District, which doubt- 
less prevents many persons, who would otherwise do so, from spending a day or two 
on the Island, and judging for themselves of the capability of the soil, &c. I under- 
stand, however, from the District Officer, that it is intended to erect a Rest-house 
on the beach which will be a great convenience. 

12. It should be borne in mind that, while there is great need for developing 
the agricultural capabilities of the Dindings, the Government possess in the existing 
forests a most valuable crop, which in some parts of the District, considering the 
nature of the soil, quality of the timber and the facility with which it can be brought to 
market, is, if carefully conserved and economically worked, probably of greater value 
than anything that can be planted, besides the advantages of having a fair proportion 
of forest land as regards its bearing on climatic changes. 

13. These areas should be settled in good time, and their extent and position 
shown in the map when the contemplated survey of the District is undertaken. 


C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests, Penang. 


>7 

APPENDIX G. 

Principal Contributors aud Recipients of Plants, 1888 . 


Contributors. 

Recipients. 

Director, Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. 
Director, Botanic Gardens, Ceylon. 
Superintendent, Botanic Gardens, Hong- 
kong. 

Superintendent, Botanic Gardens, Singa- 
pore. 

Agri-Horticultural Society, Calcutta. 

Do. do., Rangoon. 

Do. do., Madras. 

Messrs. Jas. Veitch & Sons, London. 
Hon’ble W. E. Maxwell, C. M. G., Penang. 

C. W. S. Kynnersley, Esq., Penang. 

Major Walker, Perak. 

Dr. Brown, Penang. 

Mrs. I. Allan, Penang. 

Mrs. E. F. Thomas, Penang; 

C. Wray, Esq., Batang Padang. 

Mrs. Trotter, Singapore. 

C. Maries, Esq., Gwalior. 

G. Peche, Esq., Moulmein. 

H. Krams, Esq., (unknown). 

S. P. Chatterjee, Esq., Calcutta. 

W. Boxall, Esq., London. 

C. H. Swindon, Esq., Calcutta. 

H. C. Johnston, Esq., Singapore. 

Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Director, Botanic Gardens, Ceylon. 
Director, Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. 
Supt., Botanic Gardens, Hongkong. 
Supt., Botanic Gardens, Singapore. 
Agri-Horticultural Society, Calcutta. 
Assistant Superintendent of Forests, 
Malacca. 

Superintendent of Plantations, Perak. 
Hon’ble J. Allan, Penang. 

J. Fraser, Esq., Perak. 

E. M. Merewether, Esq., Pangkor. 

H. C. Johnston, Esq., Singapore. 

C. Wray, Esq., Batang Padang. 

Sir Hugh Low K. C. M. G., Perak. 

L. C. Brown, Esq., Penang. 

G. Peche, Esq., Moulmein. 

C. H. Swindon, Esq., Calcutta. 

J. Low, Esq., Caledonia. 

A. C. Stallard, Esq., Pangkor. 

A. W. O’Sullivan, Esq., Balik Pulau. 

S. P. Chatterjee, Esq., Calcutta. 

C. Maries, Esq., Gwalior. 

Major Walker, Taiping. 

, 


C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests, Penang. 


O 


i8 


Annual Report on the Forests of Malacca, 

FOR THE YEAR 1888. 

i. The work of the early part of the year was carried out by Mr. FLANAGAN, 
but on my return from duty in Singapore, in the middle of April, Mr. FLANAGAN was 
transferred to the same Settlement. 


Forest Reserves. 

2. The work of the year has consisted chiefly of maintenance. In some districts, 
small nurseries are being established for raising seedlings of the best kinds of forest 
trees, for planting up waste lands within the reserves. 

3. Much difficulty has occurred in keeping the forest watchmen from frequently 
absenting themselves from their stations ; this is owing to their quarters not being 
large enough for them and their families. 

Quarters similar to the Police barracks are what are required. 

4. During the year, one Corporal of forest watchmen has died, and one has 
resigned. 

5. It is satisfactory to note that no fires have occurred within the reserves dur- 
ing the year. 

6. In Appendix A is a list of prosecutions for illicit wood-cutting detected by 
the forest watchmen. 


7. The following general notes are made with reference to the forest reserves. 

Bukit Bruang Reserve. 

8. Six miles from Malacca, situated between the districts of Batu Berendan .and 
Durian Tunggal, has eight and-a-half miles of boundaries, and an area of 1,734 acres. 

9. The hill-land rises to an elevation of 514 feet, and occupies a large area of the 
reserve ; it is well wooded with young timber, the most abundant and notable being 
Tampines ( Sloetia sideroxylon ) . 

10. Conservation appears to be all that is required in this district. 

Sungei Udang Reserve. 

11. Thirteen miles from Malacca, situated between the districts of Sungei Udang, 
Sungei Baru and Pangkdlan Balak, has fifteen miles of boundaries, and an area of 
4,800 acres. 


1 2. The reserve is well wooded, and includes a fair percentage of first class 
timber on certain areas. 

The most notable are : — 


Kayu Mrnyak (Dipterocarpus laevis) , 
Kempas ( Kumpassia malaccensis) } 
Seraya (Hoped cernua), 

Meranti (Hopea meranti) , ... 
Malaka (Phyllanthus emblica ) , 

Kelat (Eugenia zeylanica) , ... 

Kranji (Dialum indicum) , ... 

Arang (Diospyros sp.), 


abundant. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

fairly abundant, 
do. 


13. All the old Jakun clearings within the reserve are fast becoming re-wooded 
by natural reproduction. 


14. An abandoned estate ad mg the Pangkdlan Balak Road, and near the 
sea, requires to be assisted by sc planting, and this will form part of the opera- 
tions for 1889. 


15. Some young plants of Mahogany raised from seeds received from Kew and 
planted in this district during the year, have nearly all succumbed to the ravages 
of ants. 


i 9 




Merlemau Reserve. 


16. Twenty miles from Malacca, situated between the districts of Merlemau and 
Chinchin. Boundaries extend eight miles, area computed at 4,000 acres. 

17. The northern boundary has been re-opened during the year, but, owing to 
the deep swamp, it is impossible to keep the boundaries in the direction of the Kesang 

River in order. . , , 

Much good will be effected in this reserve when the Kesang River has been 

cleared. 


18 The western portion of the reserve is well wooded, and some first class 
timber skirts the Chinchin Road, which passes through the centre of the reserve. 

The most remarkable are 

Tembusu (Fagroea peregrine), 

Petaling ( Strombosia javanica), 

Meranti (Hopea meranti) , 

Kayu M inyak (Dipterocarpus lasvis) , 

Gambar daun, ... ...» 

Rambei daun, 

Ayer Pdnas Reserve . 

in. Fifteen miles from Malacca and situated between the districts of Durian 
Tunggal and Kesang. Area 4,000 acres. The reserve is chiefly demarcated by the 

public roads. 

20. Demarcation of the western boundary of the new reserve has been com- 
pleted during the year. 

2' The reserve is wooded chiefly with young forest, except the roadsides, where 
some first class timber exists. 

The most notable are: — • 

Resak (Vatica rassak), 

Sepete (Parkia Roxburghii) , 

Jelutong (Dyera costulata) , ... 

Gambar daun, 

Meranti (Hopea meranti) , ... 

Kayu Mmyak (Dipterocapus leevis) , 

Kranji (Dialur/i indicum), ... 

Bukit Panchur Reserve. 

22. Sixteen miles from Malacca, situated between the districts of Machap, 
Durian Tunggal and Alor Gajah, has eleven miles of boundaries, and an area of 
3,640 acres. 

23. The hill-chain reaches an elevation of 889 feet, and, besides protecting the 
the sources of springs in the backbone of the Settlement, it is well wooded with 
young forest, and is in the centre of a largely cleared district. 

24. An abandoned estate now included within the reserve will require some 
time before re-wooding itself by natural reproduction, and some artificial assistance 

may be necessary on so large an area. 

» 

25. The most notable trees are : — 

Merebau (Afzelia palembanica) , 

Kelat (Eugenia zeylanica) , 

Petdling (Strombosia javanica), . 

Kempas (Kumpussia malaccensis) * *... 

Meranti (Hopea meranti), 

Brisu Reserve . 

26. Twenty-five miles from Malacca, and situated between the districts of 
Sungei Ba.ru, Lubok China, and Brisu. Has nine miles of boundaries, and an area of 
2,247 acres. 


rare. 

fairly abundant, 
rare. 

fairly abundant, 
do. 


fairly abundant, 
do. 
do. 
do. 

abundant. 

do. 

fairly abundant. 


fairly abundant, 
do. 

abundant. 

do. 

fairly abundant, 
do. 




20 


27. The reserve is principally wooded with 
The most important trees are: — 

Seraya (Hopea cernua) , 

Meranti (Hopea meranti) , 

Kelat ( Eugenia zeylanica ) , ... 

Kayu Mmyak (Dipterocarpus Isevis ) , 


young forest. 


fairly abundant, 
do. 
do. 
do. 


28. The demarcation of inhabited lands, and an extension towards the frontier, 
will form part of the operations for the year 1889. 


Jus District. 

29. Nothing could be done in the large district of Jus, but demarcation has now 
commenced. 


General' Remarks. 


30. It has been thought that the time has arrived when some revenue might be 
raised from the reserves, by supplying timber and general forest produce to the 
different villages. 

31. With this object in view, the principal operations for the year will consist 
in preparing reliable maps showing all the topographical features, and the reserves 
marked info blocks. 


32. The reserves will be marked into blocks by means of inspection paths, and 
each block will be dealt with separately. The timber wall be classified, waste lands 
to be planted will be noted, brushwood requiring artificial assistance, either by plant- 
ing, thinning or sowing seeds, will be marked, and all possible information collected 
and recorded. 

It will then be left to decide what timber can be spared from the difUrent 
blocks, and, with the necessary information to work on, the fellings can be properly 
controlled. 

Bukit Sabukur Experimental Garden. 

33. The most important work of the year has consisted of maintenance, propagat- 
ing and planting, and clearing and preparing ground for the reception of plants & for 
experiment and nursery stock. 

34. Seeds of forest trees, rotans, &c. have been sown from time to time for 
general planting. 

35. Perhaps the most important work in this direction has been the preparation 
of seedling fruit trees for distribution. From applications received and notified, it is 
evident there is a large demand for the principal kinds of fruit, both in the Settlement 
and Native States, and several thousands will be prepared during the year 1889. 

_ 36. The nucleus of a collection of general economic plants has been introduced 
during the year. 

• P 

37. The following notes are made on experiments now being carried on. 

38. Mauritius hemp (Fourcroya gigantea) grows slowly but well, some fibre 
has been prepared from a few old plants, and has the appearance of good fibre. 

39. If kept free from weeds, nothing further appears to be required to ensure 
success. 

40. Virginian tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var.). — From seeds received from 
Kew, a fine lot of plants were raised ; but from seeds saved locally, the plants deteri- 

• orated so much that the cultivation ha^been discontinued. 

41. Deli tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var.) has been tried, but this has also 
proved unsuccessful. 

42. Castor oil ( Ricinus communis). — Seeds were obtained from the Botanic 

Gardens at Calcutta. The plants have grown vigorously and are now commencing 
to fruit. ^ 


21 


43. Croton oil (Croton tiglium) grows freely and fruits abundantly. 

44. Annatto (Bixa orellana ) grows vigorously, and is deserving of a trial on 
a large scale. 

45. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) grows well in the Settlement, and might be 
more extensively cultivated to advantage. 

46. Cubebs (Piper cubeba) promise well, and are being propagated as largely 
as possible. 

47. Maltese oranges and lemons.— The lemons have grown well and are now 
dowering. 

48. Mahogany (Swietenia mahogani) .—Seeds were received from Kew in 
1886. The plants have grown well, and many are now ten feet high. Unfortunately, 
few are free from the ravages of ants. 

49. Two species of Eucalypti have grown with remarkable vigour, and it would 
be interesting to try these valuable trees on a larger scale. 

50. From a sample of Liberian coffee observed to be growing well in the Settle- 
ment, and sent to the Kew authorities for report, the London Brokers to whom the 
sample was submitted, declared it to be the finest sample of Liberian coffee ever seen 
in the London market. 

Roads and Drains. 

51. The main drive through the Garden (from the Garden boundary to the 

Batu Berendan Road) has been widened and maintained, and now admits of a drive 
through the extent of the Garden. . 

52. A road, 500 yards in length, has been opened to the Assistant Superintend- 
ent’s quarters. 

Formation. 

53 In July, a supplementary vote of $[,000 and in October a further vote of 
$200 was sanctioned, for digging a lake, and levelling the adjoining grounds. 

54. The excavations were continued to the end of the year, and 5 *°°° cubical 
yards of earth were removed. 

55. A dam remains to be constructed, and a vote will be required for the work, 
which should be completed as early as possible, as an abundant water supply close at 
hand is absolutely necessary. 

<6 It may be mentioned that the rainfall for the first four months of the year, 
taking the average for that time from 1883-86, amounts only to 3.60 inches monthly. 
Much labour is now lost through fetching water from long distances. 

Assistant Superintendent's Quarters. 

57. Quarters for the Assistant Superintendent were completed at the end of 
August, and occupied on the first of September. 

58. A statement of Expenditure is appended in Appendix B, and of Revenue 
collected in Appendix C. 

R. DERRY, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 

Malacca, nth February, 1889. 


22 


APPENDIX A. 

Prosecutions for illicit Wood-cutting. 


District. 

Prosecuted. 

Result. 

Brfsu, 

2 Malays, 

Case dismissed. 

Bukit Bruang, 

1 Chinaman, . ... 

Fined $25. 

Merlimau, 

1 Malay, 

Fined $10. 


APPENDIX B. 
Expenditure of the year 1888. 


Government Vote, 

$ c. 
4,000.0c 

$ c. 

Supplementary Vote, 

I,200.0C 

' 

Expenditure. 


5,200.00 

Salaries of Forest Watchmen, 

1,37 3-32 


Maintenance and Planting, . . . 

68.70 


Uniform for Forest Watchmen, 

96.66 

1,538.68 

Bukit Sabukur Garden. 


Salaries of Employes, 

1,380.03 


Manure, ... ... . * 

4 - 5 ° 


Purchase of Tools and Implements, 

186.88 


Do. of Plants and Seeds, 

2.80 


Cartage, 

131.59 


General Repairs, ... J 

40.00 


Miscellaneous Expenses, 

91.20 


House Rent, 

160.00 


Transport, 

331.07 

♦ 

Field Allowances, 

105.00, 


Personal Allowances, 

49.20 


Digging Lake and Levelling, 

1,174.07 


Total Expenditure,. . . 

Balance in Bank,... 

$ 

3*656.34 

5, 1 95.02 

4.98 


APPENDIX C. 
Revenue collected. 

Sale of Fruit, 

Do. Firewood, 

Do. Vegetables, ... * 


... $42.00 
4.00 

5-89 

® 5 r - 8 9 


Malacca , nth February, 1889. 


R. DERRY, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 


GOVERNMENT NOTIFICATION— No. 164. 


The following report on the Dindings by the Assistant Superintendent 
of Forests at Penang, is published for general information. 

By His Excellency’s Command, 


Colonial Secretary’s Office, 
Singapore , 8th March , 1888. 


A. M. SKINNER, 

Acting Colonial Secretary. 


Penang , jist January, 1888. 


Sir, — I have the honour to report, for the information of His Excellency the 
Governor, that, in accordance with instructions, I proceeded to the Dindings on January 
19th, taking with me a case of economic plants in pots, the weather being too dry at 
the time for lifting plants from the open ground. 

2. During six days I travelled over as much of the district as was possible 
without the aid of a steam-launch, which was unfortunately in dock, and examined 
the state of agriculture and nature of the soil. 

3. With the exception of Lumot Estate, on which tapioca and sugar are grown, 
the principal cultivated products appear to be cocoa-nuts and patchouly, both of which 
give a good return. The tapioca crop is looking well, and the machinery for manu- 
facturing flour will be erected shortly. 

4. Pepper is being tried on a small scale in three or four different parts of the 
district, and grows well, especially near the District Officer’s house at Pangkor, but 
the proper method of cultivation is not understood by the owners. The plants ha\ been 
allowed to grow up to the tops of the supports, instead of being layered as is uone by 
the Achenese planters in Province Wellesley. I explained to them practically, by 
treating plants in their presence, that when a pepper plant begins to branch it should 
be taken down from its support, the lower leaves removed, and the stem, up to- the 
junction of the branches, layered down in a previously prepared hole as near the 
support as is consistent with the safety of its roots, and the soil then replaced. 
Treated in this manner roots are emitted along the whole length of the stem that has 
been buried, the plant is better able to withstand drought, and fruit is produced from 
near the ground up to any height that may be desired. 

5. At Rajah Itam, which was reached by walking for five or six miles along 
the boundary line that divides the Dindings from Perak, I saw near a native house a 
plant of China grass ( Rhea or Ramie) which has attracted considerable attention of 
late on account of its valuable fibre. The owner of the garden stated that he was in 
the habit of cutting it down for the manufacture of fishing lines about once a month. 
At the time I saw it the shoots were four to five feet high, and as clean as could be 
desired. The soil at this place is a peculiar clayey loam of a light colour. 

6. There are a variety of soils in the district, some of which would produce cloves, 
nutmegs, pepper, Liberian coffee, chocolate, indigo, cocoa-nuts, paddy, &c. 

7. In order to encourage the cultivation of economic products, other than those 
mentioned in para. 3, which are already established, especially pepper, coffee, cloves- 
and nutmegs, I would suggest the formation of a small nursery in Pangkor, of about 
an acre in extent, where plants could be raised or planted temporarily on^heir arrival J 
from Penang or Singapore, previous to distribution to intelligent natives willing to 
give them a fair trial. 

8. After careful examination, in company with the District Officer, we came to 
the conclusion that the most suitable place for this purpose would be a piece of land 
near the Recreation Ground, which combines the advantages of fairly good land with an 
abundant water supply, and is sufficiently near the District Officer’s quarters to allow 
of his personal supervision. 


g. This land would have to be cleared and fenced to keep out wild animals and, 
a small house ^put up to accommodate two gardeners, who would be sufficient to carry 
on the work when it is fairly started. 

10. The cost. of clearing, fencing and stocking this nursery, including young 
plants of cloves, nutmegs and pepper to be purchased this year, need not exceed $500, 
and the after upkeep would be the salaries of tw : o Javanese at about $18 per mensem. 

I discussed the matter thoroughly w ith Mr. Merewether, who takes an intense 
interest in the matter, and one of the first things done would be to raise a quantity of 
dadap and pepper plants for distribution, a supply of seeds of the former being 
available on the spot. 

11. There is regular communication between Penang and Pangkor, and seeds 
are easily transmitted, and an officer of this Department could occasionally run down 
for a day or two to give practical instruction. 

At present there is no accommodation for visitors to the distinct, which doubtless 
prevents many persons, who would otherwise do so, from spending a day or two on the 
Island, and judging for themselves of the capability of the soil, &c, I understand, 
however, from' the District Officer, that it is intended to erect a Rest House on the 
beach, wffiich ^ill b.e a great convenience. 

12. .It should be borne in mind that, while there is great need fc^r developing the 
agricultural capabilities of the Dindings, the Government possess in the existing forests 
a most valuable crop, wffiich in some parts of the district, considering the nature of the 
soil, quality»of the timber and the facility with which it can brought to market, is, if 
carefully conserved and economically worked, probably of greater value than any- 
thing that can be planted, besides the advantages of having a fair proportion of forest 
land as regards its bearing on climatic changes. 

13. These areas should be settled in good time, and their extent and position 
showm in the map w r hen the contemplated survey of the district is undertaken. 

I have, &c., 

C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. ■ 


GOVERNMENT NOTIFICATION— No. 344. 


The following letter from the Director of Gardens and Forests is 
published for general information. 

By His Excellency’s Command, 


Colonial Secretary’s Office, 
Sing afore, 6 th June , i88g. 


A. M. SKINNER, 

Acting Colonial Secretary. 


Botanic Gardens, 
Singapore, May 28th, 1889. 

Sir, — 1 have the honour to report that I have received a letter from the firm of 
Thos. Christy & Co., calling attention to the value of certain drugs found ©r procu- 
rable here which are not at present exported hence as they might be. Its terms are: — ■ 

“ You speak of the reputed value of drugs. I would advise you to make the 
“ following standard ; Anything that is a deadly poison is sure to be of great value, and 
“ if you descend from this standpoint you may get other things which are also valuable. 

“ At the present time we are getting over the Antiaris milk (Ipoh); this is the 
“ most deadly poison we know of. 

JU‘i pv 

Euphorbia pilulifera.” — (This is a common garden weed here, known as Kroma 
Susu.) “ This drug has been selling here at 3/6 a tb. We introduced it originally from 
“ Australia, but we have been drawing it largely from India. I want plants when they 
“ are about 14 inches high with fully grown leaves just coming into bud, full of sap. It 
“ wants pulling, the earth knocking off the roots, and then drying in the shade. When 
“quite dry, it wants to be packed in bales, and if it is quite safe on account of being 
“ dry, and the weather is fairly dry, it may be hydraulic-pressed to save freight. We 
“ shall be glad to receive this in 1 or 2 cwt. at a time at the proper season. 

“ Papaya yields a milk in the fruit and stem. We have people who collect this 
“by placing it on glass to dry. It is scraped off the glass when dry, put into bottles, 
“and sent home, where it fetches from 8.r. to iojr. per pound.'’ 

* The subject of native drugs has not here received the attention it merits, and 
many, I feel sure, might be exported hence at a profit, and form good minor products. 

I have, &c., 

HENRY N. RIDLEY, 
Director of Gardens and Forests, S. S. 

To the Hon’ble 

The Colonial Secretary, S. S. 


Annual Report on the Botanic Gardens and Forest 
Department, for the Year 1889. 


General Introduction. 

1 In accordance with a suggestion made last year, the Reports of the three 
Settlements of Malacca, Penang and Singapore have been this year amalgamated 
into one continuous report, instead of being published separately. This report is 
nerhaos longer than usual on account of its containing more specific summaries ol 
the contents of the forests and of their conditions at present. It is important now 
to look carefully into the state of the probable future supply of timber and to see 
what can be done to replace that which has disappeared or soon will disappear. 
Wood is now being brought from long distances and is even getting scarce there. 
The better class of timber, such as Billion Wangi, Tampmes and Ballau, are fetching 
very laro-e prices, when indeed they can be procured. The consumption of wood is 
very lar5 e , and must increase, as it plays so important a part in agriculture and com- 
merce, and in every way in which the resources of the Colony are to be developed. 
It is high time to commence re-planting on a large scale, and none of the Settle- 
ments is so suited for this as Malacca. The reasons for this are shewn in the section 
of the Report dealing with that Settlement. Timber is a slow-growing crop; general- 
ly speaking the slower it grows the more hard arid valuable is the wood. No_ time 
is to be lost, therefore, in re-planting, if we are to have an adequate supply of timber 
in the near future. For smaller timber, such as poles, posts, rollers, &c., there is still 
a fair supply but it is rapidly diminishing, and its increased cost is beginning to tell 
upon the cultivation of pepper and gambier already. For firewood, in Singapore, 
we 'must fall back on the mangrove swamps, of which, fortunately, a large portion have 
been conserved as forests. In Malacca, besides the mangrove, which is far less com- 
mon some of the swamp lands produce plenty of Glam, and more is being planted, 
as it will grow in lands so wet that nothing else will grow there. In Penang, there 
is no mangrove nor glam swamp, but there is great plenty of forest therefrom which 
the needs of the place can easily be supplied. 

THE BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 

Introduction. 

2 During the past year, attempts have been made rather to get the Gardens 
into a better and cleaner condition than to attempt any large new work, and it now 
is easier to determine what large works the Gardens will, m future, require. There 
are several important works which the present staff of coolies and the present grant 
are insufficient for. A considerable portion of land lying behind the Director’s house 
and in the angle between the new road and Cluny Road is at present waste. The soil 
is crood and there is a quantity of water in the swamp in the angle. 1 his spot could 
be^made very beautiful and interesting, if taken in hand. There is sufficient water 
for a lake or small pond here, and a carriage road could easily be made from the 
upper part of the Gardens through this portion of the ground into the Cluny Road, 

forming an additional drive in this direction. . 

It' will also be very advantageous to have the Gardens properly fenced in. At 
nresent in many places, there is no partition even to show where the Gardens end, 
and there is thus no means of keeping out trespassers, or really closing the Gardens at 

q'hg water supply is another point which requires careful consideration. During 
dry years in the past, the watering of the Gardens has been most laborious, and 
some arrangement is wanted by which water can be laid on to all parts of the Gardens. 

Further development of the Experimental Garden is urgently required. I his is 
still retained under the Forest Department, but would certainly be better transferred 
to the Gardens Department, as it has no longer any real connection with the forests. 


2 


« r 

The present staff, all that can be afforded from the Forest vote, is insufficient to do more 
than keep the part under cultivation in order. There is a large piece of land which is 
still waste, which should be put under cultivation, and the whole requires to be fenced in. 

As the Straits Settlements produce a great variety of vegetable products in use in 
commerce, there should be erected a small building of the nature of a Museum, where 
these could be collected and examined. The room attached to the office which now 
contains the herbarium barely suffices to hold the collection of dry plants and the 
garden library. There is no room for specimens of timber, gums, dammars, rattans, 
guttas, drugs, &c., nor any place to dry and preserve them, still less to examine 
and analyze them. 

For these important works, the annual grant is not sufficient to cover without 
detriment to the working of the Gardens. It is hoped that extra grants may be 
provided from time to time to carry out these works. 

Visitors. 

3. The number of visitors to the Gardens during the day-time was fully equal 
to that of previous years, but as the Regimental Band did not play during moonlit 
nights, there were but few evening visitors, and again on Sunday evenings the 
counter-attraction of the Band which played on the Barrack ground drew away most 
of those who would otherwise have visited the Gardens. The increase in the zoologi- 
cal collection has proved very attractive. 

Plant-houses. v 

4. During the year, a new orchid-house has been built adjoining the large plant- 
house. It is a "building measuring fifty-four feet in length and forty-five feet wide, 
and contains four parallel walks with staging on either side. The stages are com- 
posed of wooden battens supported upon iron tram-rails which are fixed into mason- 
ry pillars so that no part of the wood-work is in contact with the ground, which 
will prevent risk of injury from white ants, and the paths between are floored with 
cement, so as to be always dry. The roof, which is of ridge and furrow shape, is 
sixteen feet high composed of strong wooden laths about one inch apart, over these 
are roller blinds made of stout canvas varnished, which are easily pulled up and down 
with ropes and pulleys. During heavy rain and excessive sunshine these are lowered, 
and being waterproof, prevent any injury to the plants by drip, while at the same 
time the amount of sunlight can be regulated. 

The house is surrounded with an iron railing, and within this is a border of 
Vanda hookers? and Arundina chinensis. In the grass plot outside are several 
small beds containing large specimens of orchids, such as Grammatophyllum. 

This house has proved very successful, the plants improving very speedily on 
being transferred thither, and many curious and beautiful species have been in flower 
throughout the year. Among those more rarely seen in flower in Singapore the 
following species have been in bloom : — 

Cattleya Triune?, C. speciosissima, Dendrobium treacherianum, D.metachilinum t 
D. kunstleri,* D. flavidulum, Bulbophyllum macranthum, B. pileatum, Sarcochilus 
arachnites and lilacinus, • Ena hyacinthoides , acervata , musosfolia, floribunda , 
panne a, Lissochilus speciosus , Neuwiedia lindieyi, Apostasia nuda , Bromheadia 
aporoides and two undescribed species, Calanthe curculigoides , and Cecilias , Cypri- 
pedium callosum, purpuratum , niveuin , Godcf royss, concolor \ ciliolare , venusium. 
Hookers?. 

The whole collection of orchids has been very largely increased, by the addition 
of not only of large numbers of local species, but also of a small number of African 
and South American species, many of which are doing remarkably well. Among 
the native species obtained this year, are a number new to science, many of which are 
well worthy of cultivation. They include several species of Bulbophyllum, Cirrho- 
petalum , Ccelogyne, Bromheadia , Sarcochilus, Microstylis cuprea, Vrydagzynea 
tristriata, from Singapore; and two new species of Calanthe of the Vestita section, 
a fine Habenaria with large white flowers and ornamental foliage, and a Pachy stoma, 
from Langkawi Islands. The collection of foliage orchids has been largely increased 
also, but these still remain very impatient of cultivation. 

The chief difficulty of flowering many species of orchids here consists in the 
almost permanent dampness of the climate, which does not suit orchids coming 
from places where at one season they enjoy a period of rest. This permanent 
rainfall causes the plants to continue growing instead of flowering, and in some cases 
there is a great tendency to develope leaves and leafbuds upon the raceme instead of 
flowers. It is especially unfortunate that the dry period of the Burmese region, when 
the Dendrobia usually flower, coincides with our wettest season, so that the culture 


3 


of these plants is remarkably difficult. In order to keep the orchid-house as full of 
flowering plants as possible, other bouses and sheds have been built in the Gardens, in 
which the young plants can be cultivated, and more will soon be put up. Some. of 
the old sheds and stagings, have been destoyed, as the planks and posts were quite 
rotten, and are being reconstructed The demand for orchids still increases, and it 
is necessary to have & a large number, both for supply to correspondents and also to 
keep a good show in the house. At present there are upwards of 5,000 orchid 
plants, exclusive of those planted out on trees or in beds in the Gardens. 

5. The large plant-house has been kept well filled, and on the removal of the 
orchids to the new house the empty tables were filled with pot plants of various kinds, 
such as annuals, Bromeliads, Sonenlas, Ardistas } Didymocarpi , Acanthacece, &c. 
A number of succulents, such as Cacti, Agaves , Stapehas , Htjemanthi, weie obtained 
from Natal and from the Hongkong Gardens, and have thrived very well. The Gardens 
were previously very deficient in this class of plants. A plant of Brugmansm Lown, with 
one open flower and a bud, was sent alive from Borneo by Mr. Everett, and. was 
on view for some time. This very rare and extraordinary plant has probably not 
hitherto been seen alive in any Botanic Gardens. Further attempts will be made 
to introduce this and others of the order Rajjlesiaceee. into the Gardens. 

I regret to have to state that white ants have attacked and burrowed up the 
centre of some of the supporting pillars of tl* house. Attempts are being made to 
destroy them, and prevent a renewal of their attack. A large number of the plants in 
this house require already to be re-tubbed. There is great difficulty in getting here 
any wood suitable for making tubs, other than Seriah, which resists but little the 
attack of damp and white ants, and very soon decays. An attempt is being made 
to get larger earthenware pots made capable of containing shrubs in place of tubs. - 

Buildings . 

6. The most important building besides the orchid-house erected thih year is a 
carpenter’s shed, which was much needed. It occupies the same ground as the old one, 
and consists of a shed sixty-five feet long and twenty-three broad with cement floor 
and pillars formed of tram rails, bent so as to support a tiled roof. At one end is. a 
store-room, in which tools, &c. can be kept under lock and key. 

It having been decided that the house occupied by the Forest Overseer was un- 
healthy, and "not worth repairing, it has been destroyed, and the timber utilised for 
various purposes in the Gardens. The ground thus cleared will be covered with plant 
sheds and frames. ^ 

Beds and Shrubberies. 

7. The beds have been replenished, from time to time, and kept as bright as pos- 
. sible, but it will probably always be difficult here to procure .plants suitable for making- 

good flower-beds, on account of the heavy rainfall, which injures the flowers so much. 
The only new beds which have been made are some small additional ones in the 
Amaryllid beds, to make the design there more symmetrical, and a V shaped bed 
in a bare-looking spot near the large Meranti tree. 

In the Shrubberies, a winding path has been opened through the bushes on the 
left of the long border looking west, and’ here a number of shrubs and trees have 
been planted, both native and foreign. 

A walk has been made from the steps near the Amaryllid beds through what was 
a tangled overgrown bit of jungle, into the fernery. The entrance is through an 
arch of iron hoops covered with creepers*, which are growing well. The sides of the 
walk are planted with a collection of Aroids, both terrestrial and scandent, and illus- 
trate the various forms in that order. All have grown remarkably well. The 
juncde there has been cleared, and suitable plants, such as Ixoras, Rattans, Clusias 
and^Pandani planted in it. The walk passes through a depression formerly full of 
rubbish, which has been cleared away, and the whole planted up with Maidenhair, 
Alsophilas and other ferns, and Selaginellas. Upwards of a hundred tree ferns have 
been planted about, so as eventually to make a grove of these plants. 

A large portion of the creeper Thunbergia laurifolia climbing over the trees 
near the band-stand fell down, owing to the destruction of the supporting tree-stem 
upon which it grew, by white ants. With much difficulty it was raised again upon 
an adjoining free, and though it looked shabby for a time, is now covered again with 
leaves and young shoots. 

A number of the trees in various parts of the Gardens have been cleaned 
of dead and unnecessary branches and parasitic and epiphytic plants. This work 
had hitherto been somewhat neglected, and was very much required. Still some 
remains to be done. At the upper end of the lake, a rockery of succulents and rock 




4 


plants has been formed upon what was an unsightly bank. Aloes,- Agaves, Sansevierias, 
Cacti, Bromeliads, ornamental Pandani grow very well here, and some plants which 
for some time had maintained a somewhat miserable existence in pots, here have 

grown so rapidly as to require to be well cut back. , . 

In the upper edges of the lake, Nipa palms, Cassia alata and ran am 
have been planted, which will have a fine effect when more developed. On tie wes 
side, a bare dry bank was planted with Nepenthes, ferns, and Lycopodiums, some 
of the ferns and Lycopods perished, but the Nepenthes is doing very well. 

A cutting of the Victoria regia, was transferred to the big lake and planted in 
a small bay beneath the large fig trees. It is now as large as the parent an is 
constantly in flower. 

Palms. ‘ 

8. The coco-nut beetles did much damage to the palms near the garden office, 
in spite of the most strenuous efforts to combat their attacks. It was found that 
the tank which had been used for a receptacle for garden rubbish to be converte 
info manure, was full of the grubs of the black beetle. It was, therefore, emptied, the 
grubs destroyed, the manure used in the various beds and the sticks, &c. which could 
not be thus used burnt. This caused a great diminution of the plague, and although 
the vermin are not quite exterminate^ from the Gardens, I hope that very soon they 

will be extinct. „ , 

The dead palms have been replaced by new ones. The Palmetum near Garden 
Road has never been attacked, but besides the palms by the*office those near the 

band-stand have been much injured. . 

The plan of keeping piles of cut-grass, leaves and sticks in various spots in the 
Gardens has proved so objectionable, that a spot has been prepared in an old gravel 
pit in the garden jungle where this rubbish is burnt, and the ashes used for fertilizing 
the ground. A large pile by the old night soil pit near the lake has thus been des- 
troyed, and the night soil tank removed to the garden jungle. 

A number of trees were planted out in various spots in the lawns which looked 
bare, and several places where the grass had got thin were re-turfed. 

Cut -flowers. 

g. A portion of the waste grounds behind the Director’s house was cleared 
and planted with Gardenia, Eucharis, &c., to serve as a supply of cut-flowers, for 
which there is always a great demand, fndeed so much is this the case that some- 
times the garden seems to be almost denuded of flowers. This will have to be 
prevented as much as possible by growing plants on purpose for cutting. 

The whole system of the supply of cut-flowers has been carefully looked into, 
and a tariff of charges has been drawn up and advertised, and to obviate the difficulty 
sometimes incurred in collecting small sums for bouquets, &c., the system of casff 
payments has been introduced. 

Flower Show . 

10. The exhibition of flowers, fruits and vegetables was held on April I2th 
and 13th. As the weather was fine and bright, there was on the whole a good 
attendance, especially in the evening of the second day when the Band of the Regi- 
ment performed. In spite, however, of the fact that there was a larger sale of tickets 
than at the previous show (in 1888), the expenditure incurred was larger than the 
receipts from visitors and the usual $250 contributed by the Gardens Committee, 
there being a deficit of $88.11. This was due to increase in expenditure in prizes, 
advertising and covering and lighting the orchid-house, then used as a refreshment 
room. There was a marked falling off in the three 'great classes of ferns, Begonias 
and Crotons ; and indeed the cultivation by Europeans seems to have retrograded on 
the whole. Perhaps this is due in part to there being no show last year, and to the 
uncertainty as to whether the shows 'were ever to be held again, which deterred 
many from cultivation. 

Garden Offences . 

11. There were only two prosecutions for garden offences during the year-one, 
a Malay for steali ng flowers in the Gardens (imprisonment for ten days), the other two 
Chinamen for cutting wood in the garden jungle (fined $15 a-piece). 

Still I regret to say that this does not at all represent the number ol offences 
committed, a great deal of pilfering of flowers continues, especially at or about native 


5 


festivals, and on mail days. Several times also small trees have been cut down in the 
garden jungle which abuts upon the main road; and a swan was stolen from the lake 
on the night of December 7 th. I cannot say that the Garden Police 4 „ ” 

satisfactory, nor did they render any amount of service in guarding from depredations 
For these reasons, I have proposed to re-place them by Malays acting as 1 o e 
Watchmen, which I have reason to believe will be much more satisfactory. 

Plants Received. 


12. The following were the contributors to the Gardens of plants by presenta- 
tion or exchange: — 


Royal Gardens, Kew;, 
Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, 


Do., 

Ceylon, 

Do., 

Jamaica, 

Do., 

Trinidad, 

Do., 

British Guiana, 

Do., 

Natal, 

Do., 

Mauritius, . . . 

Do., 

Adelaide, 

Do., 

Manila, 

Do., 

Hongkong, ... 

Do., 

Saigon, 

Do., 

Saharunpore, 

Do., 

Buitenzorg, . . . 

Do., 

Port Darwin, 


Agri-horticultural Society, Calcutta, 

Messrs. Veitch. 

„ Bull, ' ... 

,, Hocking, Brisbane, 

,, Reasoner, Florida, 

Gordon, ... 

Gustav Mann, Esq., Assam, 

G. Peche, Esq., Mqulmein, 

His Excellency the Governor, 

Lady Clementi Smith, 

G. S. Dare, Esq., ... 

D. G. Presgrave, Esq., 

J. Gibson, Esq.,* 

W. Nanson, Esq., 

E. T. Brewster, Esq., Perak, — a large series 

of Vanda Hookerse and other Orchids 
from Perak. 

The Right Rev. Bishop Hose, 

C. Robelen, Esq., 

F. G. Davidson, Esq., 

A. Curnow, Esq., 

H. C. Johnston, Esq., 

A. H. Everett, Esq., » 

W. Boxall, Esq., 

A. Hale, Esq., 

L. Wray, Esq., Perak, 

J. Booth, Esq., 

Leach, Esq., 


Total, 


Plants, 

76 

O 

28 

50 

o 

o 

140 

o 


Seeds. 

6 packets. 
13 d°* 


4 

2 

13 

4 

o 


d*o. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 


0 

66 

do. 

628 

0 

do. 

64 

4 

do. 

21 

0 

do. 

0 

5 2 

do. 

80 

0 

do. 

0 

15 

do. 

0 

1 

do. 

33 

0 

do. 

66 

0 

do. 

22 

10 

do. 

• 6 

15 

do. 

3 l8 

0 

do. 

17 

0 

do. 

61 

0 

do. 

2 

1 

do. 

0 

1 

do. 

1 8 

0 

do. 

1 

0 

do. 

2° 

0 

do. 

10 

0 

do. 

2 

0 

do. 

IO4 

0 

do. 

I 

0 

do. 

3 

0 

do. 

27 

0 

do. 

100 

1 

do. 

48 

0 

do. 

I 

1 

do. 

7 ° 

0 

do. 

7 

1 

do. 

35 

0 

do. 

2,052 

21 1 

do. 


Besides these, a very large number of native plants were brought in from the 
jungles of Singapore, the Native States, Penang and Malacca. Three hun- 
dred and fifty bulbs were purchased from Barr & Sons, 50 plants from CHATTERJEE 
in Calcutta, 140 packets of seeds from CANNELL & SONS, 600 orchids from Mr. 
Durnford, and 1,600 from Tan Beng Seng, and a few minor purchases were also 
made. The total being a little over five thousand plants and four hundred and fifty- 
nine packets of seeds received by purchase, exchange or presentation. 




6 


Plants Sent out . 

13. The number of plants sent out during the year was 1,891, and 970 packets 
of seeds. 

1 he chief recipients were the Botanic Gardens of: — Kew, Ceylon, Calcutta, 
Hongkong, Natal, Buitenzorg, Manila, Brisbane, Mauritius, St. Petersburg, Glasgow, 
British Guiana, Trinidad, Jamaica, Saigon; the Sultan of Johor, Mrs. TREACHER 
(Perak); Bishop Hose (Sarawak) ; and Messrs. Rodger (Pahang), VENNING (Selangor), 
Laurie (Ceylon), Hockings (Brisbane), Reasoner (Florida), Bull, Veitch, 
WILLIAMS, Gordon (London), and others. Besides which a number were sent to the 
Gardens of Penang and Malacca. 

Aviary. 

14. The collection of birds and animals has been much increased by various 
specimens presented by the several donors mentioned below. Some of the animals were 
sent by Mr. COPLEY from Malacca, originally for the Museum, but being either in too 
poor a condition to stuff, or not needed, there were sent to the Gardens. Much annoy- 
ance was caused by the rats, which destroyed a number of birds, chiefly pigeons; 
eventually, however, the aviaries were overhauled and a large number killed, and since 
then the destruction has been less. Some of the animals sent in some time after 
being trapped succumbed to injuries then received ; others have done very well. 
They have proved an unfailing source of attraction to the Gardens. It is intended 
to confine the zoological collection to natives of the Peninsula,^ and it is hoped to 
have eventually a fairly good collection of the smaller animals and birds illustrative 
of the fauna. 

Among the more interesting ones recently received, are the Wild Dog of Malacca, 
an undescribed species ; a Mias, on loan ; a couple of Binturongs ; and the rare 
Wood Partridge ( Rhizotheres longirojtris). 

I regret to say that on the night of December 7th, £he only White Swan on the 
lake was stolen. 

The aviary sheds will require much reconstruction this year, and it will be well 
to have them made of a stronger character in future. 

15- Animals Received. 

• ■ 

One Mias {Simla satyrus ) on loan from Mr. Norman. 

Three Golden Monkeys (Macacus sinicus) presented by Miss Cave. 

Two Water Monkeys (M. cynomolgus ) ,, f) 

One Coco-nut Monkey (M . nemest r inns') ,, ,, 

One Galago ( Galeopithecus volans) purchased. 

' One Loris ( Loris tardigrada ) purchased. 

-Four Javanese Wild Cats [Fells javensis ) purchased. 

One Fishing Cat (F. viverrina ) presented by the Hon’ble D. A. Hervey. 

One Wild Dog (Cam's sp.) purchased. 

Two Tangalungas ( Viverra zibethina ) purchased. 

Two Musangs (Viverra malaccensis) purchased. 

One Mungoose (Herpestes griseus) presented by Mr. F. BALFOUR Lees. 

One Binturong ( Arctictis binturong) presented by Mr. J. P. Rodger. 

One Binturong ( Do. ) purchased. 

One Bamboo Rat ( Rhizomys pruinosus ) presented by Mr. G. Lavino. 

Four Indian Squirrels ( Sciurus tristriatus) presented by Mr. E. C. Hill. 

Birds. 

One Fishing Owl (Ketupia javanensis) purchased. 

One Little Owl ( Scops lempigi) presented by Mr. W. Davison. 

Four Hornbills ( Craniorrhinus corrugatus ) presented by Mr. W. DAVISON. 

One Rufous-tailed Pheasant ( Euplocamos erytkropthalmos ) presented by 
Mr. Henderson. 

Two Rufous-tailed Pheasants, female, purchased. 

One Fire-backed Pheasant ( E . vieillotii ) presented by Mr. Henderson. 

Four Wood Partridges (Rhizotheres longirostris ) purchased. 

One Purple Water Hen (Porphyrio edwardsii) ,, 

One Green Parrot (Lorius sp.) n 

One Red Parrot (Lorius sp.) }f 

One Lory (Lorius sp.) presented by Miss Stanton. 

Two Roul-rouls (Rollulus roul-roul ) purchased. 

Twelve Green Pigeons (Chalcophaps indica ) „ 

Six Mangrove Pigeons ( Osmatreron vernans) ,. 


♦ 


7 


One Pied-fruit Pigeon ( Carpophaga bicolor) presented by Capt. WOORTMAN. 
One Green Fruit Pigeon (C. oenea ) ,, >>' 

Two Brown Pigeons ( Macropygia assimtlis) >, >> 

Two Nicobar Pigeons (Caloenas nicobarica ) presented by Mr. W . JN ANSON. 

Six Mynahs ( Eulabes javensis ) purchased. 

Two Brown Boobies (Sula fiber ) presented by Capt, Madge. 

Three Bali Ducks (Anas hookas ) presented by Mr. F. Balfour Lees. 

Herbarium. 

ifi A considerable advance has been made in the herbarium during the past year. 

In the end of February, a Curator by name De Witt was engaged to take charge 
■of it, but proved unsatisfactory, and left after a few months, and TASSIM Daud was 
employed who still remains. He has been constantly at work, drying and mounting- 
specimens, and accompanied me to Selangor in July, and along the East Coast in 

August, to collect plants. . , 

Hitherto the plants have been roughly stuck to thm sheets oE paper, and no 
covers had been used to keep genera and species separate. I have obtained from 
England paper of the quality of that used in the British Museum, and thin white 
double sheets, to contain the separate species, and thicker brown double sheets to 
separate the crenera. The whole herbarium has been re-arranged and cleaned, the 
arrangement adopted being that of the Flora of British India. The vermin which 
were very abundant have been destroyed, and camphor and napthaline placed among 
the specimens. The duplicates have been taken out, and many sent to various 

institutions. , , , , . , , , • 

It will be well now to give a summary of the herbarium as it now stands, begin- 
ning with the earliest portion. of it.* Mr. J. COLLINS apparently did not collect any 
specimens in Singapore, but when in London selected from Ward’s herbarium then 
in the possession of the Linnean Society, a number of specimens he thought likely 
to prove useful. Among the more valuable of these are plants obtained at Penang, 
Malacca and Singapore, by WALLICH and his collectors, and GRIFFITH; in various . 
parts of India by" the same collectors, Wight, Campbell and the Moravian Missionaries 
(in the eighteenth century). Besides these, there are plants from almost all regions 
of the world, collected by ROXBURGH, CUNNINGHAM, Hooker, Schimper and many 
others. These specimens have been much neglected, and have much injured also by 
careless poisoning. All from the East Indies have been cleaned, repaired and remount- 
ed and put into the cabinets. Mr. Murton appears to have made good collections 
here and in Perak, but I can only find a very few specimens now. Mr. CanTley 
made and caused to be made very extensile collections in Perak, Singapore, Selan- 
gor and Malacca, but it is much to be regretted that very many of the specimens were 
inadequately labelled, the State merely being recorded, and that incorrectly in many 
instances. Thus South American plants evidently cultivated in the Botanic Gardens 
are labelled Singapore. Many plants described from his specimens in the Flora of 
British India I have been quite unable to find, as there is nothing to show which 
were the plants sent to Kew. A considerable number of plants also have no labels 
whatever, so as to be quite valueless. 

In a herbarium of a country like this, it is • essential to have specimens properly 
labelled from every district. I am, therefore, attempting to get specimens of every 
plant from each of the States, and the similarity of the flora induces me to add those 
of Sumatra, Borneo and the adjacent islands. During the past year many additions 
have been made to the Herbarium, of which none is more valuable than that of the 
whole of his fine local herbarium presented by Mr. HuLLETT. It contains a large 
series of good specimens from Singapore, Mount Ophir and Borneo, many of which 

are types of recently described species. _ _ Tir 

Dr. King has sent a large series of plants chiefly collected by Mr. WRAY at 
Perak ; Mr. CURTIS has sent many plants obtained in Penang, Langkawi and Kedah. 
Mr. DERRY, some from Malacca. In July I visited Malacca, Selangor and Penang, 
and obtained a very large number of specimens, especially from Selangor. A large series 
of plants have been collected in Singapore, both by myself and by the Forest Watchmen 
and Overseer, during forest work. Still many remain to be collected, even in the island 
In August I accompanied His Excellency in a visit in the Sea Belle to the East Coast of 
the peninsula which has never before been visited by any botanist. The vessel 
touched at Pulau Tioman, Pekan, Cherating River, Rumpin, Tnngganu and Kelantan. 
At every opportunity plants were collected, and the results showed what a field lor 
research still lies on the eastern side of the peninsula, for many plants not hitherto 
recorded as occurring in this region, and not a few species unknown to science, were 
here obtained. Many living plants also were col lected, and are now in the Gardens . 

* The number of specimens now arranged in the cabinets is, .roughly speaking, 1.5,000. 



8 


Dr. HAVILAND presented the herbarium also with a collection of 200 plants from 
Borneo; Mr. Hervey some from Perak; and Mr. DuRNFORD from Kwantan ; and the 
British Museum sent 150 specimens collected by CUMING in Malacca and the Philip- 
pines, by Lobb in India and Malacca, and by HorSFIELD in Java, in exchange for a 
similar number of plants from Singapore. A small number of plants have also been 
sent to Dr. King, to Professor Engler, in exchange for his collection of Araceae, and 
to Kew. Professor Hackel of St. Polten ,has kindly named specimens of grasses, 
and Mr. C. B. Clarke and Sir Joseph Hooker have also identified Cyperaceae 
and orchids. 

Taking the herbarium as a whole, the following States are well represented: — Sin- 
gapore, Penang, Malacca. From Selangor and Sungei Ujong and Perak, we have a 
comparatively small number. Johor, Kedah, Pahang, Kelantan and Tringganu are 
almost blanks. From Sumatra, we have no specimens at all, and from Borneo but 
few. It is hoped that, with the opening up of the peninsula, specimens may be sent 
even from the interior. 

A few specimens of timbers, fruits, &c.-have been collected, but at present there 
is no place even to prepare specimens of the economic products of the peninsula, 
which would not only be interesting, but of great importance in a country so rich in 
vegetable products. It is highly important that a collection of timber, rattans, gut- 
tas and dammars, should be formed, in order to investigate their properties and values. 
The herbarium room contains but little more than the cabinets and a place for the 
Curator to work. A larger building for other economic, products is much required. 

Library. 


17, The following books have been. added to the Library during the last year : — - 
PlERRE.— (( Flore Forestiere de Cochin Chine,” presented by the French Govern- 
ment. 

Browne, F. R. — “Forest Flora of Australia,” Parts 1-3, presented by the Govern- 
ment of Melbourne. 

Mueller, F. R. — “Systematic Census of Australian Plants,” Part 1 and 1st, 2nd 
and 3rd Annual Supplements presented by the Melbourne Government. 
“Iconography of Australian Species of Acacias,” Decades 1-13. 

“ Eucalyptographia,” Decades 1-10. 

“Index Perfectus ad Caroli Linnoei Species Plantarum.” 

WALLICH. — “ Plantae Asiaticae Rariores,” purchased. 

’ Rumph. — “ Herbarium Amboinense,” purchased. 

Beddome. — Ferns of Southern India ” and Supplement, purchased. 

Dr. King. — “ The Genus Ficus,” purchased. 

Veitch. — “ Manual of Orchids” Vol. IV, “ Cypripedium,” purchased. 

Hackel. — “ Monograph of Andropogoneae,” purchased. 

Kurz, S.— “ Forest Flora of British Burmah,” purchased. 

Kurz, S. — “ Korte Schets van het Eiland Banka,” purchased. 

Kurz, S. — “ Vegetation of Andaman Isles,” presented by Dr. King. 

Hooker. — “ Species Filicum,” 5 vols., purchased. 

Hooker. — “ Illustrations of Floras of Malaya and Africa,” purchased. 

“On Nepenthes” purchased. 

Hooker. — “ leones Plantarum,” for 1889, presented by Benthan Trustees. 
BeCCARI.-— “ Malesia,” vols. 1-3, purchased and “ Nuove Specie di Palme Alia 
New Guinea,” presented by the Author. 

Preston, G.— “ Working of Fibre Industry in Yucatan,” presented by the Author. 
SCHLICH, W.— “ Manual of Forestry,” presented by the Indian Government. 
FAWCETT, W. — “Species of Balanophora and Thonningia,” presented by the 
Author. 

Hasskarl. — “ Plantae Javanicae Rariores,” purchased. 

HASSKARL. — “ Observationes Botanicae,” purchased. 

Hasskarl. — “Catalogus Plantarum in Hort Bogor,” purchased. 

Treub, Dr. — “ Annales Botanical Gardens, Buitenzorg,” presented by Dr. Treub.. 
Oliver. — “ Three New Genera of Malayan Plants,” purchased. 

JUNGHUHN. — “ Plantae Junghuhnianae,” purchased. 

Veth. — “ Midden Sumatra,” purchased. 

JACK, W. — “ Account of Lansium domesticum,” purchased. 

Jack, W. — “ Malayan Species of Melastoma,” purchased. 

Blume. — “ Enumeratio Plantarum Javae,” purchased. 

Blume. — “ Overeenige Oost Indische Houtsoorten,” purchased. 

Blume. — “ Oost Indische Melastomaceae,” purchased. 


v 


9 


Teysmann. — “ Botanische reise, over Timor; over Celebes ; naar de Molukken ; 
Banka, Riow and Lienggi ; West Kuste von Borneo : Billiton, Carimata and # 

Landak.” . „ . , 

TEYSMANN and BlNNENDlJK. — “Plantae in Hort. Bogor. Cult., purchased. 
TEYSMANN and BlNNENDlJK.— “ Echte Ijzerhout,” (Eusideroxylon Zwagenj, 

purchased. , 

SCHEFFER. — “ Observationes Phytographicae, purchased. 

SCHEFFER. — “Flora van Indischen Archipelago, ” purchased. 

Zollinger. — “ Systematisches Verzeichniss,” purchased. 

ZOLLINGER. — “ Anonaceen des Ostindisches Archipel, purchased. 

CUMING and Zollinger. — “ Description des Ekeocarpees,” purchased. 

Clarke, C. B.— “ Compositae Indicae,” purchased. 

ROXBURGH. — “ Flora Indica,” (Clarke’s edition), purchased. 

Dyer, W. T. T. D . — “ Address to Biological Section, British Association, 1889, 
presented by the Author. 

Ann ALES DEL Museo Nac. de Costa Rica, i No, presented by Dr. Ernst. 

Barber.— “ Cacao Planting in Ceylon,” purchased. 

Publications of the Straits Asiatic Society, complete, presented by the Society. 
Also the following periodicals for the year:-“ Illustration-Horticole, Florida 
Dispatch,” “ Chemist and Druggist,” “Agricultural Journal”— presented by the Editors 
“Gardener’s Chronicle,” “Journal of Botany,” “Botanical Magazine, ‘Annals of 
Botany,” “Indian Forester,” “Tropical Agriculturist,” “Linnean Society's Journal 

PU, And S Reports of the Gardens f Durban, Saharunpore, St. Petersburg, Calcutta, 
Hongkong, Ceylon ; the Agricultural Society of Madras, Bangalore, Mysore, Adelaide, 
Trinidad, British Guiana, Jamaica and the Kew Bulletin; and the Reports of the 
Forest Departments of India and Australia — have been sent from those institutions. 

BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 

Statement of the Receipts and Expenditure for the year 1890. ? 

Receipts. 


Flowers, 
lunicipalil 
keep of 
Road, 
iterests or 
account, 


% 


1 

Expenditure. 

$ i . 

Salaries. 

$ C . 1 

1,996 52 

Herbarium Keeper, 

120 70 

, 8,500 00 

d 

Chief Mandore, 

I 14 63 

Carpenter, 

169 76 

177 04 

Printers (label), 

191 70 

Aviary Keeper, 

83 99 


Mason, 

49 80 

72 00 

Peon, 

84 00 

t 

43 10 

Coolies, 

Bills. 

Purchase of Plants and 

3,282 19 


Seeds, 

164 00 


Manure and Cartage, 

Wood for construction pur- 

181 42 


poses, 

176 04 


Birds’ Food, 

293 23 


Tools and Stores, 

446 02 


Flower-pots and Tubs, 

223 59 


Botanical Books, 

488 93 


Laterite, 

Freight, &c. on Plants and 

902 76 


Seeds, 

126 10 


Inspector-General of Police, 

349 59 


Director’s Petty Expenses, 

203 69 


Assistant Superintendent’s 

222 63 


Petty Expenses, 

• 

Erection of Orchid House, 
Erection of Carpenter's 

500 00 


Shop and Tool Store, ... 

801 44 


New Boat for the Lake, ... 
Contribution to Flower 

40 00 


Show, 1889, 

338 00 

* 

Miscellaneous, 

| 443 55^ 


Balance, 

$10,788 66 




4,096 77 


5,900 99 


9,997 76 
790 90 


$10,788 66 


IO 


FOREST RESERVES IN SINGAPORE. 

Area. 

1 8. The total area of Forest Reserves now in Singapore amounts to 12,965 

acres 1 rood. This increase upon the last year’s record is partly due to a revised 
survey of the forests, for the only addition is that of the Upper Tanglin Reserve, 
4! acres. • 

It was found on examining the boundaries of several reserves that they had 
been quite incorrectly opened by the Surveyors. It was, therefore, necessary to 
have the whole work re-done. The following were found incorrect: — Ang Mo Kio, 
Chan Chu Kang, Sembawang, Bukit Timah, Kranji, Bakau, Tuas, Murei and Pandan. 
All these have been re-surveyed, and boundary paths corrected. 

Boundaries. 

19. The boundary paths of the reserves have been kept in good order, cleared 
of weeds, and the streams bridged, and constantly inspected by the Forest Overseer 
and by myself. 

Reserves. 

20. In the Bukit Mandi and Sembawang Reserve, a large pepper encroach- 
ment was found, and the owner prosecuted. The crops were sold for $60, and the 
owner, who purchased them, agreed to protect the trees which were planted among 
the pepper, and to keep the whole clear of lalang till the crops should be ripe. The 
spot is now planted thickly with many young trees, including 1,095 Para Rubber, 
100 Bintangor, 50 Coco-plum, 50 Csesalpinias, 20 Terminalia Catappa, 30 Aleurites, 
400 Jambu Ayer Laut {Eugenia densiflor a). Most are doing well, and the ground — five 
acres — will soon be well covered. 

In the Bukit Timah Nursery many Arnotto and Croton Oil seeds were planted. 
These came up very well, and have been planted into the surrounding waste lands to 
combat the lalang, against which they are making some headway. 

Present State of the Reserves. 

21. It is now worth while to examine into the timber trees occurring in the 
various reserves, in order to know what their future may be. 

Bukit Timah. — This consists of a patch of very good virgin forest containing * 
Bilian Wangi, Kranji, Meranti, Bintangor, Getah Taban, Rengas, Mahang, and trees 
of less value, and a large extent of lalang and secondary forest. 

Pandan. — Consists of lalang and brush-wood, a certain amount of mangrove 
swamp and a very narrow strip of forest, abutting on the Tanjong Penjuru village 
and the Jurong village known as Ayer Terjun. 

Jurong. — One-third of this is good forest land, but the remainder is lalang and 
brushwood, and a very large low swamp covered thickly with razor grass ( Scleria 
sumatrana). 

Bukit Mandi. — Of this one-third is composed of forest containing Bintangor, 
Meranti, Brangan Babi, Brangan Papan, Kayu Klat, Mahang, Truntang, Pala Hutam 
Damar, Rengas, and other trees of more or less value. The remainder is lalang and 
brushwood. 

Sembawang.— Two-thirds of this is composed of lalang and brushwood and second- 
ary forest, the remainder is good swampy jungle. The best trees here are Bintangor, 
Rengas, Kayu Klat Puteh, Brangan Babi. 

Kranji. — Contains a little swampy forest land, but the bulk is mangrove swamp. 
This is apparently very old swamp, and is remarkable for being exceedingly prolific 
in orchids, most of the native epiphytic species occurring here. 

Sungei Buluh. — Consists entirely of mangrove swamp. 

Chan Chu Kang.— About half is very good forest land, the rest lalang, brushwood 
and secondary forest. 

Seletar. — One-eighth of this consists of good fores*, the rest is lalang, mangrove 
and swampy jungle. 

Ang Mo Kio. — About one-half is good swampy jungle, the rest lalang and brush- 
wood. 

Changi. — This large reserve consists chiefly of lalang and brushwood, one-third < 
only being forest land, consisting of Brangan, Meranti, Kledang, Samah, Rengas, and 
other trees. This land is very sandy and hot, so that it will be difficult to plant up, 
but many young Rengas trees can be removed to better reserves. 


Bedok. — Is nearly all lalang, -with a patch of swamp in which is growing a good 
deal of sago. This* will be a good spot for cultivating sago to supply ihe waste swamp 
lands of Malacca. 

Tuas. — About a quarter is good forestland, and the rest is lalang, secondary forest 
and mangrove. The timber here is small and chiefly of a size fit for fishing stakes, 
rollers and such work. 

Murei. — Is composed of mangrove, swampy jungle, lalang and brushwood. 

Bukit Panjang . — About three-quarters is lalang, the rest secondary and a little 
old jungle, in which are Meranti and Bintangor Bungah trees. 

Military Reserve. — Has been thickly planted with most kinds of good timber 
trees, and last year about 555 young Jambu Ayer Laut were planted, and many young 
Tembusu trees are coming up among the lalang and fern. 

Upper Tanglin. — A small hill-side patch of jungle containing a little Tampines, 
Brangan, and other trees. 

Buildings , < 5 rc. 

22. A new forest station has been built at Kranji, at a cost of $50, the old one 
on the sea beach being unfit to live in. A station has also been built at Tuas, where 
there had not previously been one, at a cost of $20. The station at Bukit Timah 
was removed, on accbunt of the prevalence of fever there, to a more healthy situation. 
The house in the Botanic Gardens, which was tenanted by the Forest Overseer, was 
condemned as being unhealthy and not worth repairing, so a new house was built in 
the Military Forest^Reserve, and the old one broken up. Three boats were purchased 
during the year for the reserves at Seletar, Kranji and Tuas. 

Forest XVatchirMi . 

2^. The total number of men employed in the reserves was eighteen men, four 
Lance-Corporals and one Corporal. All worked well, with the exception of one Lan ce- 
Corporal and two watchmen in charge of Changi Reserve, who were dismissed for 
taking bribes from a Chinaman. 

Fires. 

24. Seven fires occurred during the year, three of which were among lalang 
and brushwood, and four among secondary jungle, of which about 16 acres were 
destroyed. Three fires took place at Changi, in February, April and August, res- 
pectively, one at Pandan, one at Bukit Panjang, one at Ang Mo Kio, one at Sungei 
Buluh, and one at Jurong. In every case the fire has started from lalang in the day 
time, most of them from the road side, or on paths. All efforts to capture the 
persons who have ignited the grass failed, but there is reason to believe that the 
fire is usually raised by some passer-by throwing a light into the lalang. 

Prosecutions. 

25. Eighteen cases of prosecution were instituted during the year, fourteen of 
which were for timber cutting arfd the rest for encroachments. One case was with- 
drawn, and seventeen convicted ; the fines inflicted amounted to two hundred and 
sixty-five dollars, of which fifty-five dollars were paid. 

Experimental Garden. 

26. I reoret that this has had to suffer a good deal from want of funds, a man- 
dore and six coolies being all that it was possible to afford out of the Forest vote, 
from -which the garden is still paid. This is really inadequate to keep the garden 
up to its proper level, still less to put under cultivation the large tract of land still 
waste. As the garden no longer really bears any definite relation to the Forest 
Department, it seems advisable to put it under the Gardens vote. Of course, this 
would add to the expenses of the Gardens as they now stand, but I believe that a 
further development of this experimental and economic department is very much to 
be desired. 

Among other things urgently required, are the fencing in of the whole of this 
garden and the military forest reserve, at least where it abuts on private property 
or public roads. An attempt to mark the boundaries by a fence by which, at least, 
trespassers and cattle can be kept out, will be made this year. To put the waste 
land included in it under cultivation is another point. Some of the soil is decidedly 
good, and certain trees grow very well in it, I hope to increase the area under 
cultivation this year, and, wherever I can, to make the whole an Economic Garden 
worthy of the Colony. 


12 


Economic Plants. 

37. Vitis marteni. — The Saigon vine has fruited here twice. The grapes are 
small, black, with rather large seeds, though sweet. They have the great disadvantage, 
common to most wild grapes, of being full of raphides, which give a rough sensation 
to the tongue. This could probably be got rid of by cultivation. 

Ficus canca. — The figs seem to be getting more fructiferous, but the fruits 
have but a poor flavour, and are rather dry, probably the position of the few fruiting 
trees exposed too much to the sun is the cause of this, and further the birds and 
bats- are so fond of them that they have to be covered up before they are ripe, which 
is injurious to the flavour. 

Watercress. — The few scraps of Watercress found here in December of last 
year, were carefully planted, and the result has been a number of beds which produce 
large supplies. There has been tolerably regular request to be supplied with it by 
the public, as soon as it was known that it was on sale in the Botanic Gardens, at 
20 cents a bunch. A few persons have purchased plants for cultivation, and as it is 
very easy to cultivate, it is hoped it may soon become a permanent article of food 
in the Straits. It can be grown in beds — in good damp soil or in flower-boxes, and 
in this way the coarseness of the plant when grown in water here may be avoided. 

Cloves . — The avenue of clove trees planted along the walk through the experi- 
mental garden shewed signs of sickliness, and one by one began to die; on investi- 
gating the cause of this, it appeared that at about. a foot’and a-half below the surface 
of the soil, there is a deposit of clay, and between the two strata the water remains 
stagnant and unable to drain away through the clay. The trees had put their roots 
threugh the soil into the water, ai^ although the roots had turned upwards again 
and otherwise tried to avoid it, the^trees sickened and all began to die. They have 
heen replaced by Glam ( Melaleuca leucadendron ), a tree which is less injured by 
water at the roots. Many Eucalypti also planted in this portion of the garden have 
perished from the same cause. 

Sugar-cane— It is to be regretted that Sireh disease has attacked the Sugar- 
cane, indetM the disease appears to be too well established in the Straits. At present 
little is known about it, but it appears to be due to a nematoid worm. The disease 
occurs here also in the stems of Cordyline. I hope to examine carefully the state 
of the sugar plantations here, and see what steps, if any, can be taken against it. 

Gambier. — This important product of Singapore still maintains its high price, 
but there are many complaints from England that the imported article is heavily 
adulterated with water, or at least contains an excessive quantity of it. In order 
to trace, if possible, the origin of this excess, samples of gambier taken from the 
field, fresh from the boiling-shed, were sent to Mr. Evans of Bristol, who is inter- 
ested in the tanning trade. 1 submit his analysis with that of a sample of block- 
gambier received by him in the ordinary course of trade : — 


Gambier from the field. 

Trade Gambier. 

Tannin, .. 

... 11.48 

14.68 

Organic matter, 

... 30.11 

42.26 

Water, ... 

53-39 

31.89 

Ash, 

... 446 

6.34 

Loss, 

... 0.56 

4.88 


100.00 

100.00 


This result shews that there is actully less water in the trade article than in the 
gambier taken directly from the coolies’ hands, and negatives the suggestion that the 
town towkay ■ adulterated the gambier after receiving "it in Singapore with water to 
make it heavier. The other suggestion that the gambier has deteriorated of late years 
from insufficient inspissalion owing to less fuel being used in boiling seems more' 
probable. In earlier years, when there was no attempt made to protect the forests 
the destruction of firing was very large, and fuel could be had in large quantities. 
Now the results of wasteful destruction are being felt, firewood is getting more 
expensive and difficult to get, and the gambier is insufficiently boiled and dried. 

Persons interested in the trade recently conceived the idea of forming here a 
company to cultivate gambier on a large scale, but this has fallen through, and there 
is an idea that this product may be cultivated more profitably, i. e., with European 
labour, in others of our colonies. Consequently most botanical establishments have 
applied to the Singapore Gardens for seeds or young plants this year. A large 
-quantity of seed was carefully collected and dried here and distributed widely, but 


i3 • 


as far as we have yet heard, failed entirely. It seems now certain that gambier seed 
has a very short duration of life (the Chinese say only 24 hours), that is, it must be 
sown as soon as ripe. Thus all attempts to send seed to distant colonies must prove 
futile. Unfortunately, too, young plants are very bad travellers, and though many have 
been sent out to different establishments, few appear to survive the voyage. More 
cases of as healthy plants as possible will be sent out this year to the various colonies 
where it is likely to thrive. 

Drugs . — Several plants common or easily cultivatable here are now in some re- 
quest, as medicines. Among them is Euphorbia pilulifera , known here as Kroma susu. 
The young leaves gathered before flowering are dried, and the extract is used for 
asthma, bronchitis, influenza, &c. The plant is exceedingly common as a weed in 
waste grounds and other spots. A notice of the value of this drug by Mr. Thos. 
Christy, of London, was published in the'Straits Gazette , but although one cultivator 
has sent a supply home, no report has as yet been received as to the value - of the 
sample. 

There is also a considerable demand for papaya-milk, used for diptheria, wounds, 
ulcers, &c. To obtain it, slits are made in the stem and young fruits and the milk 
as it exudes is collected upon glassplates. 

Cassia alata is well known to the Malays as a drug of use in skin disease. It 
has not yet had a fair trial in England, but it is reputed to be valuable in cases of ring- 
worm, &c. A quantity of dried leaves were sent to England, but no report has yet 
come to hand as to their value. 

Neray bark (Carapa moluccana), a common mangrove tree, has a local reputation 
for dysentery. Some extract made with alcohol, appeared to have no valuable pro- 
perties according to Mr. CHRISTY, who reported on it. A bundle of bark was sent 
to him later to examine, but no report has yet bden received. 

Sarsaparilla . — A case of plants of Jamaica sarsaparilla was received from 
Jamaica a short time ago. There seems no reason why it should not do well here 
but the drug seems falling into disfavour. 

Kachubon ^ and Gadong . — In answer to a request published in the Straits 
Settlements Gazette for native plants with poisonous qualities, seeds of Kachubong 
and a plant of Gadong were received from Mr. Lister. The former is Datura metel, 
a well known and dangerous poison plant very common here in a half wild state; 
there is but little demand for it. 

Gadong is a species of Dioscorea, perhaps D. deemonum, reported very poison- 
ous. The tuber sent though alive shews no signs yet of growth. Nothing is known 
of its qualities, but the Malays say it is very poisonous. 

28. Revenue and Expenditure of the Forest Department, Singapore, for the 
year 18 go. 

Revenue. Expenditure. 


* 


$ 


$ c- 

Government vote, 4,170 83, 

. . . ’Salaries, 

2,244 44 


Transport, 

798 77 


Allowances,... 

158 70 


Miscellaneous, 

859 5 1 


Balance, 

109 41 

$4* 1 7° 83 


f4,i7° 83 


]Sf 0TE . — The salaries of the Forest Watchmen and the Experimental Forest 
Nursery were paid out of this vote up to November, and December's salaries were 
paid out of the 1890 vote, the balance f 109.41 being lost. 





GARDENS AND FOREST DEPARTMENT, PENANG. 

Mr. C. Curtis, the Assistant Superintendent of Forests, reports as follows: — 

“ Waterfall Garden. 

29. The laying out and maintenance of this Garden; if not the most important 
work of the Department, is at any rate the best understood and appreciated by the 
public, and occupies the greater portion of my time. 

30. Besides the usual routine work of mowing, weeding, sweeping, manuring, 
replanting, maintenance of roads, paths, &c., many new and important works have 
been carried out by the garden coolies with the occasional assistance of one or two 
carpenters. 

31. Temporary lines for gardeners and coolies have been erected, by permission 
of the Hon’ble the Resident Councillor, on a plot of Crown land near the Hindoo 
Temple, about half a mile from the garden. 

32. The remainder of this .land has been utilised as a Nursery for the propaga- 
tion of shrubs, shade-trees, &c,, for which there is annually a steady demand for 
Government buildings, Municipal roads, &c., and for which there is no available land 
in the Waterfall Garden. 

33. A temporary plant-shed, forty feet by eighty, and twelve feet high in the 
centre, has been put up near the entrance gate. The interior of this shed is con- 
structed with soft stones obtained in the course of cutting a portion of new road, 
and among these the plants are disposed as naturally as possible. Aroids have been 
largely' used and are making satisfactory growth. The roof is of split bamboo laid 
sufficiently close together to break the full force of the sun, while at the same time 
affording a sufficiency of light. 

34. Plant-houses on this principle, constructed with light "7 iron and wire 
netting, are largely used in Calcutta, and are equally well adapted for the cultiva- 
tion of «the majority of plants in this climate. I think, however, that the substitution 
of Bertam chicks in lieu of wire netting would be an advantage, as being neater, 
and the distribution of light more equal than that produced by the material laid on 
the wire netting in India. 

35. A new shed one hundred feet long by eighteen feet broad, for the special 
cultivation of orchids, has been constructed with well-seasoned old timbers from the 
buildings removed to make room for the new Government Office, and the roof covered 
with Bertam chicks. The beds on which the plants are set are built eighteen inches, 
high, of rough stones, and the interstices planted with ferns, Selaginellas, and other 
small growing plants which have a pleasing effect. Judging from the progress made 
to date, this is not only the simplest and strongest, but also the most satisfactory as 
regards growth of plants, and thanks are due to the Deputy Colonial Engineer for 
the material, without which the work could not have been done. 

36. The small octagonal show-house, and two sheds in the Nursery, had to 
be renewed, as the posts were rotten. Advantage was taken of this opportunity to 
effect several changes that experience clearly pointed out as being necessary ; not 
the least important being the doing away entirely with wooden stages, and the con- 
struction of water tanks in each shed. 

37. In the show-house the tank was made large enough to admit a small piece 
of rock-work, and fountain in the centre, which is a decided improvement. 

The upper plant-shed on the way to the Falls, has also been renewed, and the 
interior entirely re-arranged. All the plants in this shed are now planted out, and 
require far less attention than when grown in pots. 

A large proportion are local plants, and it is intended eventually to fill this 
entirely with Malayan plants, of which there are numbers ah ornamental as they are 
botanically interesting. 

38. The ravine adjoining this shed has been cleared, and a small portion 
planted, but the bulk of the’ work remains to be done this year. 

39. Three dams, to supply water to the plant-sheds and Nursery, have been 
built across small tributary streams flowing into the main one ; and are both useful 
and ornamental. One of these has been constructed specially with a view to grow- 
ing the Victoria Lily, for which there is not sufficient depth of water in the Lily Pond. 


i5 


40. Iron pipes for conveying water from the sources above-mentioned, fitted 
with hrass taps for connecting rubber hose pipe, have been fixed, at a cost of $270.54, 
and effect a great saving in labour ; while at the same time the work is much better 
performed. 

41. The road from the upper plant-shed to main bridge, of which 4,716 super- 
ficial feet remained unfinished at the end of 1888, is now complete. It involved a 
large amount of labour, the whple cutting being through a mass of boulders more or 
less hard. All the material used for constructing rock-work, beds for plants, metal- 
ling roads, &c., amounting to several hundred cart-loads, were taken out of this short 
cutting. 

42. The road to the back of the Band Mound, skirting the base of the hill on 
which the Assistant Superintendent’s bungalow is situated, has been widened seven 
feet, and converted into a carriage road eighteen feet broad. In order to connect 
this at the entrance gate, and thus complete the circle, a new bridge, twenty-five feet 
long and eighteen feet wide, has been thrown across the main stream. 

43. The whole of this road, amounting to 27,432 superficial feet; has been 
metalled and put in excellent condition. 

The principal item of expense in connecting this road with the entrance gate, as 
also in laying out the garden generally, is the filling in of holes that have been made 
by the sale of soil and road metal off this land by previous owners. The full extent 
of this w r as not realised until the jungle had been cleared. 

44. Altogether," an area estimated at four acres has been cleared during the I 
year, the principal extension being on the north side in continuation of the original 
scheme ; the sloping, turfing and planting of which will form an important item in 
another year’s work. 

45. Six new beds have been formed near the entrance and filled, principally 
with shrubs of an ornamental nature. Those in which annuals and soft wooded 
foliage plants are grown have been renewed from time to time, as found necessary. 

One dozen new garden seats manufactured by the Public Works Department in 
Singapore, were purchased, and are appreciated, but complaints are still made that 
the number is insufficient. 

46. One plant frame for the raising of ferns and other tender plants was made 
by a carpenter working in the garden, and is a most useful addition. More of the 
same kind are rpuch needed for the purpose of establishing newly collected plants. 

47. Ornamental and useful plants have been received from correspondents, the 
largest contributors being the Director of Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, and the Super- 
intendent of Botanic Gardens, Hongkong. 

48. The collection of plants in pots have been better grown than in previous 
years, and many interesting additions made as the result of two short collecting tours, 
reference to which will be made further on. 

49. An increased interest is, I think, being felt in the cultivation of ornamental 
plants, and as the heavier works of roading, turfing, bridge building, &c. becomes 
less, more attention is devoted to this branch. 

50. The increased number' of visitors is very gratifying, and only the distance 
from town prevents many from oftener enjoying the pleasure, of a visit to the garden. 

51. Plants to the amount of $75 35 were sold, and the money paid into revenue 
account. 

52. The total expenditure in connection with the laying out and maintenance 
of this garden, including all the works of which mention has been made, as well as 
numerous others equally necessary, amount to $6,389.23, details of which are given 
in the Statement of Expenditure annexed (Appendix A). 

Gover?iment Hill Gardens. 

53. The appointment of Mr. A. J. O’Keeffe, as overseer of these gardens, 
which took effect from the first of October last, will, it is hoped, at no distant date, 
result in greater efficiency, both as regards the cultivation of plants and general up- 
keep of grounds. 


i6 


54. In accordance with the decision arrived at in July, when the Director ot 
Gardens and Forests visited this Settlement, all pot plants have been removed from 
the Experimental Nursery to the Bungalow garden, which is 500 feet higher. 

55 * Vegetables, too, of which many kinds have been tested in this Nursery, 
will, in future, be grown on the land set aside for this purpose in connection with 
Government Bungalow, and the Nursery devoted principally to fruit trees and other 
economic plants. 

.A 

56. Enough has been done to prove that many kinds of European vegetables 
can be grown in Penang, but the cost of carrying manure' from the foot of the hill, 
without which nothing can be done, and the lack of a sufficient area of even moder- 
ately level land on which fodder could be grown so as to keep cattle, renders it 
improbable that the cultivation could be made to pay. 

57. Chinese market gardeners are the only persons that could possibly grow 
such things as Tomatoes, Carrots, Parsnips, Lettuce, Beet, Radish and Turnips, 
(which are the kinds most easily grown), so as to put them in the market at a 
reasonable price, and these sho^v no inclination to do so, even when supplied with 
seeds free of cost. 

58. Two new plant-sheds have been put up at the entrance to Convalescent 
Bungalow for the plants removed from the Nursery, and others received from 
correspondents or collected by myself in Perak at altitudes varying from 2,000 to 
6,000 feet. 

59. The planished on Gun Hill has been improved by the removal of the 
wooden stages, and fixing wire netting with a matting of lalang grass to a height of 
eighteen inches above the new beds to break the force of strong winds, which are 
trying in this exposed situation. 

60. Many interesting plants flowered in this shed during the year, and were 
in some cases sent to the Waterfall Garden while in bloom. Among these were 
Cattleya Mendelli, and two other unnamed species ; an Anguloa with six flowers, 
Rhododendron multicolor, R. Teysmanii, Vanda Amesiana, Cypripedium Lawren- 
cianum, C. bellatulum, and Calceolaria mexicana, from seeds collected by myself 
at Darjeeling. The latter re-sowed itself and flowered a second time. Many other 
plants that barely exist in the Waterfall Garden grow quite freely here. 

61. Seeds and bulbs of many kinds not previously tried in this Settlement 
were purchased from Messrs. Jas. Veitch & Sons at a cost of $50, but arrived too 
late in the year to admit of an opinion being yet formed of their relative merits. 

62. The Roses obtained from Calcutta in December, 1888, were planted in 
carefully prepared beds, and have done well. Alterations, consequent on the forma- 
tion of a tennis court in front of the new building necessitated the transplanting of 
a portion of these in October. This was carefully done under my personal super- 
vision and the plants are now (January, 1890) in bloom. 

63. More plants have been received during the year from Messrs. Chatterjee, 
in exchange for ferns, orchids, &c., collected locally, and those best suited to this 
climate are being propagated by means of budding on strong growing stocks. The 
best growers and freest flowering kinds are the Teas ; such as Marshall Neil, Celine 
Forestier, La Marque, Devoniensis, Perle de Lyon, Marie van Houtte, See. 

64. A few new beds have been formed, and the old ones manured, replanted, 
and kept in fair order, but building operations have necessarily prevented the grounds 
from being kept so neatly as could be wished. 

65. The levelling for new tennis court has been under the supervision of the 
Public Works Department, but the cost, to the extent of $268.75, h as been defrayed 
from the vote for Improvement of Grounds, Bel Retiro. 

66. A clump of Juniperus virginianus has been planted at the entrance to the 
Convalescent Bungalow, and promise to do well. 

67. Rifle Range Hill, which had become overgrown with low jungle, has been 
re-cleared, and a few trees planted on it. The range is now available for practice. 

68. Maintenance of roads and paths has, and always will, owing to the 
formation and heavy rainfall on the hill, absorbed a large proportion of the amount 
granted for up-keep of these gardens. 


n 


6g. The piggery in connection with the vegetable garden has been abolished, 
partly because complaints were made by occupants of Government Bungalow of an 
unpleasant smell, but principally for the reason that a fair trial has shown it to be 
cheaper, all things considered, to carry up the manure required. ... 

70. The sum received for sale of pigs is $102, which has beeji Spent in the 
purchase and transport of manure. / * \ . 


71. The total expenditure for maintenance of bungalow, garden 
mental nursery is $2,492.40, as shown in statement annexed. 


•e^peri- 


Forest Reserves. 


lr>59 


/. 


' 


72. Pulau Jerejak, having an estimated area of 1,000 acres, has been declared 
Forest Reserve and placed under this Department, thus bringing the total area under 
protection in Penang to 11,226 acres. « 

With the exception of the inmates and staff of the Leper Asylum, Pulau Jerejak 
contains but few inhabitants, and no cultivation whatever, . unless the few coco-nut 
trees overgrown with weeds and bushes in the neighbourhood of the Malay fishing 
village can be termed such. 


73. The whole area is fairly covered with young trees, which if properly pro- 
tected will grow r into a valuable crop. The most important, kinds are Tampines, 
(Sloetia sideroxylon), Damarlaut, Meranti (Shorea sp.), Bintangor (Calophyllum sp.). 
These are present in sufficient numbers to re-stock the island without the aid of 
artificial planting. 

Eucalyptus planted in this island, in the neighbourhood of the Asylum, at the 
request of the Medical Department two years ago, have made fair progress, and 
the Colonial Surgeon is of opinion that these trees have had a beneficial effect as 
regards malaria. ' 

Prosecutions . 


74. Fifty-five persons have been prosecuted during the year, principally for 
illicit timber cutting, as against twenty-four cases in 1888. The amount of fines 
inflicted being $395, as against $105 in 1 888. 

The greater number of prosecutions and convictions prove, I think, that the work 
of protecting the reserved areas, which, as pointed out in previous reports, is an 
important matter in Penang, has been better performed than in previous years. 


Stations. 


75- One new guard station has been added, and another re-constructed on 
a more convenient site than that hitherto occupied. 

76. The boundaries and inspection paths of the reserves have been regularly 
patrolled, and kept as clear of obstructions as the staff and nature of the country 
admitted. 


77. A small plantation of the large-leaved Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) 
raised from seeds ripened in Calcutta, has been made at Kubang Ulu, but the success' 
of Mahogany as a timber tree in this Settlement is doubtful. 

Fire. 

78. During the dry season, a fire occurred at this place, and damaged young 
trees to the extent of $25. Owing to the adjoining areas being waste land, largely 
covered with lalang grass, fires are frequent, and in no single instance has the origina- 
tor been discovered. 

, Nursery . 

79. The nursery has been maintained, but no new work of importance under- 
taken, as it was hoped more suitable land and easier of access would have been obtained, 
as suggested in last year’s report. 

After careful inquiry, it appears certain that there is no suitable Crown land 
available for this purpose, and that if experiments in the cultivation of vegetable 
products are to be conducted in a practical manner, the necessary land must be 
acquired by purchase. 


i8 


80. Plants of Liberian coffee, and tops of the introduced varieties of sugar 
cane, have been distributed to Chinese and others who made application for them. 

81. The Cochin China vine ( Vitis marteni ) ripened two bunches of fruit. 
If this could be crossed with the common vine, it would probably produce something 
suited to the climate, but of itself is not of much merit. 

82. Considerable progress has been made in collecting and determining the trees 
and other plants within the reserved forests, &c., and it is hoped that before the 
end of another year this collection will be catalogued. 

83. The total expenditure in connection with the maintenance of Forest Re- 
serves, including up-keep of nursery, is 11,514.97, of which $1,036.96 were paid as 
salaries, and $308.72 in the construction and repairing of station. 

, General. 

84. Two short excursions for the purpose of collecting living plants and herba- 
rium specimens, were made during the year, and in each case many plants not 
previously represented either in the Singapore or Penang Gardens were obtained, 
some being quite new. 

85. On the first occasion, I was absent from’ Penang ten days, and collected 
principally on the hill ranges in Perak, at altitudes varying from 2,000 to 6,000 feet. 

Among the interesting plants obtained for cultivation were four species of Didy- 
mocarpus, two of Rhododendrons, a fine Medinilla, numbers of Phaius grandifolius, 
Calanthes, and a curious aroid, which I believe to be the same collected by me some 
years ago in Borneo, and described at the time as a new genus under the name of 
Podolasia stipitata. 

Numerous orchids and other plants of which the flowers wftre not seen were 
collected, some of which have since flowered in the Hill Garden, and specimens 
preserved for future reference. 

86. The second excursion occupied only five days, as the Government steam launch 
m which the trip was made could not be spared for a longer time. This trip was to 
the Langkawi Islands situated from sixty to one hundred miles to the north of Penan 

There are but few inhabitants, and dense jungle extends from the water edge to 
the tops of the highest hills, which are on the larger islands over 1,000 feet in height. 

lime did not admit of any attempt being made to reach these hills, but judcnng 
from their appearance, the geological formation is not the same as the smaller islands 
on which most of the plants brought back were obtained. 

Short reports on these two collecting tours ‘were submitted to Government 
immediately on fny return, and it is therefore unnecessary to say more than that this 
collection bears out the opinion ventured in my last Annual Report, that the flora of 
the Langkawi Islands is nearer allied to that of Burma than that of Malaya. 

87. A complete set of all dried plants obtained during these excursions, and 
collected in Penang during the year, have been mounted and forwarded to the Direct- 
or, Singapore. Surplus specimens are either sent to the Director, or other Botanists 
after consultation with him. 

The greater number this year have been sent to Dr. King, who is at present 
engaged on the FJora of this region. The whole of the Penang herbarium is also 
being sent to Dr. King, a few orders at a time, on loan. 

Altogether, more than 1,000 herbarium specimens have been distributed during 
the year, and about 500 added to the Penang collection. 

Named surplus specimens, from the collections made by the two deceased Botan- 
ists ScGRTECI-IINi and KUNSTLER, and by Mr. W.RAY of the Perak Museum, have been 
presented to the Gardens by Dr. King, who is working out these collections. 

88. The usual system of exchanging plants and seeds has been kept up during 
the year, about 1,300 plants and 93 packets of seeds being received ; and 3,126 plants 
and 25 packets of seeds distributed. 

The disproportion between the numbers received and distributed is accounted 
for partly by the fact that some five hundred plants were obtained during my visit to 
India in 1888 for which it was impossible to make any acknowledgment in kind in 
that year, and partly by the despatch of a greater number than usual of local' plants 
to Singapore. 


i9 


8g. * At the request of the Hon’ble the Resident Councillor, Kedah has been 
twice visited ; the first occasion being to take over the land presented by H. H. the 
Sultan of Kedah as a building site for the British Consulate, and the second in con- 
nection with the clearing and preparing it with a view to ornamentation as soon as 
the building is completed. 

On the first occasion, having a day to spare, a visit was made to the caves, and 
some plants obtained, but the neighbourhood of Alor Star, the capital of Kedah, is an 
uninviting field for botanical research. 

At the request of the Acting District Officer, aWshort visit was paid to Lumut, 
the new Settlement in the Dindings, in November, to advise on the spot on matters 
connected with Forestry and Agriculture. 

Immediately on my return to Penang, two hundred and fifty large plants of Nut- 
megs and Cloves were shipped to the District Officer for planting at the new Settle- 
ment, and the latest account of this consignment is very encouraging. 

The soil at the new Settlement appears to be well suited for the cultivation of 
spices, and no pains should be spared to make the present plantation a success. 

90. Other matters recommended, especially the formation of a small nursery on 
cleared land at the back of the District Officer’s Quarters, for raising plants for dis- 
tribution could not, for want of a sufficiency of labour, be accomplished within the 
year, but will, I hope, be taken in hand as soon as possible. 

91. Clearing, fencing, and preparations for laying out the grounds in connec- 
tion with the new Residency, Penang, have been proceeded with, and a belt of quick- 
growing trees planted to screen off the native houses adjoining this land. The 
formation of beds, planting ornamental trees, &c., will come into another year’s work. 

92. Supervision of the Municipal Garden, and the planting of shade trees 
within Municipal limits, has been undertaken from the first of January, 1889, at the 
request of the Commissioners, and by permission of His Excellency the Governor. 

93. The total expenditure for the year, including Salaries of Establishment and 
Allowances of all kinds, amount to $13,454.22; and the amount received for sale 
of plants, &e., to $94.7°) which has been paid in to Revenue account.” 


20 


9 

Revenue and Expenditure of the Forest and Gardens Department , 

Penang , i88g. 


REVENUE. 

Government Grant. 

EXPENDITURE. 


* 

Salaries of Establishment. 

$ 

c. 

Maintenance of 





Waterfall Garden, . . . 

3,goo 

Asst. Superintendent of Forests, 

i,8o< 

o 00 



Overseer, Waterfall Garden, 

3°< 

D OO 



Overseer, Hill Nursery, ... 

8 

48 



Sergeant of Forest Guards, 

24< 

D 00 




2, 42: 

1 48 



Salaries, ...» 

2,78? 

99 

* 


Material for rehewing Plant-slied, 


20 



Chicks, 


74 



Planks for Plant Cases, &c., 

26 

45 

* 


Glass for Plant Frames, ... 

9 

l 3 



Tools and Materials, 

291 

97 



Manure and Cartage, 

100 

95 



Material for Repairs, 

35 

64 



Purchase of Plants, 

J 3 

90 



Purchase of Pots, ... 

15 

00 



Plant Basket, 

27 

00 



Rubber Hose, 

50 

25 



Garden Seats, 

1 96 

46 



Petty and Miscellaneous Expenses, ... 

r i3 

43 




3,89c 

11 



Balance,. . . 

9 

89 

Laying out Water- 

3,9°° 


3 > 9 oo 

00 





Fall Garden, 

2,500 

Salaries, 

L382 

• 33 



Balance due on Main Bridge, 

144 

88 



Manure and Cartage, 

J 52 

45 


** 

Material for new Plant-shed, 

176 

36 



,, for new Bridge, ... 

89 

66 



„ for Water Tanks, 

52 

25 



„ for Cooly Lines, 

63 

06 



,, for renewing Foot Bridge, ... 

97 

* 3 1 

I. 


Laying on Water, 

270 

54 



Lowering Water Pipes, ... 

12 

37 

. 


Dynamite, 

22 

55 



Tools, 

8 

40 



Bricks, 

26 

96 




2,499 

12 



Balance,... 

0 

88 

Maintenance of 

2,500 


2,5001 

00 

Hill Nursery & Bun- 

■ 

• 



?alow Garden, 

i j 75° 

Salaries, ... 

L535 

20 



Rice for Cattle, 

123 

4 



Tools and Material, 

75 

24 



Purchase of Seeds, 

11 

6 



Miscellaneous, 

0 

90 




L745 

44 



Balance,... 

4 

56 


L75° 


L750 

00 


21 


Revenue and Expenditure of the Forest and Gardens Department , 
Penang , iSSp, — Continued. 


REVENUE. 

Government Grant. 

EXPENDITURE. 

Improvement of 





of Grounds “B^l Re- 

1 


$ 

c. 

tiro,” ... 

750 

Salaries, 

19c 

48 



Salaries by Public Works Department, 

26t 

75 



Seeds and Bulbs, 

5 C 

00 



Manure, 

3 : 

90 



Tools, 

11 

29 



Wire Netting, 

52 

50 



Material of Plant-shed and Frames,.. 


89 



Flower Pots, ... 

3 ^ 

65 



Cartage, , . . 


50 




746 

96 



Balance, . . . 

3 

04 

• 

75 ° 


75 o 

00 

Maintenance of 





Forest Reserves, ... 

C 55 ° 

Salaries, 





Forest Guards, 

437 

34 



Office Assistant and Messenger, 

199 

37 



Maintenance of Nursery and planting 





Trees, 

229 

5 o 



Up-keep of Reserve’ Line, 

105 

75 



Bills. 





Re-construction of Forest Guard Station, 





Telok Bahang, 

1 12 

82 



Construction of new- Station, Pulau 





Jerejak, 

180 

00 



Repairs to Station, Penara Bukit, 

15 

90 



Forest Guards' Transport, 

42 

2 5 



Paper and Chemicals for Herbarium, .. 

20 

48 



Botanical Books, 

0 

0 

56 



House Rent, ... 

16 

00 



Purchase of Plant and Seeds, 

10 

3 2 



Manure and Cartage, 

9 

84 



Tools and Material, 

42 

89 



Miscellaneous, 

23 

95 




1 » 5 1 4 

97 



Balance, . . . 

35 

03 

Travelling & Per- 

U 55 ° 


L55° 

00 





sonal Allowances, ... 

700 

Assistant Superintendent’s Pony Al- 





low^ance, 

414 

04 



Persona] Allowance and other Expen- 





ses in connection with journey to 





Perak, 

57 

70 



Ditto Langkawi and Dindings, 

42 

40 



Ditto Kedah, 

16 

62 



Transport and Field Allowance, 

26 

77 



Director’s (Annual Inspection) visit, ... 

72 

65 




630 

14 



Balance,... 

69 

86 


0 

0 


700 

00 

Revenue from Sale ' 



0 


of Plants, ... | 

94.70 






22 


Principal Contributors and Recipients of Plants and Seeds, Penang, iS8g. 


Contributors. 


Director of Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. 

„ „ „ Ceylon. 

>. „ » Singapore. 

,, „ „ Melbourne. 

The Secretary to Government, Perak. 
Major Walker, Perak. 

Superintendent Government Plantations, 
Perak, 

T. Fraser, Esq. 

S. P. Chatterjee, Esq., Calcutta. 

C. Maries, Esq., Gwalior, India. 

Stanley, Price & Co., Calcutta. 

G. Peche, Esq., Moulmein. 

P. HONSTON, Esq., Pangkor. 

A. STALLARD, Esq., Do. 

A. T. Bryant, Esq., Do. 

T. DrysdalE, Esq., Timor. 

The Agri-Horti. Society, Madras. 

», „ Rangoon. 

C. Wray, Esq., Perak. 

Messrs. Jas. Veitch & Sons, London. 

W. Boxall, Esq., London. 

The Hon'ble J. M. B. Vermont. 


Recipients. 


The Director of Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. 
» .. » Hongkong. 

„ „ „ Singapore. 

The Agri-Horti. Society, Rangoon. 

„ „ „ Madras. 

The Superintendent of Government Plan- 
tations, Perak. 

T. Fraser, Esq., Perak. 

H: H. the Sultan of Kedah. 

The Hon’ble W. E. Maxwell, c. m. g. 

C. Wray, Esq., Perak. 

S. P. Chatterjee, Esq., Calcutta. 

Messrs. Jas. Veitch & Sons, London. 
Assistant Superintendent of Forests, 
Malacca. 

C. Maries, Esq., Gwalior. 

The Hon’ble J. M. B. Vermont. 

The Municipal Commissioners, Penang 
P. HONSTON, Esq., Pangkor. 

Major Walker, Perak, 

G. Peche, Esq., Moulmein. 

District Officer, Bukit Mertajam. 

J. G. Olifant, Esq., Calcutta. 

C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests.’* 


THE FORESTS OF MALACCA. 

Mr. R. Derry, Assistant Superintendent of Forests reports as follows > — 

“ Experimental Garden , Bukit Sabukor. 

94. The garden has been maintained in good order throughout the year, and 
much propagating, preparing trees for road side, and general planting has been done, 
altogether 12,000 young trees of thirty kinds have been prepared for planting, the 


principal of which are : — 

Tembusu, Fagroea fragrans, ... ... 4,460 

Sena Pterocarpus indicus, ' ... ... 2,500 

Merebau, Afzelia palembanica, ... ... 1,000 

Bintangor, Calophyllu\n inophyllum, ... 460 

Champedak, Artocarpus champedak, ... 300 

Pulai, Alston/a scholavis, ... ... 230 

Large-leaved Mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla, 700 
Kempas, Kumpussia malaccensis, ... ... 120 

Bintangor lumut, Calophyllum, sp., ... 150 

Rotan manan, Calamus sp., ... ... 800 k 

Miscellaneous, ... ... ... 1,780 


*A Li. /L jW • 


23 


Fruit trees and other economic plants have also been largely propagated, but the 
failure of the fruit-crop prevented so large a stock being prepared as might have been 

desired. . 

A collection of ornamental and flowering shrubs has been maintained, to supply 

the needs of the town. ^ 

^ Works. 

95. The following works have been done in the Gardens. Ihe ground adjoining 
the lakes has been temporarily planted with Arnotto, Assam 1 ea and Patchouli ; tvvo- 
, thirds of an acre have been cleared, and holes dug for Liberian coffee, two hundred 
and three of which plant's have been planted, and a stock prepared for next rainy 
season ; and two acres have been cleared and holes dug for the reception of timber 
and other trees. The poorer soils of the Gardens will be planted up with timber- 
trees, nibong and bamboos. 

. Economic Plants. 

96. The common Mahogany, Swietenia mahogani , has proved here as elsewhere 
in the Straits a failure. The large-leaved species, Smacrophylla , apparently a more 
robust plant, is growing well here, seeds were obtained from Calcutta in March, and 
the plants are now two feet tall. 

Camphor { Cinnamomum camphora ) a small stock of plants has been raised from 
seeds received from Hongkong in February. 

Cloves are growing vigorously, most of the seedlings planted eighteen months ago 
are now five feet tall, and very healthy. Two trees which were in the Gardens when 
transferred are now' fruiting. It is evident that they might be profitably cultivated here. 

Maltese Lemons, are doing very well. Two trees have borne fruit of good size 
and quality. 

Castor Oil {Ricinus communis)-. — Seeds received from Calcutta have grown well 
and fruited freely, and a stock is now being raised for more extensive planting. 

Patchouli ( Pogostemon patchouli) is growing very well and fast, but the 
demand is limited. 

Kroma Susu {Euphorbia pilulifera). — Plants received from Singapore have 
grown well, and it has also been found wild near Bukit Bruang. There has not yet 
been received any report as to the value of the drug as grown here. 

Arnotto ( Bix orellana), Tapioca, six varieties from Singapore, Black Pepper, 
Assam Tea, Liberian Coffee and Nutmegs have all been doing well. 

Roads and Drives. 

. 97. The main drive through the Gardens has been maintained in good order, 
and the entrances from the Bukit Bruang and Batu Berendam Roads have been* 
much improved by the erection of pillars. When the dam across the lake has been 
erected, a drive round the whole extent of the Gardens can be made. 

A cutting of some feet in depth which would be necessary for this, is being made 
by the Public Works Department to supply material for roads in the neighbourhood. 

Lake. 

98. Nothing has been done to this during the year. It is hoped that a vote will 
be sanctioned for damming it and finishing it next year, as the want. of a proper water 
supply is being felt. 

Forest Reserves. 


99. The Forest watchmen have worked well, but much difficulty exists in pre- 
venting their absenting themselves from their station on account of their quarters 
not being large enough for their families, and two men were dismissed for this. 
The quarters at three stations will be enlarged during the ensuing year, and it will be 
necessary to enlarge the remainder in order to accommodate the men’s families at 
an early date. 

Prosecutions, &c. 


100. Two cases of timber cutting occurred during the year. In one case a fine of 
10 dollars was inflicted, the other was settled by the defendant paying 4 dollars, 
the value of the wood which had been taken by mistake. A fire broke out in the early 
part of the year on some waste land at Sungei Udang, but no harm was done. 



ft 


24 


Bukit Bruang Reserve. 


101. The boundaries of the reserve have been re-cleared, and the swamps 
bridged, and a path has been made over the highest spur. On some waste land 
1,099 trees of different kinds, chiefly Merebau, Bintangor^hampedak, have been 
planted. And on the adjoining swamp a clearing has been commenced for the culture 
of sago. Three acres have been cleared, the soil thrown into ridges and 45 sa$> 
cuttings planted. 

Sungei Udang Reserve. 

102. The boundaries having become overgrown have been cleared by the 
watchmen with the aid of a gang or- six coolies. Fifteen miles of boundaries have 
been put in order, and six miles of inspection-paths opened. The central compart- 
ment has been divided into blocks by the inspection-paths. About a mile remains 
to be done. 

Merlemau Reserve. 

103. The western boundary, two miles long, has been opened during the year, 
and an inspection path, two miles long, has also been opened. The southern bounda- 
ries running westwards and those west of the Chin-Chin Road are in good order, and 
where swampy made passable. The eastern swampy boundaries remain to be ren- 
dered passable, and the demarcation of the western compartment into blocks is 
requisite in order to make a valuation survey. This will be done in the ensuing year. 

Ayer Panas Reserve. 

104. The boundary of the new reserve has been maintained by the watchmen 
and an inspection-path opened by a band of coolies for three-quarters of a mile. 

Bukit Panchor. 

105. The maintenance of the boundaries here is very heavy owing to the large 
extent of lalang and swamp. All the boundaries, eleven miles in extent, have been 
cleared and put in order, a band of coolies having been employed from the end of 
October to December on them. Some timber has been supplied for building Govern- 
ment quarters from this reserve. 

Brisu Reserve. 

106. The demarcation of private properties, and of an extension of the reserve 
occupied most of the time of the watchmen, with the addition of some coolies. The 
extension consists of the addition of 1,000 acres situated between the Brisu and 
Sungei Slput main road and the frontier between Bukit Jelutong and Bukit Putus. 

It is well wooded and includes some large timber, especially near the frontier, 
Serayah and Meranti being most abundant. 

Jus District. 

107. The reserves have been divided into three here, viz., Bukit Sadanan, Bukit 
Batu Tiga, and Batang Malaka ; of these the former has been completely demarcated 
and the second commenced. 


Bukit Sadanan Reserve. 

108. Lies between the districts of Machap, Tebung, Batang Malaka and Selan- 
dar, and comprises about 9,000 acres. It is undulating, well watered and for the 
most part is exceedingly well wooded with fine timber and a considerable number 
of rattans. The highest point (Bukit Sadanan) is 1,094 feet altitude. On the 
western side the reserve is demarcated by the Machap-Tebung Road, on the 
eastern by the Batang Malaka and Selandar Road. The north and south bounda- 
ries have been demarcated. 

The most valuable timbers here are: — Seraya ( Hopea cernua ), Gombang 
(Dipterocarpus crinitus), Meranti ( Hopea meranti ), Kayu Klat Merah ( Eugenia 
sp.), all abundant; Kayu Minyak ( Dipterocarpus Icevis), Tembusu ( Fagrea 
fragrans ), Kambang Sa’mangko, Jelutong, Berombong, Penaga, Kempas, Rambei 
Daun ( Shorea acuminata ), fairly abundant; Merebau, Resak, Petaling, Kranji, 
Bilian Wangi, rare. 


* 


25 

Bukit Batu Tiga. 


109. Towards the close of the year this demarcation was commenced, and four 
miles opened ; the reserve will contain about 6,000 acres. When this and the Batang 
Malaka reserve are opened, quarters will be built for the Forest watchmen at Gapis, if 
possible, a central position for both reserves. 

General Remarks. 

Distribution of Reserves. 

no. The original plan of distribution of reserves has been carried out, and 
when the two unfinished reserves have been demarcated, the requirements of the 
Settlement will probably be met. The larger area is in the south, but it may be possible 
to increase the northern division by adding to the Brisu Reserve where a much 
larger area is desirable, and considering the importance of firewood reserves near 
the town and in the open country towards Alor Gajah, it is worth consideration 
whether the Cheng hills should not, in part at least, be conserved. 

Transport of Timber. 

in. Although the distance from some of the reserves to Malacca is long 
and the transport difficult, yet it hardly appears to make much difference in the value 
of the timber. Most of the timber in use in the Settlement comes from Muar, and 
the distance from the depot there to the jungle and from the town by sea to 
Malacca is quite as far and inconvenient as from any Malacca reserve to the town. 
When the reserves in Malacca are capable of supplying timber, each district can be 
easily supplied from its own reserves. 

Conservation and Re-production. 

1 12. At present there is a very large proportion of secondary growth, included in 
the reserve, and only in a few reserves, viz., Bukit Sadanan, some parts of Merlemau, 
Sungei Udang and Ayer Panas that the forest is dense and old enough to cut from. 
The area of lalang is small, nor is it necessary to deal with it till it has become 
covered with brushwood, which is rapidly happening. There is, however, much land 
covered with secondary growth, and older forest, which is in a fit state for planting. 

Where the soil is good, such timbers as Merebau, Kempas, Meranti and Penaga, 
could be planted in the form ‘of seed, and Gombang, Kayu Minyak, and seedlings and 
young plants of Tampines, Serayah, Petaling and Kranji would also be planted. 

Special Vote for Planting. 

1 1 3. The present staff is not able to do more than to conserve and keep up the 
boundaries of the existing forest, and I would suggest a vote, which would cover the 
whole of the planting expenses being given. 

Many of the best timber trees, especially Dipterocarpus , only fruit periodically, 
and when this happens, or when an unusually heavy crop of fruits occurs, they must be 
collected and planted without delay in as large quantity as possible. For this reason 
the vote should be made available till the work was completed. 

Though the best large timbers w ould, of course, take a long time to grow to full 
size, some return would be obtained in from four to six years. Land which had 
been thickly planted would by that time require thinning, and the timber cut out would 
be .of a class which is highly marketable for use as stakes, rollers, posts, beams, etc., 
for which there is always a large demand. 1 would point out that the present available 
high forest cannot safely be worked unless planting is put in hand on a large scale. 
As it is required to serve for the natural reproduction both in the forest and also for 
the production of seeds for planting other land. 

The reserves at present cannot do more than supply the w'ants of the Settlements. 
With the increased development of the Colony, both by agriculture and commerce, the 
demand for timber close at hand is increasing. And the failure of the supply of 
timber, even in the form of posts for pepper cultivation, may have a most injurious 
effect on the future resources of the Colony. 



26 


1 14. Revenue collected during 1889: — $ c. 

Sale of 1 seedling fruit-trees, ... ... 46.70 

Minor produce from Reserve, ... ... ■■■ ri -95 

Value of Timber supplied for Government use,— 

For Government Quarters, Alor Gajah, ... 182.60 

„ » ■: •" loao ° 
For repairing Bathing-shed, Tanjong Kling, ... 25.00 


Total, $366.25 


1 15. Expenditure of the year i88g } Gardens and Forests Department , Malacca. 



$ 

c. 

1 

c. 

Government Vote, ... ... ... 



5 . 50 c 

00 

Expenditure (Reserves) : — 

* 




Salaries of Forest Watchmen, .. . 

M 57 

13 



Demarcating Bukit Sadanan Reserve, 

r 85 

25 



,, Brisu Reserve, ... 

258 

50 



Sungei Udang Reserve, 

I 99 

5 ° 



Bukit Bruang Reserve, 

*57 

25 



Merlemau Reserve, 

105 

25 



Bukit Batu Tiga Reserve, ... .... 

88 

10 



Bukit Panchor Reserve, 

125 

00 



Ayer Panas Reserve, 

26 

75 



Uniform for Watchmen, 

120 

00 






2,722 

73 

Bukit Sabukur Garden : — 


• 



Salaries of Kebuns, ... ... 

1.350 

08 



Purchase of Plants and Seeds,... 

41 

46 



Purchase of Tools and Implements, 

61 

39 



General Up-keep, 

3 i 

75 



Herbarium Expenses, ... 

75 

10 



Building Plant-houses, ... 

35 

80 



Manure, 

100 

00 



Cartage, 

25 7 

92 



Incidental Expenses, ... ... • .. .. ... 

37 

49 



Transport, ... ... ... ... ... 1 

21 

00 



Personal Allowances, ... ... ... ... 

38 

00 



Pony Allowance, ... ... ... ... 

387 

18 



Field Allowance, ... ... ... ... 

166 

5 o 



Director's Travelling Expenses, 

99 

75 



J" 

- 


2,703 

42 

Total Expenditure, . . . 

$5,426 

15 

Balance, including Crown Agents $50.00, 


.. 

1 73 

85" 


R. DERRY, Malacca. 


H. N. RIDLEY, 

Director of Gardens and Forests, S, S, 



Singapore , igth February , i8()0. 


Annual Report on the Botanic Gardens and Forest 
Department, for the year 1890. 


BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 

Although during the past year the funds did not permit of any very large works 
being undertaken, yet a number of minor improvements were made, which have added 
to the interest and beauty of the Gardens. While staying for a few days at Buitenzorg on 
the occasion of my visit to Coqos and Christmas Islands, I carefully examined the methods 
of working an.d general arrangement of the Botanic Gardens there under the direction 
of Dr. Treub. The Botanical establishment is one of the largest and best appointed 
in the world, but though it is impossible to compete with it here, I observed several 
points which might well be imitated. The great feature is the grouping of all the 
plants of one natural order together, attempts being made to complete the series as 
much as possible. To do this artistically is not at all easy, for m many of the natural 
orders, such as Cupuliferas or Myrtaceas, a large series of the different species presents 
to an ordinary visitor a monotonous appearance owing to their similarity. At the 
same time if the plants of the different orders are kept in special places set apart for 
each order, it is easy for any one interested in botany or who wishes to see a particu- 
lar plant to find it in its proper place. I hope, however, to introduce this system, at 
least to a certain extent, into the Gardens, without injuring their present picturesque 

appearance ta^ t p e plants have already been grouped or collected together in 

various parts of the Gardens, and it is proposed to continue this so that the various 
orders may be well represented and may be easily found and studied.* 

The following orders have thus been treated : — 

Leguminosae. — A bare piece of grass on the further side of the lake has been 
selected for these, and planted with Calliandras , Bauhinias and various other plants ■ 
of this order. They are doing well, and the Bauhinias especially are flowering well 
already though only recently planted. Bignoniaceae have been grouped round one of 
the slopes near the main entrance near a fine Stereospermmk belonging to this 
order The Coniferae and Cycadeae are to be found on the hill near the aviary. 
Along border running from the Amaryllid beds to the entrance of the fernery is 
filled with Scitamineae . A path behind and parallel to this in the shrubbery contains 
a series of Avoids. A collection of [Bvomeliaceae has been arranged in a long bed 
running parallel to the road from Tyersall into the Gardens behind the row of sugar- 
palms This ground was formerly occupied by a series of oblong beds representing 
various orders, but which were unsuitable and unsightly, owing to the soil and 
exposure not suiting many of the plants, while the stiff lines of the beds were very 
unpicturesque. The upper part of this piece of ground has been terraced and 
planted with roses, which there is reason to believe will do well there, and a long 
border has been made on. the side nearest the Tyersall road and planted with plants 
useful in supplying cut-flowers for decoration, etc. 

Other orders will be similarly arranged gradually, the less showy ones being 
located in less conspicuous ground, so that eventually we shall have a real botanical 

garden as well as a picturesque one. . 

Amono- other improvements is the conversion of a waste piece or ground behind 
the orchid house into a series of rockeries. This place was formerly an orchard of 
rambai trees (Baccaurea dulcisj. Some of the trees were cleared out, and pathways 
left between the others, the spaces between the trees along the paths were filled with 
coral rock and each mass was planted with plants of some group or groups such as 
naturally grow on shaded rocks. Thus, one is covered with Begonias, another with 
Calatheas and Phryniums, another with Pellionias , etc., and so on.* These plants have 
grown remarkably rapidly, and many such as Ancectochili grow here better than in 
| nY other way Between the rockery and the main road are some banks of Arundo , 
Acalypha and <&ch like plants, and the whole of this portion of the Garden from the 
orchid house to the end is fenced in with barbed wire fencing. Two small rockeries 
have also been placed at the turning point of the road near the ofchid house, beneath 

the bamboos. 


2 


Two ver^ shabby looking beds close to the fine row of Thrinax , near^he lake, 
have been removed, which has much improved the appearance of the spot. 

Many of the trees in the Garden have been pruned and cleaned, a coolie being 
kept almost exclusively for this work. 


Roads. 

During the year, the new road from Tyersall to Cluny Road between the Gardens 
and Mr. Burkinshaw’s property was completed and taken over by the Municipality. 
A new cart-road was made into the Garden from Garden Road to the plant-sheds so 
that cart traffic may not be required to go through the Gardens as formerly. 

Lakes. 

On July 15th, owing to the very heavy rainfall of 6.65 inches in the day, the large 
lake overflowed to such an extent that a portion of its bank was washed away, and it 
was only by strenuous exertions that the dam was saved from being broken through. 
The bank was afterwards raised to such a height that there is no likejihood of this' ac- 
cident occurring again. The Nelumbiums in the Neluinbium Lake having got very 
weak, the lake was drained and cleaned out, a*nd the plants, with some additional ones, 
re-planted. 

Plant-houses. 

The large plant-house has been kept bright and full of interesting flowers. During 
the year there were good shows of Gloxinias, Achimenes, Caladiums and Camellias, 
as well as the ordinary annuals. Among the more unusual plants in flower were 
several species of Didymocarpi from Langkawi : — Stauranthera grandiflora, Carex 
scaposa , Lilium Harrisii Crinurn (new species, Pekan), Ouvirandra fenestralis , 
Anthurium Andrseanum. 

Orchid House. 

The Orchid House has been very successful this year, and has been a source of 
great attraction, a great variety of local and exotic orchids having been in flower. 
For some weeks there was a very fine show of Pkalosnopsis grandiflora , of which over 
three hundred plants were in bloom at one time. There were also a fine lot of 
Calanthe veratrifolia, Sarcochilus lilacinus and other commoner plants in bloom 
most of the year. Among the less frequently seen orchids in flower were Dendrobium 
Dalhousieanum (from a plant collected in Singapore), D. hercoglossmn, D. tuberiferum , 
D. metachilinum, Liparis venosa , Eria armeniaca , E. Lindleyi , Claderia viridiflora , 
Cirrhopetalum elegans, concinnum, medusae, and several undescribed species. 
Calanthe rubens, C. Cecilies, Cattleya eldorado (with four flowers), C. Triance , C. 
Gaskelliana, Arundina densiflora, Spathoglottis JVrayii, Renan fhera kistrionica and 
Lowii, Aerides Lawrenciae, Arachnanthe (new species from Pekan), Sarcochilus 
arachnites , S. notabilis , S. unguiculatmn , carinatifolius (a new species from Christ- 
mas Island), Oncidium lanceanum , Dipodium pictum, Saccolabinm giganteum 
illustre, Goodyqra (new species from Singapore), Geodorum purpureum, CoMogyne 
mayeriana , C. Cumingii, Plocoglottis javanica, Thecostele zollingeri. 

An interesting lot of orchids was received from Trinidad, and though they suffered 
a good deal from their long journey, many of them are doing well. Among these were 
species of Catasetum , Epidendrums , Oncidium lanceanum , O. papilio and Lock- 
hartia elegans. 

A number of orchids are found to grow much more readily out of doors than in 
pots in the Orchid House. Chief among these are the Renantheras , Vandas, Arundina, 
Spathoglottis. A bed of the larger kinds of these was made on one of the terraces 
below the band-stand, and seems to be doing very well. The Anoectochili, Microstylis 
cuprea and such ^oft-leaved plants grow better here in open rock work, though they 
are very subject to the attacks of snails here. A number of orchids have been planted 
on the trees and are doing very well, and often in flower. 

Police. 

It having been found, as stated in last yeaFs report, that the Indian Police 
supplied to the Gardens were worse than useless, it was decided to replace them by 
Malays. These have, on the whole, worked better, partly from their being a more 
respectable set of men and partly from their being properly under control. There 
have, however, been a certain number of petty thefts of flowers ar^l plants which 
were undetected. 

There was only one prosecution, that of a Kling for cutting firewood in the 
Garden, who was convicted. 


3 


Coolies . 

There was a good deal of sickness among the coolies in the early part of 

the vear chiefly from influenza and its sequelae, and from the constant wet 

weather ' In July, the Javanese, who had for some time betrayed an insolent and 
quarrelsome demeanour, became riotous and refused to work They were immediate- 
ly expelled the Gardens, and a month’s wages due to them forfeited. In a few days 
several returned and implored to be taken on again, which, however, was refused 
The experiment was them tried of using entirely Kling labour, but it was found 
that on the whole they were not so satisfactory. The better class were very well 
suited for weeding and trimming the beds and very speedily learnt the use of the 
scvthe but with a very few exceptions, were almost useless at potting plants, and 

the more delicate plant work. Added to which the difficulty of finding any wffio 

could speak or understand Malay properly, made it difficult to communicate with 
them Eventually Javanese were taken on again and are working more satisfactorily. 
From the large number of applicants of all races for employment in the Gardens 
immediately it was was known that the Javanese had left, it is clear that there is no 
difficulty in procuring any number of coolies more or less capable of undertaking 
gardening work at a very short notice. 


Buildings . 

The only additional building of any importance erected this year was a house 
for the Artist, Mr. De AlwiS, which was put upon the hill in the Military reserve 

adjoining that of the Forest Overseer. . 

A small glass frame was built on the site of the old house belonging formerly 
to the Forest Overseer, which was pulled down. It has proved very useful in 
germinating seeds and establishing delicate plants, and it is intended to build 
some more similar ones. 

Aviaries. 

The following animals and birds were presented or purchased at the Gardens 
this year : — 

One Orang Utan {Simla satyr us) presented by Lieut. KELSALL, R.A. 

One Wawa {Hylobates agilis) presented by Mr. W. Davison. 

One Black Monkey ( Semnopithecus niger) purchased. 

One Silver Monkey ( S. Phayrei ) purchased. 

One Common Monkey {Macacus sinensis) presented. 

Tw'o Marbled Cats ( Fells marmoratus). 

One Binturong ( Artictis binturong) presented by Mr. W. DUNMAN. 

One Sambur Deer (Rusa equina) presented by Mr. G. E. STEELE. 

One Kedjang (< dCervulus sp.) presented by Mr. W. Hutton. 

Three Mouse Deer ( Tragulus kanchil) purchased. 

One Large Mouse Deer ( T\ napu ) purchased. 

One Porcupine {Hystrix longicauda) presented by Professor VAUGHAN 

Stevens, 

Two Raffles’ Squirrels ( Sciurus Raffiesii) purchased. 

Two Common Squirrels {Sc. hippurus) caught. 

One Little Squirrel (5c. tenuis ) caught. 

One Galago ( Galeopithecus volans ) caught. 

Two Musangs ( Viverra malaccensis) one caught, one purchased. 

Two Slow Loris {Loris tardigrada) purchased. * 

One Honey Bear { Helarctos malayanus) presented by His Excellency Sir 

Cecil C. Smith, k.c.m.g. 

One Honey Bear (Bornean variety) presented by Mr. W. NANSON. 

One Manis and young ( Manis javanica ) purchased. 

Birds . 

One Eagle, {Aquila sp. ^presented by Mr. J. E. Clarke. 

One Javanese Jungle Cock {Gallus varius) purchased. 

Tw'o Small Green Parrots ( Loricula sp. ) purchased. 

Two Nicobar Pigeons (Caloenas nicobarica) presented. 

Two Wood Partridges {Rhizotheres longirostris) presented by Dr. MUG- 
liston. 

Reptiles. 


One Python curtus , presented by Mr. W. Davison. 

Two Python reticulatus , presented by Mr. S. DOWN, and Mr. CAULFIELD. 
Two Green Vipers, ( T rimer esurus Wagleri) caught. 



4 


There was a good deal of mortality among the animals this year, partly due to 
the excessive wet, which is very dangerous to birds during moulting, and due also to a 
certain amount of difficulty in getting a satisfactory aviary keeper in place of the 
former one who left during the strike of the coolies. The two greatest losses were the 
wild dog ( Cyon javanicus ), which there is reason to believe was poisoned, and 
the crowned pigeon, which died of an attack of diarrhoea. This bird had been 
over eleven years in the Gardens and was full grown when obtained. The large 
Orang-Utan, presented last year by Mr. NORMAN, also died of an attack of cholera, to 
which disease the anthropoid apes seem very subject. The whole of the aviaries 
were repaired and a new shed was made for, the mouse deer. 

Floiver Show . 

The Flower Show was held on March 25th and 26th, during the visit of H. R. H. the 
Duke of Connaught, who, with the Duchess, visited the exhibition on the evening of 
the first day. There were a larger number of exhibitors than on previous years, and 
in addition to the exhibits from Singapore, Johor, Penang and Malacca, a large series 
of fruit, rattans, coffee and other produce was sent down from Perak. The orchid 
exhibits were particularly noteworthy and the agricultural products were better than 
any that have been shown before. 

Experimental Garden. 

This garden, which was formerly under the Forest Department, is now transferred 
to the Gardens, which is a more satisfactory arrangement, as it had long ceased to 
be solely used as a nursery of forest trees, but during the last year it was kept as in 
former years. A small baird of men alone could be afforded out of the forest votes, 
and they were not able to do much more than keep the beds and walks clean, and 
do a small amount of propagation. The Lygodium and other climbing plants which 
were smothering the young trees in the nursery, were cleared off, and the whole 
ground cleared of unnecessary bushes and grass. The sugar canes, which had 
showed signs of suffering from Sereh-disease, were cut down and replanted in a 
different spot where they are thriving. 

A large number of cuttings of Dendrocalamus strictus were made and planted 
and seem to be doing well. There ts a great demand for this (the male bamboo), 
for lance handles for the cavalry and it seems to be increasingly, difficult to procure. 

' The plants in the Botanic Gardens seem to be of good quality, and if propagated on 
a large scale will be in all probability a profitable cultivation. 

The Para-Rubber trees continue to thrive in the damper spots, and those that are 
old enough to cut, produce a considerable quantity of rubber, which appears of good 
quality. Samples have been sent to England for analysis. If the quality is satisfactory, 
this plant wall be well worthy of cultivation in many spots of #amp waste land in which 
few other crops can be grown without great expense in draining. 

Treculia africana . — The African bread-fruit* fruited several times last year, which 
hitherto it has not done. The fruits were, however, perfectly worthless and quite un- 
eatable. 

The Maltese lemons fruited well, for the first time. The fruits were of good size 
and. flavour, but the soil is very poor at the place in which these trees are planted. 

The Figs also fruited again, but scantily. 

The Gayam (Inocarpus edulis) fruited more largely this year than in previous 
years. The seeds boiled resemble chestnuts and are very good to eat. 

Gambier . — The seed, sent out the previous year as described in last year’s report, 
and stated to have failed, I have since heard, were not by any means failures in all 
cases. The Royal Gardens, Kew, raised some hundreds of young plants which were 
carried to Jamaica by Mr. MORRIS, for introduction there. Young plants were also 
sent this year to Ceylon where they appear to be thriving. 

Renghas ( Gluta renghas ). — A large number (over a thousand) seeds of this plant 
were obtained from Pahang, by the aid of Mr. Belfield. The seeds germinated 
readily and a number of plants j-aised, which are being planted put .in the Forest 
Reserves. The timber is of very fine quality, but the poisonous resin which exudes 
from the tree when broken or cut makes it a difficult plant to handle, safely. 

Billion (Eusideroxylon Zwageri ). — A number of seeds were obtained from 
Borneo and planted. Hitherto seeds received have refused to germinate though tried 
in various ways and under various conditions, but of the last lot received, a number 
have germinated and become small but healthy looking plants, their growth is very 
slow, and, like other hard-shelled fruits, seem to be quite irregular in the time they take 
for germination. The seeds are very expensive owing to the great difficulty of 
obtaining them. 




5 


Professor Vaughan Stevens brought down to Singapore a number of plants 
used by the wild tribes in Kemaman for preparing the arrow poison — Ipoh. Some of 
these have been identified. They include two species of Strychnos (S.tieute) and 
another species, Gadong (Dioscorea dcemonum), Laportea crenulata (the fire-nettle), 
Cnesmone javanica, and two species of rattans. The different tribes use, some one, 
some others, of these plants in the preparation of the Ipoh, and some use no plants at 
all but certain portions of some of the poisonous fishes, but all use the juice of 
Antiaris toxicaria, yet it appears from samples of the juice of this plant sent to 
Kew that there is no poison at all in it: whether the samples forwarded to Kew de- 
teriorated on the way or whether the plant is only poisonous in combination with 
certain other substances remains to be seen. 

^ Vegetables. 

One hundred and thirty-nine (139) packets of vegetable seeds were received from 
the firm of Damann of Naples. They included different forms of most of the ordinary 
vegetables. The lettuces and radishes grew fairly well and were superior in flavour 
to the ordinary Chines^ kinds, but the latter were rather tough and hot. The dan- 
delion throve very well and makes 3 good salad plant besides being medicinal. The 
chicory has also grown very well and strong, and though very bitter would make a 
good addition to a salad. There is here always the difficulty of making these vegeta- 
bles set seed, and so continue their propagation. Without which even if they can be 
layered or reproduced by cutting, they sooner or later deteriorate. The pumpkins 
grew to large size, but it was found impossible to get them completely ripe, as they 
fell off just before ripening or, if supported, ceased to ripen and showed signs of decay. 
They were, however, very good but did not cook quite soft enough. The melons 
germinated well but the young plants were eaten down to the ground by crickets 
during the night. The ordinary vegetables so often tried here before were no better 
than in previous year. The tomatoes failed to fruit and the carrots, except the short- 
horn variety, were poor and stringy. 

Herbarium . 

A very large number of plants were added to the herbarium this year and the her- 
barium keeper was constantly employed in mounting them and they were arranged in 
the cabinets when done. In order to facilitate the drying of the specimens, a small and 
simply constructed drying-room was built on the outside of the office, which proved of 
the greatest success. It is heated when required by chatties full of charcoal placed on 
the ground, above them is a platforrfl of corrugated iron on which the specimens are 
laid to dry, the whole is enclosed with brick walls and roofed with wood, above which 
is a higher roof of tiles continuous with that of the office. Its use has saved a great deal 
of time, as the plants and other specimens dry much more rapidly than they otherwise 
would, and look better when done. Of herbarium specimens, an extensive series has 
been collected in Singapore by myself and by the Forest Overseer and watchmen, and 
collections have also been made in Johor, Pulau Tekong and Pulau Ubin. From 
Malacca, Mr. Derry sent in 290 specimens, and the Hon’ble D. F. A. Hervey 
presented about 100. During a fortnight’s expedition to Pahang, I obtained about 
600 plants from the district round Pekan, and Kwala. Pahang, among which were several 
new and rare species of interest. Dr. Haviland also sent some from the same 
region. In April and May a collector was employed in obtaining specimens in 
Selangor, along the new line from Kwala Lumpur. Mr. CURTIS went up first to ex- 
amine the place and start the collector and obtained a large number of plants, but the 
collector when left to himself was not very satisfactory. It seems to be very difficult 
to get a native collector who will work without European supervision. 

From Perak and India, Dr. King sent 584 named and mounted plants, chiefly from 
the- collection of Wray and ’SCORTECHINI, and Mr. Wray himself presented 7 speci- 
mens. 

From Kedah, Langkawi Islands, Perak and Penang, Mr. Curtis sent a large 
collection containing very many of interest. 

Dr. Keith presented 6 1 1 specimens from Siam. 

Mr. Gustave Mann sent a valuable collection of named ferns from Assam, in ex- 
change for a number of Straits ferns. 

Professor Vaughan Stevens sent a small number of specimens ’of the plants 
used in the manufacture of Ipoh arrow poison, by the Sakeis of Kemaman. 

From Borneo, Dr. Haviland sent 157 plants, and Mr. HULLETT 1 to. 

Through the kindness of Dr. BURCK of Buitenzorg Gardens, I obtained a good 
series (108) of specimens of the Dipterocarpea? and Sapotaceae of the Malay Archipe- 
lago, and three specimens of orchids pf interest. 


6 


Baron F. VON Mueller sent 446 plants from Australia in exchange for Straits 
plants. 

During a short visit to Christmas Island, I obtained a few specimens of the flora 
peculiar to that Island, and also a few at Angler Point in Java, including a new and 
curious species of Panicum. 

Of other botanical specimens, Mr. COCK, of Perak, presented a collection of pre- 
pared rattans, and a series of rattans was also obtained in the island of Singapore 
with the native names. 

Datoh Meldrum presented a number of specimens of .timber from the Johor 
Sawmills, and other specimens were collected as opportunity offered. 

The collections of guttas, resins, fruits, timbers, etc., formerly preserved in the 
Museum, are being transferred to the Gardens, where they will be of more use and 
available for study. £ 

It is still found very difficult to keep down mould in the collections, as there is no 
means of drying in the herbarium and office during heavy rains, and even specimens 
previously thoroughly dry often become mouldy on these occasions. 

Specimens were sent to Dr. King, Calcutta; the British Museum ; Baron F. VON 
Mueller (in exchange for Australian plants) ; Sir Joseph Hooker, Mr. C. B. 
Ci.arke, and Mr. Baker, at Kew, and Prof. Hackel, of St. Polten. 

Outside Work. m 

* « 

A large number of trees consisting of Pterocarpus indicus , Inga saman, Eugenia 
grandis and Poinciana regia were planted along the face of the Esplanade, where 
the ground has been enlarged. The Pterocarpi and Poinciana have grown well 
but the Eugenias for some reason have not been so successful. They were badly 
attacked by beetles at first but are now mostly recovering. 

In the Government House grounds the trees have been pruned, and additional 
ones planted, while a number of old and worthless ones have been removed. 

A rtist. 

In March, Mr. De Alwis arrived from Ceylon and was employed out of the vote 
f or the publication of the Malay Flora, in making drawings of the rarer and more 
interesting plants of the Peninsula. He executed seventy-eight highly finished and 
accurately coloured drawings. 

The Coco-nut Trees Preservation Ordinance. 

In the early part of the year an Ordinance was passed, the object of which was 
to prevent owners of coco-nut trees and others from permitting the beetles, so 
destructive to the coco-nut trees, to breed in their property, and to infect that of 
others. A report was published by myself in the Journal of the Asiatic Society in 
Singapore on the subject, and the outcome of this was the above-mentioned Ordinance. 
The greatest amount of injury inflicted on the cultivators was due to the small holders 
of a few trees to whom the destruction of these trees by beetles w r as of little moment 
and it was evident that steps were required to prevent these persons from inflicting 
injury on others. On the passing of the Ordinance, in July, a coco-nut trees inspector 
was employed at a salary of 15 dollars a month, who, with two coolies, inspected all 
the plantations of coco-nut trees, and all places where it was probable that there 
were accumulations of cow-dung, tan-bark or other refuse in which the coco-nut beetles 
might be breeding. In every case where trees were found badly infected and where 
old decaying stumps or rubbish suited for the development of the black beetle were 
found, notices were served upon the owners, requiring them to destroy this material 
at once. In almost every case the proprietors willingly complied, but at first it was 
found requisite to summons a number of persons who ignored the notices served on 
them. With the exception of one or two, all on receiving the summonses immediate- 
ly complied with the requirements, and were dismissed on paying the cost of the 
summonses. Since this it has been not found necessary to summons any one. 

During the year two hundred notices were served and 4,854 trees and stumps 
condemned to be destroyed and thirteen piles of rubbish, manure and tan bark to be 
removed. 

In most cases the timber of the trees was used as firewood, in some cases it was 
utilised by burying at a considerable depth to form a substratum for roads. Al- 
though it was understood that in cases of poverty the Government were prepared, 
on the explanation of the state of the case, to destroy the trees at its own expense, 
in no case did the owner plead that he was too poor to perform the work. 


7 


It is naturally difficult at first to see the effects of legislation in this matter, but 
there is little doubt but that the disease has received a check which could not other- 
wise have been brought about. In the Botanic Gardens, notably at one spot near 
the office, it was almost impossible to grow any palms at all. Those liable to attack 
were destroyed often within a day or two of their being planted; a small avenue of 
the rare and beautiful Verschaffeltia splendida by the aviary was perishing tree 
by tree, till the Act came into force. A large plantation near the Gardens, 
but not visible from it, together with a small number of trees in the Barrack- 
grounds, was cleaned, and the decaying trees removed, and the destruction 
rapidly c^minished. At the end of the year, many of the palms which had been 
attacked were no longer subject to the injuries by the beetles, and now it is rare to 
find any among the palms. I may mention, as showing the futility of merely trusting 
to coolies employed on a. plantation as beetle-killers, that on the plantation which did 
so much damage to the Botanic Gardens, there were two, and sometimes three coolies 
employed only in keeping the trees clean of beetles, yet it was in as bad a state as • 
almost any neglected one in Singapore. 

In looking over the whole results of the passing of the Ordinance, I believe that 
a very large amount of benefit has accrued to the Colony at a very small cost and 
without any friction. 

Expenditure . 


$ c. 


$ c - 

Salaries, . . 131-44 

Transport, ... . . 33-84 

Removal of dead trees, 5.00 

Grant, 

35°- 00 

Uniforms, ... 24.00 

$ 194.28 


• 


Plants and seeds were received during the year from the following contributors 

Plants. Seeds. 


Royal Gardens, Kew, 


Do., 

Ceylon, 

Trinidad, 

••• 53 

Do., 

15 

Do., 

British Guiana, 


Do., 

Mauritius, 


Do., 

Adelaide, 

... * * . 

Do., 

Hongkong, 

34 

Do., 

Saigon, . . 

58 

Do., 

Saharunpor, 

6 

Do., 

Buitenzorg, .... 

i53 

Do., 

Port Darwin, .. 

22 

Do., 

Melbourne, 


Do., 

Hainan, 


Do., 

Bangalore, 

... * . . 


* j 7 1 

Baron von Mueller, Melbourne, ... 
Messrs. Veitch & Son, London, ... 

,, Sander, St. Albans, 

,, Paul &‘Son* England, ... 

,, Canned & Son, England, 

,, Damman & Co., Italy, 

,, Reasoner Bros., Florida, U. S. A., 

Mr. Johnston, Sierra Leone, 

Mr. C. Laurie, Ceylon, 

Dr. Keith, Siam, 

Messrs. Chatterjee, Calcutta, 

Mr. Peter McClean, Brisbane, 

Mr. Gustav Mann, Assam, 

Mr. Peche, Moulmein, 

Rt. Revd. Bishop Hose, Borneo,... 

Mr. Robelin, Singapore, 

Mr. Ravensway, do., 

Mr. McCan, West Coast Africa, ... 

Mr.' Venning, Selangor, 


105 


79 

l 7 

52 

59 


61 

40 

150 

20 
1 18 
40 

25 

50 

12 


16 

3 

2 

22 

2 

9 

18 

9 

1 

26 

37 

16 

24 

1 

2 

5 

27 


82 

l 39 

1 

48 


packets, 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. * 
do. 
lbs. 

packets. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 


8 


t 


Plants. Seeds. 


H. E. the Governor, Malacca, 

* . ■ 

1 

packet. 

H. E. the Acting Governor, Singapore, 

i 


do. 

Mrs. Barugh, Singapore, 


2 

do. 

Mr. Wray, Perak, 

. . . 

1 

do. 

Mr. Belfield, Pahang, 


10 

sacks. 

Mr. E. Koek, Singapore, 

. . . 

5 packets. 

Mr. J. Purvis, do., 

. . . 

12 

do. 

The Hon’ble E. E. Isemonger, Singapore, . . 

2 

. ■ i ■ 

do. 

Mr. Balfour Lees, do., 

I 


do. 

Prof. Vaughan Stevens, Tringganu, 

34 

6 

do. 

The Hon'ble D. F. A. Hervey, Malacca, 

. . . 

1 

do. 

Mr. W. Nanson, Singapore, 

12 


do. 

Mr. R. W. Hullett, do.. 

3* 


do. 

Mr. Hilty, do., 

32 


do. 

Dr. Leask, do., 

1 


do. 

Mr. Pryer, Borneo, ... 

. 

1 

do. 

Mr. Justice Goldney,... 


i 

do. 


Plants and seeds were distributed to the following recipients : — 


Royal Gardens, Kew, 

Plants. 

63 

Seeds. 

9 packets. 

Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, 

80 

IO 

do. 

Do., Trinidad, 

24 

12 

do. 

Do., Jamaica, 

1 

do. 

Do., Mauritius, 

•• * * * 

13 

do. 

Do., British Guiana, . . . 

20 

11 

do. 

Do., * Ceylon, 

Do., Hongkong, 

129 

1 1 

do. 

80 

10 

do. 

Do., Manila, 

33 


do. 

Do., Saigon, 

4b 

. . . 

do. 

Do., St. Petersburg, .. 

3b 


do. 

Do., Port Darwin, ... 

14 

12 

do. 

Do., Sydney, 


3 

do. 

Do., Durban, 


10 

do. 

Do., Bangalore, 


10 

do. 

Do., Adelaide, 

. . . 

1 1 

do. 

Do., Buitenzorg, 

25 


do. 

Do., Saharunpor, 

. . . 

2 

do. 

Do,- Melbourne, 


13 

do. 

Baron von Mueller, Melbourne, ... 


2 

do. 

Under Secretary for Agriculture, Brisbane, ... 


9. 

do. 

Rt. Rev. Bishop Hose, Borneo, . „ 

13 


do. 

Mr. A. Ross, Christmas Island, 

80 


do. 

Colonial Secretary, Sandakan, 

86 

2 

do. 

Dr. Collier, America, ... 


3 

do. 

Professor Lawson. Madras, 

Mr. F. Griffith, Nilgiris, 

l 7 


do. 

26 


do. 

Mr. Huxley, Ceylon, 

52 

. * . 

do. 

Messrs. A. L. Johnston & Co., Pahang, 


6 

do. 

„ Reasoner Bros., Florida, ... 


3 

do. 

„ Dammann, Italy, 


36 

do. 

„ Veitch, London, 

9 


do. 

„ Bull, „ 

265 


do. 

,, Sander „ 

270 


do. 

,, Williams, „ 

3 1 

* . . 

do. 

„ Williams Bros., Ceylon, ... 

12 

. , . 

do. 

Professor D. Scott, Glasgow, 


I 

do. 

Mr. F. McCan, W. Africa, 

*7 


do. 

Mr. E. Koek, Singapore, 

14 


do. 

Mr. Ravensway, Singapore, 

270 


do. 

Mr. Justice Goldney, ,, 

2 


do. 

His Excellency the Governor, Singapore, 

5b 


do. • 

Mr. G. Peche, Moulmein, 

105 


do. 

Mr. Venning, Selangor, 

50 


do. 

Supt. Education, Penang, 

120 


do. 

„ ,, Malacca, 

34 


do* 


9 


Library. 

The following books have been added to the Library during the year: — 

Gardener’s Chronicle from 1866 to 1877, purchased. 

Fluckiger & Hanbury. — “ Pharmacopoea,” purchased. 

WALLICH. — “ Magnoliaeeae,” purchased. 

King, Dr. — “ Artocarpeae and Quercus,” 

Kurz. — “ Flora of the Andamans,” [-presented by Dr. King. 

(< Flora of British Burmah,” J 

Watt. — “ Dictionary of Indian Products,” purchased. 

Filet. — “ Planlkundig Woordenboek,” purchased. 

Veitch. — “O rchidaceous Plants,” Part V and Part VI, purchased. 

Williams. — “Orchid Album,” Part 101, purchased. 

Beccari. — “ Malesia,” Vol. Ill, Part V, purchased. 

MlQUEL. — Systema Piperacearum,” purchased. 

• “ Observationes de Piperaceis et Melastomaceis,” purchased. 

“ Mantissa Piperacearum,” purchased. 

Griffith. — “ Indian Balanophorae,” purchased. 

Kurz. — “ Preliminary Forest Report of Pegu,” purchased. 

Labillardiere. — “ Memo ire sur deux esp&ces de Litchi cultiv^es dans les 
Moluques,” purchased. 

Reinwardt. — “ Plantse Indiae Batavise,” Fasc. I and II, purchased. 

Wight. — “ Indian Botany,” Vols. I and II, purchased, 

— Illustrations of Indian Botany,” purchased. 

“ Do. do., Supplement,” purchased. 

Marshall-Ward. — “D iseases of Timber Trees,” purchased. 

Junghuhn. — “ Uber Javansche Balanophoreen,” purchased. 

ZOLLINGER.— Systematisches Verzeichniss,” purchased. 

HOOKER.— “ leones Plantarum,” Vol. XI, Part I, 3rd Series, presented by the 
Bentham Trustees. 

Dana,J. D. — “ The American Journal of Science,” Vol. 37, No. 218, presented. 
Treub, Dr. — Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg,” Vol. 

VIII, 2nd part, >- presented. 

Do. do., Vol. IX, 1st part, ) 

Wood Medley . — u Catalogue of Plants in the Natal Botanic Gardens, Durban,” 
presented. 

ROSCOE. — “ Monandrian Plants,” purchased. 

HORANINOW. — “Prodromus Monographic Scitaminearum,” IV, 1862, purchased. 
BROVSMICHE, Ed. — E tude sur la creation d’un Jardin d’acclimatation au Tonkin,” 
presented. 

Kruger, D. W— “ Berichte der Versuchsstation fur Zuckerrohr in West Java,” 
presented. 

• BOERLAGE. — “ Flora van Nederland Indie,” Part II, purchased. 

KING, Dr. — “ Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula,” No. 2, presented. 
Baker. — “ Handbook of the Bromeliacec,” purchased. 

Ridley.— -“O n the method of Fertilization in Bulbophyllum Macranthum and allied 
Orchids,” presented. 

MUNSON.— “ Classification and Generic Synopsis of the wild Grapes of North 
America,” presented. 

“ List of Chinese Medicines,” Nos. 8 and 17, purchased. 

GRESHOFF. — “ Neededeelingen ’S Lands’ Plantentuin,” VII, presented. 

“ Verslag ’S Lands Plantentuin te Buitenzorg,” 1889, presented. 

FAWCETT. — “ Bulletin of the Botanical Department, Jamaica — Fibres,” presented. 
Regel, Dr. — “ Acta Horti Petropolitani,” Vol. XI, fasc. I, presented. 

Riley & Howard.— “ Insect Life,” Vol. 2, Nos. 7, 8 and 9, presented. 
Whitehead. — ■“ 1 hird Annual Report on Insects and Fungi injurious to the crops 
of the farm, the orchard and the garden,” 1889, presented. 

Prain, Dr. — “Directions for drying specimens of plants for a herbarium,”, 
presented. 

The annual Reports of the following Gardens have been received: — Hongkong, 
Ceylon, Calcutta, Trinidad, British Guiana, Jamaica, Adelaide; also the 
Gardener's Chronicle, Journal of Botany, Linnean Society’s Journal, Tropical 
Agriculturist, Chemist and Druggist, Indian Forester, Botanical Magazine, 
Florida Despatch, Illustration Horucole, Orchid Album. 


# 


IO 


BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 
Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the year iSgo . 


Receipts. 


Government Grant, 
Sale of Plants 
Flowers, 
Interest, 


Expenditure. 


$ c. 

Salaries. 

$ c. 


789 90 

Herbarium Keeper, 

180 oc 

) 

8,500 00 

Chief Mandor, 

174 oc 


1 

Carpenter, 

167 oc 

> 

559 54 

Assistant Carpenter, 

82 oc 

> 

35 34 

Printer, (label), 

120 OC 



Assistant Printer, do., 

55 4C 



Peon, 

87 oc 



Aviary-keeper, 

76 2C 



Mason, 

120 20 



Garden Police, 

283 og 



Coolies, 

3-049 99 



Bills. 


4.394 97 


Purchase of Plants and 




Seeds, 

560 71 



Manure and Cartage, 

265 58 



Wood for construction pur- 

1 



poses, . . 

164 03 



Food for Birds, etc., 

494 01 



Tools and Stores, 

778 ' 19 



Flower pots and tubs, 

364 3P 



Botanical Books, 

178 09 



Late rite, 

764 90 



Repairs to Buildings, 

472 ‘87 



Inspector of Police, 

47 40 



Coral Stone for Rockwork, 

13889 



Director’s Petty Expenses, 

378 80 



Assistant Superintendent’s 




Petty Expenses, 

179 98 



Wardian cases and plant 




cabinets, 

159 00 



Rent of Quarters for Man- 




dore, 

63 00 



Miscellaneous, 

3 l6 4° 

S 3 7 * ' 




9,026 15 




r 

9,720 12 


Balance, 


73 4&. 

$9,884 78 



$9,884 78 


REPORT OF THE FOREST DEPARTMENT OF SINGAPORE. 

'Area. 

The total area of the Forest Reserves now in Singapore is 14,518 acres, 2 roods, 
23 poles. This gives an increase of 1,553 acres, 1 rood, and 23 poles over that in 
last year’s report. This is due to a revised survey completed this year and to the 
addition of a small patch of good virgin jungle and a little mangrove swamp at 
Toas and Tengek river. 

Boundaries. 

The boundaries are now completed and are kept clear of lalang and fern, and the 
stream and swamps bridged. They have been constantly inspected by myself and 
by the Forest Overseer. 

Forest Watchmen. 

The total number of Forest Watchmen employed was twenty-three ; comprising 
*i Corporal, 5 Lance-Corporals and seventeen men. All worked well, and there were 
no complaints against them. They were supplied with uniforms during the year. 


% 


Buildings, &r'c. 

Five new Forest Stations have been built or re-built at a cost of $25 each. 
Two new boats were purchased in December, one for the Changi Reserve, the other 
for the Jurong and Pandan Reserve. 

Farming. 

The experiment of letting the few still existing cultivated encroachments on 
the plan adopted by the Dutch in Java, has met with a certain amount of success. 
The lessee receives the crops at a fair rent, undertaking to protect and cultivate 
the young timber trees planted among the crops and to keep the whole free of 
lalang and fern, so that after the lapse of a few years, the ground formerly covered 
with crops of pepper or gambier is covered with timber trees, at a very small cost to 
the Government. If when an encroachment is found the crops are merely destroyed, 
the ground would speedily be covered with lalang and it would be expensive work 
to clear it again for planting. The lessee of the crops keeps this down for the 
benefit of his cultivation, and at the same time manures the plants to a certain 
extent, the advantag*es of which are reaped by the young trees. 

The Dutch in Java, I am informed, have adopted this plan to a very large extent, 
all the land which is let by the Government to cultivators, is let on these terms, and 
it might be worth while, when opening up new country in the Peninsula, to planters 
to ensure a future supply of timber by adopting this plan on a large scale. 

By the letting of cultivated encroachments and the sale of produce, a revenue of 
$142 was obtained as staffed below : — 


Gambier encroachment, Bukit Mandi, let for . $15 

Two pepper encroachments, ,, „ .60 

Durian trees, Bukit Mandi, crops let, . . .. . . 5 

„ Forest Nursery, , „ ... .. 7 

„ Bukit Timah, „ . . . .50 

Lalang, three acres, let, ,, . ... . . 3 

Sale of pepper from small encroachment. ... ... 2 


$ ! 4 2 

Planting. 

At Chan Chu Kang a batch of eight coolies was employed in planting ten acres of 
waste ground with Renghas seedlings ( Gluta Renghas), and two men planted two acres 
of th<? same seedlings at Bukit Mandai. In both places the seedlings are very healthy 
and strong and growing well. The timber of Renghas is very valuable as it is hard 
and of a fine red colour, like mahogany, but the very poisonous black resin which 
exudes from the tree when cut makes it difficult to work. A fire-guard has been 
commenced along the edge of the Bukit Mandai Reserve, at the 12th mile on the 
Kranji Road, and a large number of seedlings of various trees have been planted. 
There is a large tract of lalang here which abuts on the main road, which has been 
fired more than once by passers-by, so it was found necessary to clear this and plant 
it with trees in order to prevent this occurring again. 

There is still a good deal of difficulty in getting seeds of the better class of tim- 
bers. Many of the trees rarely fruit, and of some such as kranji (Dialium indicum) , 
tampenis ( Slaetia ) and oaks and chestnuts, as well as the Gutta gfips ( Willoughbeia ), 
the fruits are devoured by the monkeys before they are ripe. Again, in Singa- 
pore and other accessible places, almost all the valuable timber trees have been in 
past time so extirpated that it is difficult to find now any old enough to give fruit. 
Consequently it is necessary to procure seeds from far distances, from country less 
opened up, as Pahang. 

Fires. 

The total number of fires which occurred this year within the reserves 
was 12, one at Jurong burnt down three acres of lalang, another at Pandan antj 
Jurong destroyed about 30 acres of lalang and brushwood. At Bukit Timah some 
brushwood and some newly planted seed lines were burnt. At Seletar about 30 acres 
and at Ang Mo Kio about 70 acres and at Bukit Panjang, Chan Chu Kang, Kranji 
and at Bukit Mandi smaller patches were burnt, all consisting of grass fires, with 
which in some cases small trees and bushes were destroyed. The rapid and easy 
ignition of grass on hot days, makes it exceedingly difficult to detect the offenders 
or to prevent the destruction. 


12 


Prosecutions. 

There were nineteen prosecutions in all instituted in the year, for cutting and 
removing timber from the reserves; of these, two were withdrawn, and in seventeen 
cases the persons arrested were convicted and fines to the amount of *$451 inflicted, 
of which $76 was paid. 

Expenditure for 18 go. 


Vote, 

$>4,000.00 

Salaries, 

13,044.22 

Buildings, . ... 

• ... 125.00 

Boats, 

55 °° 

Uniforms, ... 

161.00 

Miscellaneous, 

473 -n 

# 3 > 858-33 
Balance, . 141.67 

Total,. . .$>^,000.00 

H. N. RIDLEY, 


Director of Gardens and Forests , S.S. 


APPENDIX A. 

GARDENS AND FOREST DEPARTMENT*PENANG. 

Mr. C. Curtis, the Assistant Superintendent of Forests, reports as follows : — 

Forest Reserves. 

The reserved Forests in this Settlement being mainly on hill ranges in situa- 
tions where the working of timber is, for the present, undesirable, and planting to 
any great extent unnecessary, the principal duties of the department consist in pro- 
tecting these areas from the encroachment of timber cutters, squatters and fire ; 
and this has been satisfactorily performed during the year. 

2. Fifty prosecutions for cutting timber, and threfe for setting fire to Crown 
forest, were instituted, and fines to the amount of §360 imposed on the offenders. 

3. Confiscated jungle produce in connection with the above cases sold for $41. 18, 
which was duly paid in to revenue account. 

4. One mile of new boundary line and inspection paths have been opened and 
thirty miles of old boundaries re-cleared, at a cost -of $358. 

5. In order to keep a better watch on the Island of Pulau Jerejak, declared 
Reserved Forest in 1889, it w'as found necessary to purchase a native boat for the use 
of guards stationed there, as this and the north-west reserve, which includes the 
point on which Muka Head light is built, will, if properly protected, prove future 
sources of revenue. 

6. The present timber supply is principally derived from the Dindings and Na- 
tive States, and so long as it is maintained at its present point there is no necessity to 
draw on the small, and until recently over-worked, forest in Penang. 

7. Much additional information as to the composition of the Forest Flora has 
been collected, a great number of specimens added to the herbarium, and upwards 
of two thousand specimens distributed. Dr. King, in parts 1 and 2 of his “ Materials 
for a Malayan Flora,” has described several new trees from Penang. 

8. The small, herbarium of Penang plants, consisting of about three thousand 
sheets, on which practically nothing had hitherto been spent, has been mounted on 
white paper of the same size and quality as that used in Singapore and the whole 
systematically arranged in six cabinets at a total cost of $201. iu. 

9. A catalogue of these, with the addition of those mentioned in the Flora of 
British India as having been collected in Penang by former collectors, but which are 




*3 


not in this collection, has been compiled, and will, it is hoped, stimulate local Bota- 
nists to hunt for the missing ones, several of which are but imperfectly represented 
in any existing herbarium. 

Waterfall Garden . 

io. As in previous years the* supervision of this garden occupied the greater 
portion of the Assistant Superintendent’s time and it is satisfactory to note that (un- 
like most things in Penang) there is, year by year, an increased interest taken in its 
progress. 

. ii. Owing to the unusually heavy rainfall the general work of maintenance, 
especially of roads and paths, absorbed a larger amount of labour than usual, and in 
• addition to this two land-slips in the steepest part of the grounds occupied all hands 
many days in repairing the damage ; on the whole a fair state of efficiency has been 
maintained and a considerable number of new works and improvements carried out 
by the garden staff, as detailed below. 

12. Want of space in which to grow the rapidly increasing collection of plants 
necessitated the erection of an additional plant shed in the nursery, mainly for the 
cultivation of palms; this is a span roofed shed, 120 by 20 feet, the supports being 
hardwood scantling 5.6 inches in diameter, and the roof of Bertam chicks painted green. 

13. To provide for a want that has often been pointed out by visitors a sum- 
mer house capable of sheltering from rain or sun twenty or more persons has been 
put up near the band-stand, where it will be equally useful on band nights. The 
back and sides of this are built of rough rock-work and planted with a variety of 
ferns and other ornamental plants. 

14. The construction of a new cascade in the main stream is not only an addi- 
tional feature of interest but serves to check the rapid wearing away of the banks on 
either side which has been going on for years. 

15. A dam, fifty feet long thrown across the entrance to an old stone quarry in a 
secluded part of the garden, forms an excellent swimming bath, sixty-eight feet’ long 
by fifty-six in breadth, with an average depth of about five feet, and also supplies the 
plant sheds with water. At a meeting of the Garden Committee it was decided that 
a caretaker be placed in charge and that an annual subscription fee of one dollar be 
charged to residents and ten cents fbr each visit to strangers ; and although the dress- 
ing shed was not quite finished on the 31st December, residents commenced using it 
and up to the present (January 10th) more than one hundred have notified their inten- 
tion of subscribing. 

16. One of the old sheds in the nursery which was in a bad state has been re-built 
and the beds on which the plants are set built of rough stone. There is now no wooden 
staying remaining in this garden. 

17. The large plant shed near the entrance, the interior of which is built of 
rock-work and planted with a great variety of ornamental plants, has been re-roofed 
with jungle rollers and “ chicks.” The doing this without damaging the specimen plants 
was a matter of some difficulty, and I would again point out the desirability of “p 
iron being substituted for wood in the construction of plant sheds. Under the 
present system of temporary wood structures, plants barely attain to perfection before 
some portion of the buildiVg requires repair, in effecting which more or less damage 
is always done. 

18. Two small bridges on the main circular drive originally built of wood have 
been permamently replaced by granite slabs, so that there now remains but the con- 
struction of new bridge over the main stream, for which provision is made in the Esti- 
mates for the current year to complete this portion of the grounds. 

19. The side drains in the steeper parts of the garden are much damaged every 
year by heavy rains, and a commencement in the direction of remedying this has been 
made by constructing about seven hundred lineal feet in stone and cem'ent, with the 
intention of continuing this as labour can be spared for the purpose. 

20. Sloping, turfing and planting four acres of steep land on the north-west 
side, the clearing of which had been commenced in 1889, has been completed, and 





the carriage road at the base made up and metalled, 

21. The dense jungle in the ravine adjoining the plant nursery and extendin 
parallel with the road to the garden bungalow has been thinned out and planted with 
variety of plants suited to the various exposures, whereby the appearance of this por- 
tion of the grounds has been greatly improved. 1 regret to say that wild pigs did 
much damage not only here but in other parts of' the garden, especially to aroids. 

• 

22. Clumps of palms and other ornamental trees have been planted in various 
portions of the garden, most of which had ‘been grown to a moderate size in pots, 
but the soil is such that I fear there is little probability of this garden ever possessing 
such magnificent specimens as are to be found in some other botanical gardens and 1 
have, therefore, aimed rather at devoloping it in another direction. A group of tree # 
ferns collected in Perak and Selangor have been planted in partial shade by the stream 
near upper bridge and are doing well. These are the only two species I have 
observed growing in full sun at or near sea-level. 

23. . Several plants of great interest flowered in the grounds and plant sheds 
during the year, the South American orchids such as Cattleya, Anguloa, Peristeria , 
&c., specially attracting the attention of local orchid growers whose acquaintance 
with the order is principally confined to kinds obtainable in the Malayan Islands and 
the Peninsula. The interesting Calanthei rom Langkawi recently described by Mr. 
Ridley, under the name of C. rubens flowered abundantly, as did also a new Impa- 
tient from the same Island, but the latter has only one or two flowers open at a 
time. Plants were sent to Kew where it has recently flowered and been figured for 
the Botanical Magazine. 

24. Although there has been during the whole year a number of more or less 
interesting plants to attract the attention of visitors, the finest show was Calanthe 
vestita and Limatodes rosea , of which about two hundred were in bloom at one time. 
Beautiful flowers are so much more difficult to obtain in this climate than fine foliage, 
and so many inquiries have been made as to the cultivation of this orchid that it may 
not be amiss to mention the system adopted. The most important point to be 
observed is to give the plants a long rest after flowering. From the time the flowers 
are fully open until the plant show signs of commencing to grow again, a period of 
about three months, not a drop of water is necessary. As soon as the growths are 
from half to three-quarters of an inch long they should be shaken out of the old soil 
and repotted in a mixture of leaf-mould, broke'n bricks, chopped moss and cow 
manure, and water applied sparingly until the pseudo bulb begins to swell, when 
more liberal watering, and even manure water is beneficial. 

25. The labelling of plants in pots with indestructible zinc labels, a work much * 
needed but one that had to be postponed from time to time on account of more press- 
ing matters, has at length been commenced and will, I hope, be pushed on during the 
current year. 

26. Two performances by the Austro-Hungarian band were given on moon- 
light nights in the beginning of the year when the grounds were illuminated with Chinese 
lanterns, the cost of which as well as the band was provided by subscription. 

27. Arrangements were made for the reception of His Royal Highness the Duke 
of CONNAUGHT by erecting triumphal arches at the entrance to the garden, &c., but 
unfortunately His Royal Highness did not arrive in Penang until evening and pro- 
ceeded to Singapore the same night. 


28. I regret to say that theft of plants has been by no means uncommon and 
although three persons were arrested and punished for removing plants of no great 
value, in the more important cases no arrests were made. 

29. The revenue from sale of plants increased from $75 in 1889 to $220.08 
in 1890, and there is every probability of this sum being exceeded during the current 
year. 

30. The total expenditure in connection with this garden, including new works 
and improvements, the more important only of which have been referred to, amounts 
to $5,494.51 as shown in the statement of expenditure annexed. 




i5 

Government Hill Gardens. 

31. The removal of coolies from the Experimental Nursery in 1889 proved 
beneficial, there being now very few cases of fever as compared with previous years. 
The appointment of Mr. O’Keeffe as Overseer has not, however, resulted in improve- 
ments to the extent anticipated; and in saying this I do not in any way reflect on 
Mr. O’Keeffe, who is, in many respects, an excellent man but lacking the practical 
knowledge of gardening that can only be acquired by long experience where plants 
and vegetable^ are well grown. Nothing less than a good practical working gar- 
dener will bring these gardens to the point they are capable of attaining. • 

32. Mr. O’Keeffe reports, and my own weekly visits confirm his opinion, that 
the Chinaman in the vegetable garden have worked well, and the result has been a 
constant and fairly good supply of such European things as carrots, lettuce, celery, 
&c., as well as some of the best native kinds, so that occupants of the bungalow have 
never been short, while a fortnightly supply was, for some months, sent to Singapore. 

33. Rose beds have from time to time been lightly pruned and manure applied 
about every two months, and the supply of blooms constant throughout the year. In 
this climate where there is neither a cold nor a dry season to induce rest, these and 
many other plants, natives of more temperate regions, wear out rapidly, and can only 
be kept up by frequently renewing the stock. 

34. Owing to the presence of a great number of workmen and litter of material 
consequent on ^construction of new wing to Government Bungalow, the grounds 
and flower beds have not been so neatly kept as would otherwise have been the case. 
The formation of tennis court and many improvements in connection with this part 
of the grounds will fall into another year’s work. 

35. Since the removal of pot plants, &c. from Experimental Nursery to top of 
Government Hill, on account of severe and frequent attacks of fever among the men 
employed, the cultivation of fruit trees is the most important work in this nursery. These 
have been cleaned, pruned and manured twice with cow manure, burnt earth and 
bone dust. A few of the lemons and oranges introduced from Malta and Australia 

• have borne fruit, but the quality, so far, is indifferent. Olives are looking healthy, but 
show no sign of fruiting. Avocado peax grows luxuriantly and should commence 
bearing soon. Peaches grow well, but this year there has not been a single fruit, 
owing, I think, to tHe excessive rainfall, amounting to about 160 inches for the year. 

Coco-nut Trees. 

36. In October, Mr. Xavier was appointed Inspector under the Ordinance for 
Preservation of Coco-nut Trees, and although but few prosecutions have yet been 
instituted, a great number of dead trees and rubbish likely to prove breeding places 
have been destroyed. It is satisfactory to find that the majority are inclined to 
comply with the terms of the Ordinance and only ask for more time, but there are, as 
might be expected, some whom it will be necessary to compel to perform the work. 

% 37. The greater number of dead and badly affected trees belong to small own- 

ers, while the "large estate containing tens of thousands have scarcely a bad free. 
This is attributable to two causes, first the greater care and attention bestowed, and 
second the absence of suitable breeding places when at some distance from human 
habitations. 

38. The Inspector has gone over the whole of Penang Island and compiled a 
list of owners arid the number of dead or affected trees belonging to each, the ap- 
proximate total number being about 3,000. 


39. The total number of healthy trees in full bearing is approximately 2,852,000 ; 
and the lowest estimate of value I have had from a competent judge is thirty cents 
per annum per tree, while in certain places one dollar is not considered too high. 
Taking the lowest figure for the basis of an estimate the annual crop of Penang Is- 
land alone’is worth $8,556 without taking into consideration Province Wellesley 
which has not yet been •estimated. 


"M 


1 6 


General. 

• 

40. Excursions to Selangor, Perak and Langkawi Islands, for the purpose of 
collecting herbarium specimens and plants for garden cultivation, &c., have been un- 
dertaken ; the three trips occupying twenty-nine days. A large number of both 
living and dried plants were obtained on each occasion and the latter have been dis- 
tributed to the Botanic Gardens of Singapore, Calcutta, Kew, &c., only one set being 
preserved for reference in Penang. Many interesting Gesneriaceee and other plants, 
both living.and dried, were collected in Langkawi, some of, which ap # pear to be new, 
but owing to other duties it was not possible to find time to arrange the dried spe- 
cimens for distribution until near close of the year, and the living plants were not 
sufficiently established to travel. 

Langkawi is a delightful place and the botanical collector who is fortunate enough 
to visit these Islands at the most favourable season will reap a rich harvest. The most 
intelligent natives say that the large trees flower during the dry season, which is, no 
doubt, true, but I suspect, as in Penang, good flowering season only occur at intervals 
of from three to five years or more. I noticed on one of the smaller islands a gigantic 
Bassia, and on Gunong Raya the natives quickly collected a quantity of dammar for 
torches from a species of Dipterocarpus ; but in both cases the specimens are too 
imperfect for determination. 

41. At the request of the Director specimens of gutta were forwarded from the- 
Dindings, and subsequently efforts were made to obtain a supply of seeds for planting, 
without success. The kind of which seeds are particularly wanted is Payena Leerii , 
known as “ Getah Sundek.” It appears to be a free flowering tree, but seeds are 
difficult to obtain and the only one I have ever seen was -kindly sent me by Mr. L. 
Wray of the Perak Museum. There is a species closely allied to this in Penang, 
which I have carefully watched for two seasons, and although flowers were abundant 
not a single fruit formed. 

• 

42. The planting community in Province Wellesley haying shown considerable 
interest in the raising of sugar cane from seed, two considerable sowings in boxes and 
pots in various situations were made, but a very small germinated, I should say one in 
millions ; and several of these have since dried off. 

43. Liberian coffee planted at Kubang Ulu in the nursery y^here it has received 
no particular attention has done well and is undoubtedly a ’cultivation that would pay 
on some of the land in that district now laying waste; one thousand young plants, 
have been distributed free to natives who made application for them. 

44. The usual interchange of plants and seeds has been continued, the number 
of plants received being 1,264 and seeds 64 packets; while the numbers distributed 
are plant 6,213 an d seeds 10 packets. 

Thanks are herewith tendered to correspondents who have so kindly contributed 
plants and seeds to the Gardens. 



J 7 


Revenue and Expenditure % of the Gardens and Forest Department > 

Penang , /c?po. 


j > : tfg r ~ 

REVENUE, . 

EXPENDITURE. 

% 

Salaries of Establishment. 

1 r. 

- 

Assistant Superintendent, ... 

1,800 00 

• 

Overseer, Hill Gardens, 

600 00 


Overseer, Waterfall Gardens, 

360 00 


Sergeant of Forest Guards, 

360 00 

- 

$ 

3,120 00 

. r 

Salaries of Forest Guards, ... 

625 80 


Maintenance of Kubang Ulu Nursery and 



Reserve, 

284 99 

« , ■ * 

Office Assistant and Messenger, 

202 33 


Maintenance of Boundary Lines, 

358 00 


Purchase of Sampan, 

23 00 

Government Grant-Main- 

Removing Timber, 

8 ^0 

tenance of Forest Reserves, 

Oil for Forest Stations, 

13 80 

$2,400. 

Rent of Temporary Quarters, 

6 00 


Freight on Plant Cases, 

14 00 


Manure for Nursery, 

.12 00 

• 

I 

Collecting Botanical Specimens, 

60 14 


Materials for Herbarium, . . . 

201 10 

• 

Miscellaneous,... 

52 94 

' 

• 

1,864 


Balance,... 

535 40 

« ♦ ’ * 

$ 

2,400 00 


Salaries of Gardeners and Coolies, 

2,923 26 

1 

Purchase of Plants, 

74 38 


»■ „ Pots, 

5 8 36 

* 

Freights, 

10 30 


Cartage, 

17 50 


Material for repairing Plant Shed, 

95 22 

Government Grant-Main- 

,, new Plant Shed, 

156 36 

tenance of Waterfall Gardens,* 

„ „ Swimming Bath (part), ... 

3 1 65 

$4,000. 

,, ,, new Potting Shed, 

50 91 


Granite for permanent Bridge, 

107 01 

. 

Material for new Summer House and 


• 

Shelter, 

43 8 3 


Tools and Miscellaneous Materials, 

320 93 

1 t * 

Petty Expenses. 

98 30 


Miscellaneous, 

9 26 

t 

• - 



* 

3>996 97 


Balance,... 

3 03 

i 

$ 

4,000 00 


• 

— ► 


’■t 


Revenue and Expenditure of the Gardens and Forest Depart?nent, 

Penang , i8go , — Continued. 


REVENUE. 

EXPENDITURE. 

Laying out Waterfall Gar- 
den, $1,500. * 

Salaries, 

Cartage, 

Manure, 

Material for Dam, 

„ „ Bridge Rail,, 

$ c. 
U090 33 
162 45 
42 80 
129 19 
72 77 


Balance, . . . 

U497 54 
2 46 



$1,500 00 

/ 

Maintenance of Grounds of 
Government Bungalow and < 
Experimental Nursery, $2,000. 

Salaries, 

Manure, 

Seeds, 

Tools and Materials, 

Miscellaneous, 

U663 75 
253 43 
13 57 
66 76 

1 89 


Balance, . . . 

G999 40 

0 60 



$2,000 00 

Travelling and Personal Al-^ 1 
lowance, $850. 

Pony Allowance, 

Transport and Field Allowance, t ... 
Expenses in connection with Botanical 
Tours in Selangorj 

Do. do. in Perak, 

Do. do. in Langkawi, 

Do. do. Visit to Singapore on 
duty, 

432 00 
21 36 

126 43 
58 78 
89 60* 

7 1 43 


Balance, . . . 

799 60 
50 40 

Expenses in connection withT 
carrying out Ordinance for f 
Preservation of Coco-nut f 
Trees, $350. J 


$850 00 

Salaries from 1st Oct. to 31st December, 
Transport, &c., 

129 31 
30 50 

Balance,. . . 

159 81 
190 19 



$350 00 


Total Expenditure for the year, 

$1 3.43 7 92 


C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintended of Gardens and Forests, Penang, 


.APPENDIX B. 

GARDENS AND FOREST DEPARTMENT, MALACCA. 

Mr. R. Derry, Assistant Superintendent of Forests, reports as follows : — 

Bukit Sabokor Garden, 

i. The principal work of the year has consisted of maintenance, general nursery 
work and planting, experimental cultivation, and clearing land. 

The main drive has been kept in good repair by the Garden staff, and the 
entrance from the Batu Berendam Road has been raised so as to be above the water 
level during the rainy Season. 

3. An avenue of specimen local trees is being formed on the part of the drive 
which entirely belongs «to the Garden, and a specimen of Penaga, Petaling, Kayu 
Minyak, Bilian Wangei, Gombang, Kudang, Meranti and Seraya, has been planted 
during the year. , 

4. A collection of ornamental shrubs and flowering plants for supplying Govern- 
ment grounds, and for general distribution, has been maintained throughout the year. 


5. The Nursery work may be shown by the following analysis : — 


Seeds sown. 

Cuttings 

Seedlings 

No. of 

Trees prepared, 

No. of 

planted. 

transplanted. 

Kinds. 

box-planting. 

Kinds. 

No>. of Kinds. 






' 74 

4,000 

12,681 

26 

IC381 

75 


6. Altogether 18,790 * trees have been planted during the year, which leaves a 
balance at the close of the year as follows : — 


Forest trees ready for planting, 


3.385 

. Fruit trees and other economics, 


1489 

• % 


Total, .. 

. 4,874 

7. An area of about 5 acres 

has been cleared at Bukit Sabokor Garden 

following trees planted : — ■ 


• 


Swietenia macrophylla , 

Indian Mahogany, 


767 

Local bamboo, 

Buluh akar, 


82 

Fagroea peregrina, 

Tembusu, ... 


3 > 5 ! 7 

Afzelia palembanica , 

Merebau, . . . 


63 

Artocarpus chempedak. 

Chempedak, 


262 

Cinnamomum camphora , 

Camphor,... 


58 

* K • 


Total, .. 

■ 4-749 


8. All the available land suitable for experimental cultivation has been cultivated 
throughout the year. 

9. Egyptian cotton, annatto, tea and castor-oil, have been grown on the land 
adjoining the lake. 

10. Egyptian cotton ( Gossypium arboreum) gave a moderate crop, and a sample 
has been submitted to the. Director of Gardens and Forests for report. Cotton could, 
doubtless, be grown as a first crop on freshly clear.ed land, but the soil of the Settle- 
ment generally is not rich enough for its cultivation. 

11. Annatto ( Bixa orellana ) has grown well, and could be cultivated readily in 
almost any part of the Settlement. 

12. Hybrid Assam Tea ( Thea chinensis, var). — Tea has grown well, but is not 
yet old enough to experiment with. Towards the end of the year some havoc to the 
plants was done by white ants, frequent watering with Mauritius-hemp water had the 
effect of driving the ants away for some time. 


* 12,283 brought forward from previous year. 


20 


13. Castor-oil ( Ricinus communis ), Calcutta variety, grows well and fruits freely. 
A sample of the oil prepared by boiling the seeds has, been sent to the Director for 
report. 

The oil had not any odour. 

14. A piece of land has been cleared and partly planted with varieties of South 
American tapioca, but the stock is not yet large enough to experiment with. I do not 
think it probable that any of the varieties will equal the local variety as a tapioca pro- 
ducing plant, but some of the varieties are excellent for cooking. 

15. Liberian Coffee. — Coffee planted on the ordinary soil of the Garden without 
manure has not proved a success. Coffee requires freshly cleared land or very liberal 
manuring. 

16. Cloves ( Eugenia caryophyllata). — The best success' of any experiment has 
been with cloves. Some of the plants are now 10 feet high which shows a growth 
of 5 feet for the year. None of the plants have been manured beyond the admixture 
of a little burnt earth when first planted. The dry red soil of the Settlement suits 
cloves admirably. 

17. Maltese lemons, nutmegs, Indian mahogany, camphor, West India crab- 
wood, and Mauritius hemp, reported on last year as growing well, have all made 
favourable progress during the year. 

18. A stock of patchouli and croton-oil are kept, but extensive cultivation has 
been discontinued as the demand for these products is limited. 

19. Towards the close of the year a large supply of seeds of the common fruit 
trees, such as rambai and rambutan, were sown. The duku crop was a failure, and 
mangosteens were not plentiful, so that a supply of these desirable fruits could not be 
obtained. 

Forest Reserves. * 

20- The principal work of the year has consisted of preservation and mainte- 
nance of boundaries, planting, opening inspection-paths, and demarcating the Bukit 
Batu Tiga and Batang Malaka forest reserves. , 

2 1 . The work of opening inspection-paths has proceeded as far as time and funds 
have been at my disposal, and two reserves have been completed, and two others 
commenced during the year. 

22. The watchmen have worked well. 

No fires have occurred, and two arrests for illicit wood cutting have been made. 

23. Bukit Bruang Reserve. — An extension of the reserve has been made on the 
eastern side, as shown on plan A * from the boundary to the road, between Bukit 
Kuau and the watershed of Ayer Keruh. 

24. This extends approximately 300 acres, is chiefly bluker and contains a large 
proportion of young Tampines and Kledang. 

25. The watershed of the proposed waterworks has also been added to the 
reserve, this extends about 500 acres, is chiefly Ialang, but contains a rich soil. 

26. Planting up the watershed with useful timbers has been commenced and 
8 acres have been planted as follows: — 

Fa grata peregrina , 

Slcetia sideroxyion , 

Pterocarpus indicus, 

Kumpussia malaccensis , 

Afzelia palembanica , 

Artocarpus chempedak, ... 

Parkia Roxburghii , 

Phyllanthus emblica , 

Calophyllum sp ., 

Hopea cernua, 

Diospyros sp., 

Antiaris toxic aria, 


Tembusu, 

... 4,026 

Tampines, 

..,2,280 

Sena, 

.. 2,140 

Kumpas, ^ 

... 42 

Merebau, 

... 340 

Chempedak, .... 

... 370 

Sepeter, 

... 40 

Kayu Malaka, 

... 3 ^ 

Mentangor bunut, 

... 66 

Penaga, 

11 

Seraya, 

8 

Chindarahan, . . . 

9 

Kayu arang, ... 

... 18 

Minyak brok, ... 

... 47 

Ipoh batang, ... 

16 

Total,... 

... 9,801 


* Not printed. 


27- Some planting has also been done near the Sago ground (point A plan A) 


and the following trees planted : — 

Hevea braziliensis, .... ... Para rubber, 397 

Afzelia palembanica, . ... .. MereJ>au, ... .. .1,170 

. Pterocarpus indicus, ... ... Sena, ... ... 718 

Calophyllum sp., Mentangor bunga, ... 104 

Calophyllum sp., Mentangor bunut, 51 

At the Sago ground. 

Sagus Isevis, Rumbia sagu, ...1,600 

At Bukit Bruang. 

Calamus sp., Rotan manau, ... 200 


Total, 4,240 


28. Root cuttings of. sago plants were purchased in the Settlement, but planting 
cuttings is expensive. At the end of the year, I was able to purchase seedling plants 
from boatmen trading with Siak, and I would recommend planting seedling plants as 
being cheaper and more successful. 

29. About 1,000 forest trees were planted near sago ground at the close of the 
preceding year and all have grown well. 

30. It has been found that the boundary of the reserve passed through some 
private rights near to the Trigonometrical Station, and the face of the hill (Bukit 
Bruang) is now excluded from the reserve. 

31. For practical preservation it would be well if the whole of the hill land was 
included in the reserve, and I would suggest that sufficient land be purchased to take 
in the hill land. 

32. It has been proposed to take in the Bukit Kuau and Bukit Katil hill chain 
(plan A) into the reserve. Bukit Kuau is fairly well wooded. The total extension 
would be about 500 acres. 

33. Sungei Ledang Reserve. — Marking the central compartment into sections by 
inspection-paths has been completed during the year. 

34. The boundaries which extend 15 miles as well as inspection-paths were in 
excellent order at the close of the year. 

35. Merlemau Reserve. — The forest watchmen have been assisted by a band of 
coolies in filling and laying timber so as to make the swampy boundaries passable. 
Six miles has been made passable and about 2 miles remains to complete the work. 
The work of maintenance at this reserve is exceptionally heavy. 

36. Inspection-paths have been commenced on the dry land in the upper com- 
partment of the reserve. 

37. Ayer Panas Reserve. — Inspection-paths, extending 6 miles., have been opened 
in the new reserve during the year and the boundaries maintained in good order. 

38. Bukit Panchor Reserve. — The watchmen have been employed exclusively 
on maintenance and preservation. The boundaries extend eleven miles. 

39. Brisu Reserve.— Some private rights still remain to be excluded from the 
reserve, and it is contemplated to extend the reserve in the direction of Sungei Bharu, 
but owing to more pressing duties this work has had to stand over. 

40. Bukit Sadanan Reserve. — The boundaries have been kept in good order and 
an inspection-path, extending about 3 miles from* the Selandar Road, over the hill, to 
the Tebung Road, opened. 

41. Bukit Batu Tiga Reserve. — This reserve has been demarcated during the 
year and boundaries, extending 14 miles, have been opened. The reserve is situated 
between the districts of Bukit Senggeh, Gapis, Nyalas, Chabau and Jasin, and com- 
prises about 8,000 acres. 

42. The reserve includes the hills, Bukit Kemendor, Bukit Batu Tiga (1,500 ft.) 
Bukit Hulu Rejang, Bukit Hulu Chembong and Bukit Hulu Blankong (800 ft.). All 
the hills are very steep, chiefly granite, and covered with large boulders. Several 
springs and streams have their sources in these hills. 

43. The low land is well wooded. The most abundant timbers are Kayu M inyak, 
Gambang, and Minyak Kuing, but here, as elsewhere, much of the valuable timber, such 
as Merebau and Kranji has been worked out. 

44 Batang Malaka Reserve. — Towards the close of the year this reserve was 
commenced and a boundary extending 3! miles opened. The reserve will extend 
from the frontier to Jus, taking in Bukit Punggor, Bukit Batang Malaka, Bukit Bern- 
ban (1,600 ft.) Bukit Nyalas and Bukit Gapis. 


22 


45- The reserve will be entirely high land, and of considerable importance, as 
the Malacca River as well as other streams have their sources in the hills. 

Botanical Tour. 

46. During the month of Jday, a botanical tour was made to Mount Ophir, and 
although not the flowering season a fair collection of specimens as well as a supply 
of interesting plants and orchids were obtained. 

The most notable orchids were : — 

Cypripedium barbatum. 

Spathoglottis aurea and /. Wrayn. 

Arundina densijlora , large plants. 

Bromheadia sp. 

Exchanges. 

47. Plants and seeds have been exchanged largely with the Botanic Gardens, 
Singapore, and also with Botanic Gardens, Penang, and E. KoEK, Esq., Singapore! 
C. D. Ravensway, Esq., Singapore, Tan Tek Guan, Malacca, and Tan Hun Guan, 
Malacca. 

Total exchanges inwards, plants, 1,142, seeds, 8 kinds; outwards, olants, 1.231, 
seeds, 17 kinds. 

48. Attached are statements of Revenue collected and Expenditure for the year 

under review. - J 

GARDENS AND FOREST DEPARTMENT, MALACCA 
REVENUE FOR THE YEAR i8go. 

Revenue collected during 1890 : — $ $ c 

By Sales from Bukit Sabokor Garden, 

,, ,, Government Reserves, 


f c. 

1 1. 00 
123.07 


Timber Supply for use of P. W. D., ... 112.81 

Trees supplied for Government Grounds & Buildings, 62.63 


r 34-07 


175 44 

Total, $309.51 


Expenditure for the year i8go. 


Vote, ... 

Additional Vote for planting Sago, 

7 Watchmen, 

Garden, 

Batu Tiga Reserve, 

Ayer Panas Reserve, 

Merlemau „ 

Bukit Benang, Planting, 

„ Boundaries, 

Bukit Malaka Reserve, 

Sungei Udang ,, 

Pony Allowance, 

Field Allowance, 

,, „ Mandor, 

Cartage, ... 

Freight and Shipping, ... 

Incidental Expenses, ... 

Herbarium Expenses, ... 

Personal Allowance, ... 

General Maintenance, . 

Tools and Implements, 

Purchase of Plants and Seeds, 
Manure, 

Planting Sago, . , 


Balance, ... 


$ 

c. 

1 $ 

1 * 

5,50c 

> oc 

1 


3° 0 

00 

i 


1.778 

19 

5,800 

00 



1,266 

89 



388 

35 



*56 

2 5 



218 

75 



201 

05 



4i 

00 



”7 

49 



40 

00 



43 2 

00 



153 

00 



, 1? 

81 



270 

09 



24 

15 



3* 

1 1 



64 

95 



37 

79 



48 

07 



78 

69 



7 i 

00 



59 

oc 





5498 

63 


• 

300 

00 



1 

37 



$5,800 

OC. 


Assistant Superintendent 0/ Forests, Malacca. 


REPORTS ON THE GARDENS AND FOREST DEPARTMENTS, 
STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 


BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 


General Introduction. 

1. The changes in the staff consequent on sickness have, to a certain extent, 
interfered with the progress of the Department. Mr. CURTIS, the Superintendent 
at Penang., left for 12 months’ leave on a medical certificate in January, Mr. Derry 
came from Malacca to relieve him, and it was necessary to employ Mr. Holmrerg, 
of the Land Department, Malacca, in his place. 

Mr. Derry himself suffered a good deal from fever during his stay at Penang, 
and it will he a question whether the Superintendent’s bungalow there should not be 
•moved, as there are signs of the locality being malarious, • 

2. In the Botanic Gardens at Singapore, too, there was much sickness. The 
Chief Mandor, VINCENT CONIS, became seriously ill early in the year, and finally 
broke down in May with hemiplegia, and has, I regret to say, been pronounced 
incurable by the Senior Medical Officer, 

The second Mandor, MOHAMMED Aniff, in charge of the Experimental Gar- 
dens, was attacked with beri-beri, and was absent on sick leave for nearly three months. 

The Herbarium Keeper, TASSIM Daud, contracted a bad form of fever while with 
mein Pahang, which Incapacitated him from work, not only at that time, but for some 
time afterwards. 

Notwithstanding the unhealthiness of the year, a considerable amount of progress 
was made in all branches of work in Singapore, while the establishments at Penang 
and Malacca were kept well up to their last year’s standard. 

Visitors. 

3. The number of visitors to the Gardens was as large as on former years, and 
there were an unusual number of Botanists, and Curators of other Botanical Establish- 
ments, who visited the Gardens. It is still found difficult to prevent visitors from 
gathering the flowers in the plant-houses and elsewhere. The depredators are 
mostly mail passengers, but there are not wanting residents in Singapore who have 
done damage in this way. 

Aviaries. 

4. The aviaries stand much in need of repair, and a large portion should be 
reconstructed on a more solid basis. 1 hope to do this shortly. A number of very 
interesting animals and birds were obtained during the year, and though some did 
not live long, owing to the poor condition in which they were received, others have 
adapted themselves well to their confinement, and are thriving well. 

Among the more interesting mammals received, by purchase or presentation, 
were: — A new species of mouse deer ( Tragulus) from Borneo ;,the small kind known 
as pelandok from Singapore — (a distinct species, the existence of which has been 
doubted by some Naturalists); the wawa (female) {Hylobates agilis), presented by 
Lieut. KeLSALL ; a distinct black species of Hylobates ; a remarkable black Semnopi- 
thecns, stated to have come from Celebes; a pair of the large black and white 
squirrel [Schtrus bicolor), for whom a new round aviary cage was built; a pair of 
wild dogs from Pahang, presented by Mr. CLIFFORD, the male of which unfortunately 
died owing to an injury received when caught; several specimens of the slow loris ; 
and a kangaroo rat, presented. Two common monkeys were bred in confinement. 


2 


5- .Among 1 the birds, a fine female of the Celebes cassowary was presented by 
Mr. Alfred Lea, of Mindanao ; a rare serpent eagle, presented by Miss Wood- 
worth ; a pelican ( Pelieanus p h il ip p in e ns is) , purchased; a Javanese wild cock 
( Gallus var i us) Another species obtained last year, which is still living, has been 
shewn by Lieut. KELSALL to be undescribed, and he proposes the name of Gallus 
atroviolaceus for it. It is supposed to have come from Borneo. 

6. Of reptiles, a large specimen of the monitor {Hydrosaurus salvator) was 
caught at Blakang Mati by Lieut. KELSALL, and presented to the Gardens, A python 
was also presented by Major Alexander. A fine example of the deadly Bungarus 
fascial us was captured by Mr. Hole, at Pekan, and safely brought to Singapore. 

Buildings . 

7. A new pjant-house, ioo feet long and 15 feet broad, was put up for the cul- 
ture of pot-ferns at a cost of $50. The middle house used for culture of Seedlings 
was entirely reconstructed at a cost of $75, and the potting and packing sheds rebuilt 
at a cost of $50. The coolie lines were repaired at a cost of $20, and new quarters 
for the Mandores were built at a cost of $198,83 in the Experimental Gardens. The 
large plant-house will evidently require a very large amount of repair, many of the 
beams being rotten, although they are of ballow wood. It would be much better, and 
really more economical, to replace these and the posts with light spiral iron columns, 
although the primary outlay would be larger than the Gardens vote could stand; 

8. The plants in this and in the orchid-house have done very well and looked 
bright all the year. The following are among the rare species seldom or never 
flowered in Singapore: — Protamomum ; a new genus of Sc it amine ce from Pahang; 
Cdttleya Trianae, C. intermedia and C. speciosissima ; Ly caste Deppei\ Lockhart ia 
elegans ; Catasetum trident atum\ Catasetum Bungerothii ; Mesospinidium vulcani- 
cum ; Aspasia ep ide n dr aides, from South America; Coelogyne fomentosa, Cumingi , 
macrohulbon and one or two new species ; Trichoglottis fasciata and a new specie’s 
from Kuala Lumpur; a fine new Phalcenopsts near Luddemanniana , from the Philip- 
pines ; Cypripedium insigne var. exul, a new plant from Bangkok,- — were, among the 
Eastern orchids, rarely or never in flower here before. 

Among other pot-plants of other orders of interest were : — Didymocarpus quinque- 
vulnerus , a very fine new plant from Pahang, and D. pyrolceflorus ( Mount Ophir); 
Trichopus zey l anicus ; Braganl ia tomentosa ; Pomazota sylvestris ; Justicia , new 
species from Pahang; Schizocapsa , from China; Car ex divaricata \ Chamaecladon 
Grijfthii var. argent ea, from Pah a n g ; Crjrp ta n th us Seuckeri and Anthurium 
Dechardi ; and Hipp^n&trum solandriflorum , from South America. Among foliage 
, plants, a very beai^tipl Strchilanthes , introduced by Mr. BOXALL from Burma, 
attracted generaj/attention. 

Fernery. 

9. This required reconstruction, as the roots of the shade trees had become too 
numerous, ^and usurped the soil intended fot. the ferns. It was, therefore, entirely 
re- made, a few trees cut out, and others jdiinned, and fresh ferns, with Cypripediums 
and other plants introduced, the result being that the rockery is much more pic- 
turesque and interesting. 

f , 

Lake. 

10. The island in the lake was thoroughly cleaned and replanted. The large fig 
tree in the centre was found to be quite dead, and its removal made so large a gap 
in the centre of the island that the whole of the plants on it were removed, and re- 
placed by palms and pandanus, which will, when grown, produce a fine effect 

Palmetum. 

11. A number of additional palms have been planted here, and there are now 
representatives of one hundred and sixty species, belonging to one hundred and two 
genera. 

Propagation. 

12. Another glass frame, larger than the previous one, has been built for striking 
cuttings and establishing newly imported plants. It has proved very successful, and 
seems especially suited to Cattleyas and other South American plants. 

The large plant-nursery by the* new lake has been enlarged, the soil here bein®- 
exceptionally suited for nursery plants. 

Flower Beds and Borders. 

13. These have been replanted and manured and kept in good order, as have 
been the lawns. A small mowing machine was obtained in the early part of the year, 
and has proved very useful. 


3 


14. Some new round and crescent beds were made on the old herbaceous 
ground, and planted with shrubs illustrating the order Rubiaceas {Ixoras, Gardenias, 
Mussamdas, etc.), and a little circular bed was made near the scitamineous border to 

* contain the few plants of the order Iridese, which thrive here. 

Experimental Garden . 

15. This garden has hitherto been under the Forest Department, and has suf- 
fered much from want of funds to develop it properly. It has now received a grant 
of $1,000 for its maintenance, and consequently it is possible to develop it 
steadily and much progress has been already made in it. Samples of all the economic 
plants have been arranged in beds parallel to the main walk, and properly labelled. 
They are classified according to use. The first group consists of beverage plants 
Teas— Chinese, Assam and Paraguay, coffees, chocolate. Then follow groups of 
spices, gums, resins, guttas, dye plants, fibre plants, etc. 

16. Above this the hill, formerly covered with grass and brushwood, has been 
cleared for a considerable space, and paths suited for riding or walking have been 
made. This hill, it is proposed to convert into an arboretum, containing examples' 
of all kinds of trees arranged in natural orders, in the same manner as the arboratum 
of the Gardens at Buitenzorg. Already the early orders of the Poly pet alee are thus 
planted, spaces being left for additional trees, and the work will be continued as • 
rapidly as possible. 

17. During the year, many economic plants were sent out to various private 
persons and Botanic, and other Gardens, besides a considerable number of seedlings 
of various plants raised for planting in the Singapore forests. 

18. Among the more interesting introductions this year were the Bilian 
{Eusideroxylon Schwageri ), of which a number of seeds were raised; Kapayang 
(. Pangium edule ), the true Sarsaparilla '[Smilax sarsaparilla ), and the English black- 
berry (Rubus fruticosus), which is doing very well, but has not shewn signs of 
flowers yet. 

The Avocado pear fruited this year, but the fruits were poor in flavour. 

'V'; jtg\ . . 

19. As much . interesVis being taken in gam hi r just now, I made visits to 

Various Chinese and Malay factories and plantations in Singapore and Malacca, and, 
with the aid of Dr. BOTT, Government Analyst, made experiments in preparation of 
the product, an account of which has been published in the Bulletin of Agriculture 
of the Straits Settlements. Experiments were also made in extsacting the essential 
oil of the Sumbong plant (. Blumea balsamifera ) by distillation. A green cam- 
phoraceous oil was extracted, which may have a commercial value. 

Reclaiming Waste Land , 

20. In previous reports, I urged the reclamation of the waste swampy ground 
lying close to the Tyersall Road, and the Government granted $1,000 to be 
expended in reclaiming and utilising this. The ground being low-lying and wet, a 
lake has been excavated to a depth of three or four feet, the excavated material . 
having been, used in the formation of the banks and a drive across the narrow 
portion of it. A brick overflow drain covered with slabs was made at a cost of $50. 
There is also a walk round the lake shaded by a collection of bamboos^ of dif- 
ferent kinds. Abridge will have to be made in the drive across to permit of the 
connection of the. two parts of the lake, and the materials for this have been pro- 
vided. A further grant was asked for the ensuing year in order to complete the work, 
but was refused. It will, however, in any case be necessary to finish the work, up to 
a certain point at least, and the funds f6r this must come out of the annual grant, 
which indeed can hardly afford it. 

Flower Show. 

21. A flower show was held in June last in the large plant-house as usual, but 
it was by no means as successful as in previous years, for not only were the exhibits 
poor both in quantity and quality, but the attendance, owing to repeated and pro- 
longed deluges of rain, was very small. The result being a deficit of ^429,15, which 
had" to* be defrayed out of the Gardens vote. . 

22. It is obvious that, unless more interest is taken in horticulture by the resi- 
dents in Singapore than at present, the show as an annual institution will have to 
cease. The Government would be hardly justified in spending s6 much money o*’ 
an exhibition attended with so little beneficial result. 



4 


Outside Work . 

23. In the early part of the year, the Department^ designed and planted some 
ornamental beds on a piece of public ground called Robinson Quay, after which the 
Public Works Department took it in charge. 

Herbarium. 

24. The work of incorporating the various collections made in the- Straits has- 
gone on as speedily as possible, and a very large number of specimens have been 
added to the herbarium. The largest and most important addition was that of the 
collection made during the expedition in Pahang, when upwards of two thousand spe- 
cimens were obtained, among these are. representatives of several new and interesting 
genera and many new species, besides many not hitherto known to occur in the Penin- 
sula. A large number of specimens were also collected in Singapore, -Johor, and 
Malacca, by myself. Mr. HOLMBERG acting for Mr. Derry, who was superintending 
Penang * in place of Mr. CURTIS, absent on leave, sent a number of specimens from 
Malacca, and a small number were presented by the Hon’ble D. F. A. Hervey. From 
Borneo, Dr. HAVILAND sent 209 specimens, and Mr. R. W. Id UL LETT 91. Dr. King 
sent 345 specimens from Perak and India. 1 he Royal Gardens, Kew, presented 177 
specimens from various Indian and other collectors. Baron F. VON MUELLER pre- 
sented 440 Australian specimens. 

25. A number of rattans with the native names, timbers and fruits were also 
collected during the year, but the absence of any place to store and preserve these 
specimens precludes at present any great strides being made in this direction. 

26. - Of specimens distributed to various collectors, 800 plants were sent to Dr. 
King. 443 to the British Museum, a small number to the Royal Gardens, Kew, to 
Dr. BURCK, Buitenzorg, Professor Hackel, and others. 

27. Collecting apparatus was sent to several persons in Borneo and the Straits 
Settlements, who had promised to preserve specimens for the Herbarium. 

A rtist . 

28. The Botanical Artist continues his drawings., of plants of importance and 
interest in the Malay Peninsula. It is hoped shortly to prepare lithographic plates 
of some of the apocynacoous gutta-producing plants — the Willoughbeias, Alstonias, 
Dyera, etc.— and eventually also of the Palms and Pandani of the Malay Peninsula. 

* Expedition. 

29. During the year, an exploring expedition visited Pahang with a view of 
reaching the lofty range of Gunong Tahan in the interior. The party failed, however, 
to reach the desired point, owing partly to sickness and partly to the difficulties of the 
route, which so delayed the expedition that the supply of proviAons ran out A large 
number of plants, both alive and in the form of herbarium specimens, were obtained, 
including very many rare and new species of much interest. 

Coco-nut Trees Ordinance. 

30. During the year, 128 notices were served on various owners of trees and 
plantations, requiring the destruction of decaying trees and rubbish. The owners 
complied with the notices without delay,' and it was not found necessary to summons 
any for not doing so. The worst affected district was that of Kalang, where 
neglected, unhealthly plantations, and piles of old tan-bark were producing much 
damage to the more careful planters. The number of trees destroyed was 1,364, and 
1 737 old stumps and fragments of coco-nut timber were removed and burnt or buried. 
There is still some work to be done in the Kalang district, but most of the other por- 
tions of Singapore are clean. 

31. At the close of the year, evidence was received that the Inspector under the 

Ordinance MUSAFFER Alt — had been receiving illegal gratifications, and otherwise 

acting fraudulently. He was summoned and found guilty on one -count, was fined by 
; he Magistrate, and dismissed from the service. 1 he coolies under him worked well 

roughout the year. 


1 

\ 


32. The expenses in connection with the working of the Ordinance during the 
year were as follows: — 



1 c. 

$ 

Vote, ... 


... 700.00 

Salaries, . . 

... 297.03 


Transport, 

... 104.62 


Uniforms, 

... 10.00 


Contracts for removing dead trees, 

... 66.20 


Balance, 

... 222.15 



$ 700.00 

$700.00 


Exchanges. 


33 - 


Plants and seeds were received during the 

j^ear 

from 

the 

following 

Royal Gardens, Kew, 


Plants. Seeds. 

4 packages. 

Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, 


60 

3 

do. 

Do., Ceylon, 

Do., Trinidad, 


12 

22 

do. 


33 

22 

do. 

Do., British- Guiana, 


. . . 

3 

do. 

Do., Jamaica, 

Do., Grenada, 



5 

do. 


. . . 

16 

do. 

Do., Saigon, 


16 


do. 

Do., Natal, 


. . . 

34 

do. 

Do.,- • Brisbane, 



22 

do. 

Do., Port Darwin, 

Do., St. Petersburgh, ... 



12 

do. 



4 

do. 

Do., Madras, 



7 

do. 

Messrs. Veitch, London, 


60 

- . . 

do. 

,, Bull, London, ... ... 



1 

do. 

,, Cbatterjee, Calcutta, 



14 

do. 

,, Reasoner Bros., Florida, U. S. A,, 


. . . 

18 

do. 

,, Canned & Son, England, ... 


... 

64 

do. 

,, Sander & Co., England, 


81 

♦ . • 

do. 

Dr. Keith, tSiam, ’ 


6 


do. 

Baron von Mueller, Melbourne, 


. . . 

8 

do. 

Mr. C. Curtis, India, ... •-» 


100 

22 

do. 

Mr. D. Guiceneuf, France,. 


...• 

2 

do. 

Mr. G. Peche, Maul main, 


80 


do. 

Mr. Hume Black, Brisbane, 



5 i 

do. 

Mr. Van Huivel, Pontianak, 


27 


do. 

Mr. M. T. Gibson, Borneo, 


33 


do. 

Mr. Hole, Pekan, 


1 

1 

do. 

Mr. Boxall, India, ... ... „ 


25 

1 

do. 

Professor Vaughan -Stevens, Pahang, 


33 

2 

do. 

Lieutenant .Kelsall, Selangor, 


100 


do. 

The Rouble E. E. Isemonger, Malacca, 



15 

do. 

Mr, H. H. Everett, Sarawak, 


1 2 


do. 

Mr. J. F. Duthie, India,... 



12 

do. 

Mr. C. Gray, Madras, ... 


i 5 


do. 

Mr. F. Griffith, do., 

. . . 

70 

. . . 

do. 

Superintendent, Government Plantations, Perak, 


1 

do. 

Mr. Cecil Wray, Perak,... 


109 

. . , 

do. 

H. H. The Sultan of Johor, 


600 


do. 

Mr. G. S. Dare, Singapore, 



1 

do. 

Captain Ridout, do.. 


7 

... 

do. 

Mr. Seah Liang Seah, do., 



1 

do 

Mr. M. Micholitz, do., 


2 


do. 




M 

i 

j :• , 




1,497 368 


6 


34 - 




Plants and seeds were distributed to the 

following recipients 

Plants. Seen 

Royal Gardens, Kew, ... 

21 

2 

Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, 

20 

1 

Do., Ceylon, 

8l 

1 

Do., Penang, 

10 

Do., -^Trinidad, 


16 

Do., British Guiana, ... 

.. • 

3 

Do., Fiji, ... 

43 

20 

Do., Brisbane, 

... 

1 

Do., Port Darwin, 


1 

Do., Hongkong, 


1 

Do., Buitenzorg, 

* 

1 

Do., Natal, 


1 

Do., Grenada, 


16 

Do., Dominica, 

... 

58 

Do., Saigon, 

Do., Malacca, 

.. 24 


■ 33^ 


The HonTIe the Resident Councillor, Malacca,... 75 


Captain Floyteff, Imperial Russian Navy, 


27 

Mr. Peche, Moulmein, ... 

... 27 


Messrs. B. S. Williams, London, 

... 250 

... 

,, Sander & Co., do., 

... 250 

. , . 

Lord Zetland, 

... 17 

■ . . . 

Sir J. F. Dickson, K.C.M.G., 

12 


Public Gardens, Selangor, 

... 500 

. . . 

Municipality, Singapore, 

... 200 


Mr. Louis Jacquet, Pulau Condor, ... 

18 


Mr. Goodhart, Sumatra, 

10 


Mr. Stephen, Rangoon, 



7 

i • ’ i K 

v * 

* t 

1,887 

156 


2 packages, 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



i 


V 

Library. 

35. The following publications were added to the Library during the year : 

Clarke — “ Composite Indicse, " 1876. 

Griffith — Notulae Asiaticae. " '• 

Posthumous Papers," Part I, 1.84)', 


jr 


Cross Bevaisi & King — " Report on Indian Fibres and Fibrous Substances, 

1887. 

“ Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief," 2nd S6ries, IV, 3, 2; 2nd Series, 

V, 2 ; 2nd Series, V, 3 ; 2nd Series, 1 and 2. 

“The Agricultural Recdrd"— January, February, March, April, May, June, 
September, (October, November, and Special Number 1890, 
Trinidad. \ . 

Muller — “ Fragmenta Phytographiae Australia^— 17, 18, 19,40, 66, 68, 

75,^,85,86,87,94. % . . 

“ Observations On some Papuan and Polynesian Stercuhaceae, 

“ Brief Rlport on the Papuan Highlaifev Plants gathered during , 

Sir William egor^s Expedition, in Maykind June, 1889.” 

Teysmann & Binne^dijk — “ Plantae Novae Horti^Bogoriensis in Insula 
Java." 'i 

Neumayer, Dr. — Anleffueg, 1888. 

Hooker, Sir W.~— “ Botany — Enquiries regarding Botanical Desiderata." 
Griesbach — “GrundrisS der Systematischen Botanik;” 1854. 

Bailey — “A Synopsis of the Queensland Flora" — 3r$ Supplement, 

“ Barbadoes Agricultural Gazette,” October^ 1890. 

Guide to the Royal Gardens, K$w.-” & 


Prestoe — “ Catalogue- of Plants in Royal Botanical Gardens, Trinidad," 
1870. V- §' 


ENGLER, A. — “ Loranfhaceae.” 

Brown, R. — “ Orchideae and Asclepiadacese,” 1833. 

DELP1US — “Prodromus d’una Monographia delle Piante Formicarie, 


Part III, 1889. 

Smith & Griffith — “ Plants producing Seed without action of Pollen/' 
1839. 

Griffith — “ leones Plantarum Asiaticarum.” 

“Grenada Agri-Botanico Bulletin/’ December, 1890 (Liberian Coffee). 
“Journal of Mycology, " Vol VI, No. 3, of the United States Department 
of Agriculture. 

[The above were presented by the Royal Gardens, Kew.] 

The following were purchased : — 

Beccari — " Malesia, ” Vol. Ill, fasc. IV, 1889. 

JUNGHUHN, Dr. — “ Javansche Balanophoreen. ” 

Balansa, M. B, — “ Graminees de L’Indo-Chine Fran^ais.” 

MlQUEL — “ Illustrationes Piperacearum. ” 

Hanbury, D . — “ On the Species of Garcinia which afford Gamboge iff Siam.” 
M1KLOGCHO7MACLAY — “ List of Plants in use by the Natives of the Maclay 
Coast, New Guinea.” 

White, D. — “ A Botanical Description and Natural History of the Malabar 
Cardamom.” 

De VrieSE, W. H. — “ Memoire sur les Rafflesia Rodhussenii et Patma.” 
Roxburgh, D. — “Account of Bassia butyracea.” 

Pierre, L.— “ Diploknema sebifera.” 

Colla — “ Memoria sul Genere Musa e Monagrafia del Medesimo.” 

De CANDOLLE: — “ Monographiae Phanerogamarum,” Vol. VII, 1891. 

“The Journal of the Linnean Society,” Vol. XXVIII, No. 194. 


Presented by various Contributors. 

TREUB/Dr. — “ Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg,” Vol. IX, pt. 2, 
Vol. X, pt. 2. 

—“.Notes on the Cultivation and Preparation of Gambier.” 

- — “Verslag Hands Plantentuin te Buitenzorg,” 1890. 

' leones Plantarum,” Vol. X, pt. IV. 

Bailey — “ Catalogue of Plants in the two Metropolitan Gardens— The Bris- 
bane Botanic Garden and Bowen Park.” 

“Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, Brisbane,” 1889, 1890. 
“Bulletin No. 8, Department of Agriculture,” Brisbane. 

Department of Agriculture. — Bulletin No. 4 — Relative Merits of various 
United States of America Stocks for the Orange.” 

Tryon, H. — “ Report on the Insect and Fungus Pests,” No. I, Queensland, 
1889. 

Fawcett, W.— “Economic Plants.” 

“ Bulletin ” No. 22. 

“Bulletin — Botanical Gardens, Grenada — Vanilla.” 

TreleaSE— “ Missouri Botanic Gardens. ” 

“ Report, Missouri Botanical Gardens, United States America,” 1S90. 
GOODALE — “Some Botanic Gardens in the Equatorial Belt and in the South 
Sea. ” 

“ Some Museums. ” 

“ Some of the Possibilities of Economic Botany. ” 

“ Biology. ” 

“ Proceedings of the Tenasserim-Agri-Horticultural Society of Moulmein.” 
Lamb, S,- — “ Tobacco, its Cultivation in Northern Queensland.” 

In addition to the above, the Annual Reports of the various 
Botanical Gart ens, and also of the Foiest Department of India have 
been received. 


8 


BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 


Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the year rSgr . 


Receipts. 

Expenditure. 


f c. 

Salaries. 

$ c. 


By Balance in Bank. ... 

217 79 

Herbarium Keeper, 

A 79 5 ° 


„ Government Grant, 

8,500 00 

Head Mandor, 

180 00 


,, Sale of Plants and 


Extra do., 

59 


Flowers, 

1,03° 75 

Carpenter, 

165 72 


„ Interest, 

33 18 

Extra Carpenter, 

54 7 2 




Mason, 

76 96 




Printer (Label), 

I 19 00 




Do., Apprentice, 

33 13 




Peon, 

95 5 ° 




Aviary Keeper, 

96 OO 




Garden Police, 

342 OO 




Coolies, 

2,762 67 






4,208 79 



Bills for 1891. 





Purchase of Plants and 





Seeds, 

r47 20 




Manure and Cartage, 

171 02 


* 


Food for Birds and Ani- 





mals, 

567 3 1 




Flower" Pots and Tubs, 

222 18 




Botanical Books and Her- 





barium Paper, 

685 43 




Laterite and Gravel, 

i 73 54 




Repairs to Buildings, 

182 op 




| Tools and Stores, 

287 84 




j Wardian Cases and Freight, 

104 00 



1 Wood for Construction 




1 purposes, 

217 78 



Bricks, Lime, etc., 

20 7 77 



Director’s Petty Expenses, 

207 40 



Assistant Superintendent’s 





Petty Expenses, ... 

192 40 

■ * . 



Contribution to Flower 


« 



Show, 

429 15 




Miscellaneous, 

95 1 ®7 






4.746 89 





8,955 68 



Balance, 

. 

826 04 


$9,781 72 



$9,781 72 


FOREST DEPARTMENT, SINGAPORE. 

Area. * 

1. The total area of the forest reserves nowin Singapore is,* 14,509 acres 1 
rood and 8 poles. This gives a decrease of 7 acres t rood and 15 poles from that of 
last year, due to the sale of a piece of land in the Bedok district valueless for forest 
purposes. The land fetched the sum of 35- 

Boundaries. 

2. The boundaries have been well kept up and cleaned of grass and fern, and 

over the' stream and swamps the bridges have. been renewed. A large number of 
notice boards have been put up at salient points of the. reserves to warn persons 
against trespassing therein. The whole of the reserves are now correctly surveyed 
and demarcated. • . ■ 




9 

Forest Watchmen. 





3. The same' number of Forest Corporals, Lance-Corporals and Watchmen was 
employed this year as last, viz., 23 in all. All worked well, and no complaints were 
made against them. Khaki uniforms were supplied this year, in place of the blue serge 
suits last year, as the latter proved less satisfactory for jungle work. The distribu- 
tion of the men is as follows : — For the Bukit Timah, Bukit Panjang, East Bukit Timah. 
Choa Chu Kang, Jurong, Pandan and Upper Tanglin reserves there are r Forest 
Corporal and five Watchmen. At Kranji and Sungei Buloh there are 1 Lance-Cor- 
poral and two Watchmen. At Bukit Mandai and Sumbawang 1 Lance-Corporal and 
two Watchmen. At Chan Chu Kang, Ang Mo Kio and Selitar one Lance-Corporal 
and four Watchmen. At Changi and Bedok one Lance-Corporal and two Watchmen. 
At Toas and Murai one Lance Corporal and two Watchmen. 

Buildings. 

o 

4. Two new forest stations have been built — one at Chan Chu Kang and one at 
Kranji — with brick pillars and ballow posts, at a cost of $253.90 each. 

Farming Encroachments . 

5. Two pepper encroachments in the Forest Reserves at Upper Mandai were 
' given out on lease for one year for $40, and one at Jurong was let for $10. An en- 
croachment of gambir at Sumbawang was- let for $25, making a total revenue of $75. 

The plants on these encroachments are now nearly effete and will soon cease to 
be leased. Meanwhile the trees of India rubber, and Renghas, planted among the 
crops, have taken good hold and are growing ’steadily and well. 

Planting. 

6. The work of planting waste land with valuable trees goes on as fast as 
possible, but it is not easy to get seeds of the more valuable trees in sufficient quan- 
tity for, covering very large tracts. 

Para Rubber (Hevea braziliensis , Spruce) seeds were obtained from Kew and 
from the trees in the Experimental Garden, and a large number of plants raised. 
Eight acres of this valuable India rubber tree have been planted this year at Sumba- 
wang, and the trees are thriving remarkably well. Rubber collected from the trees 
in. the Experimental Garden was pronounced by Messrs. Silver to be of very good 
qualffy. Fast as this plant grows, it will be nearly ten years before it is at the best 
stage for tapping. More seed is urgently required. 

The Renghas plants ( Glut a Renghas) raised from seed obtained from Pahang, 
are also growing with great vigour. Two. acres have been planted at Jurong. The 
two-year old plants at Chan Chu Kang and Upper Mandai are now many of them 
over six feet tall. 

> This plant produces a very fine mahogany -like timber, but unfortunately it is 
disliked by' the cutters on account of the poisonous character of the black varnish 
which exudes from it. The Malays give the name of Renghas to several trees all 
of the same family ; of these the best timber tree Is apparently the Melamzorhcea, 
Curtisr, and M. Wallichi. The latter species occurs in Singapore, but is now very 
scarce. The former is a native of Penang. 

All possess the poisonous properties of the Gluta , w T hich is a. great objection to 
them, but it seems that by no means all persons who deal with these trees are 
affected by them. In moving and planting the hundreds of Gluta seedlings here, 
there has only been one case of Gluta poisoning 'among the coolies. 

In; the Upper Mandai encroachments nabout five acres of various trees have 
been planted and all are doing well. Among them are Sterculia elata, Pitheco- 
lobiums, Inga Saman, Jack (A r toe dr pus iniegrifolia), Glam ( Melaleuca leucadendron ), 
Broad-fpaved Mahogany [Swie tenia macrophylla ). The Jack suffers much from the 
ravage^ of plandoks (mouse deer), which are very fond of its leaves. 

A I quantity of cuttings of the Male Bamboo {. Dendrocalamus strictus), were 
taken firom plants in the gardens and have been planted at Sumbawang ; they are 
doing very well. More are being struck, and it is hoped eventually to be able to 
supply -fb. ' J en]s for lance : handles in quantity. A number oL seeds of the Bilian 
tree (Etisiderb'Y't'lon Scl-i^ageri,- Teysm ) were obtained from Borneo, and having 
been planted a fair proportion germinated. Hitherto there has been some difficulty 
with this invaluable timber tree, but it was found 'that the seeds germinated better, 
simply put -a little way beneath the sail, and with the hard shell net cracked or 
split as had been tried previously. It is, however, not easy to procure the seed o r 
this plant in quantity. I hope, however, to be able to obtain a further supply f r 
Sandakan* where it is said to be plentiful. 

.h ■ > ' , T 


1 


IO 


During my explorations in Pahang, I explained to the natives my desire for seed 
in any quantity of Dichofsis gutta, and offered to pay a cent a seed delivered in 

Pekan. Many, especially of the Kelantanese, said that they could get plenty in the sea- 
son and undertook to do so, but I am doubtful as to ever obtaining it. 1 wo 
French experimenters visited Singapore with plans for extracting the gutta from 
leaves and twigs without destroying the tree. 'I he methods adopted however, were 
not successful, and I regret to say that, on my return from Pahang, I found that four 
of the best Dichopsis trees in the island had been cut down m one of the reserves, 
which loss was the more to be regretted as one or more of the trees were about to 
flower and a supply of seed might have been obtained. 

Fires. 

7. There have been only eight cases of fire in the reserves this year, as against 
twelve of the previous year. In the Ang Mo Kio reserve two fires occurred, m one an 
acre in the other case 70 acres of lalang and secondary jungle were burnt at Changi 
there were three fires, in two of which about 30 acres of grass and brushwood were 
burnt ; at Jurong a little grass was burnt ; at Selitar also there was a small grass lire ; 
and there was one at Pandan in which about 12 acres were burnt. Every effort to detect 
the incendiaries failed, but at Ang Mo Kio there was no reasonable doubt but that the 
grass was 'fired by Chinese grass-cutters, who were arrested afterwards cutting the 
young lalana shoots, and fined five dollars each, while at Changi it appeared that the 
Malays at Tanah Merah had ignited the grass to get the fluffy seeds of the lalang, pro- 
duced after burning, for stuffing pillows. 

Prosecutions. * 

8. There were 16 cases in all instituted -during the year for cutting and remov- 
ing timber, etc., and fines to the amount of §127 inflicted, besides $16.15 paid m to 
the Government for the value of the timber cut. Two cases were withdrawn, one 
beino- connected with the reopening of an old cart track at Changi, and one being a 
case & of tree cuttingby a Government contractor, who paid the value of the trees cut 
down to clear a piece' of ground for landing road metal from the Tampenis River. In 
two cases summonses were issued — one against an Eurasian for cutting trees and 
makino- tiger pits at Changi Loyang, by which the lives of the forest watchmen were 
endangered ; he was convicted and fined five dollars and costs : the other was issued 
against four Malays for cutting young trees at Tanjong Penjuru, convicted and fined 
four dollars and costs. In two cases the defendants were cautioned and discharged, 
in one case for cutting lalang in the other for cutting pitcher plants the stems of 
which are used for tying bundles. In the remaining 10 cases fines amounting in the 
aggregate to $110 were inflicted. 

Licenses for Timber cutting. 

q Durino- the year, several portions of mangrove swamp have been let for 
cutting firewood, fishing-stakes, and pepper posts. The firewood-cutting licenses 
brought in Si 78, and a license issued for 1,500 fishing-stakes fetched .'560 1 he 

price's charged by the Forest Department were considerably higher than those of 
the other departments, but there is no difficulty in getting the Malays and Chinese 
to take out as many licenses as are desirable. Thus the permits for a single man 
to cut bakau for firewood are $4 for two months, being an increase erf one dollar 
‘ above that of the other departments, and permits for fishing-stakes granted at the 
land’ Office at $20 per 1,000 stakes were readily taken up from the Forest 
Department at $40 a thousand. One cause of this is that the more accessible 
of the Government mangroves have been very heavily cut, so that the timber is 
at present small and hardly worth the cutting, while the Forest Reserves, hitherto not 
havino- been cut to any extent, produce plenty of good wood. But many case the. 
profitmade by the cutters is quite large enough to allow of the increased charge 

Bakau swamp forest is more popular for firewood-cutting on- account of its 
accessibility by water, which is a much less. expensive form of carnage than that by 
land and the trees grow close together and have not to be sought for at considerable 
distances apart. The wood is very suitable for firing, and very good fishing-stakes, can 

also be found in the swamp. ' , , 

The principal woods cut are Blukup (Rhizophora mucronata), lumu (Kandelia 

Rheedii) and Akit (Rhizophora conjugata ). A strong man-can cut in a day 300 bundles 
of split firewood, tied up, and ready for sale. Each bundle contains five pieces 15 
inches lono- and about an inch thick : one hundred bundles sold on the spot fetch 10 
uts and sell in Singapore for 25 cents. Engine firewood is of larger size, the pieces 
nr 2 feet long and 4 inches thick and weighing about 3 catties. I hese fetch 40 
-r hundred on the spot, and 65 cents in town. 


% 


1 1 

Fishing-stakes are cut of various sizes and are sold according to size. A stake 
nine fathoms long sells for 35 cents, and six fathoms long 25 cents, that is $250 to $350 
per thousand. The license to cut these costs $40, so that the profit is fairly 
large, but it irfust be remembered that the expenses of bringing the stakes to the 
village are often very great. The stakes are usually brought down by raft, and from 
Sungei Bufoh, where a license was issued this year, to Telok Blanga it takes ten days 
to bring them down. One headman and six others can cut 1,000 rollers in a month. 
Each cuts for himself, and pays a commission of a dollar to the headman, who is res- 
ponsible to the Towkay for the 1,000 stakes, the Towkay advancing the money for 
the license, and pays the cutters according to the agreement, viz., 35 cents for'9 
fathoms, and 25 for 6 or 7 fathoms. The Towkay sells them again to the fishing 
stake owners, at a higher price, viz., 45 cents for nine fathoms and 35 cents for 6 to 7 
fathoms. In this way he makes a very considerable profit, and as he pays for the 
license the increased charge affects him only and does not affect the hard-working 
cutter. 

Bakau bark generally used for tanning in Singapore, is not at present procured 
from the Forest Reserves, as the Malays bring it from the Peninsula in large boats or 
tongkangs. It is sold by the cart-load, at 813.50 per cart. The barks used are 
Blukup, Tumu and Akit, and also Pagar Anak ( 1 xonanthes icosandra ), which is 
not a mangrove tree. 

Besides- the above-mentioned trees, the following contribute to the formation 
of the mangrove forests : — 

Nirek ( Carapa nioluccana ), a very hard timber, but large trees are almost 
invariably hollow internally. The bark has a reputation as a medicine for dysentery. 

Tengar ( Ceriops Candolleana). 

Busing ( Bruguiera caryophylloides ) also called Bakau Puteh. 

Lenggadi {B. parviflora , Wt.). 

(. B . eriopetala). 

Teremtam ( Lumnitzera coccinea ), good timber. 

Stada ( Podocarpus nerii folia, Don.). 

Expenditure for 1891. 


Vote, 

Salaries, 

Buildings, 

Uniforms, 

Miscellaneous, 

Balance, 


Bakau Timber, 
Fishing-stakes, 

Pepper encroachments, 
Gambir do., 
Rattans, 


000 


Revenue , 


12,838.58 

507.80 

147.00 
605.23 

*•39 

$4,000 

178.00 

60.00 

50.00 
25.00- 

8.00 


Total,... $3 2 1. 00 


HENRY N. RIDLEY, # 

Director of Garde?is and Forests , S. S. 


% 


t 




12 


APPENDIX A. 


GARDENS AND FOREST DEPARTMENT, PENANG. , 

Leave of absence having been granted on account of ill-health, I wds absent from 
the Settlement from January 26th to December 25th. During that time Mr. Derry 
took charge, and, I regret to find, suffered much from fever. It is a matter for serious 
consideration whether it would not be better to remove the present quarters to a 
more salutary spot. 

Forest Reserves. 

No additions have been made during the year, but the existing boundaries have 
been recleared where necessary, and regularly patrolled by the Guards, who instituted 
during the year fifty-nine prosecutions for illicit timber cutting and encroachments, as 
against fifty in the previous year. In forty-eight cases the offenders were punished, 
and the others dismissed ,with a caution. 

2. The Station at Penara Bukit, which has become quite uninhabitable, has been 
reconstructed under the supervision of the Public . Works Department at. a cost of 
$400, and minor repairs done to the Station at lelok Bahang. 

а. The nursery and village reserve at Kubang Ulu, Province Wellesley, has, du- 
ring the year, been transferred from this Department to the charge of the Olstiict 
Officer of Bukit Mertajam, to be used, I presume, chiefly for raising shade trees to 
plant up the principal roads. 

4. The total expenditure in connection with maintenance of Forest Reserves 
and Kubang Ulu Nursery for the year amounts to $2,300 as shown in statement of 
expenditure annexed. 

Waterfall Garden. , 

5. This garden continues to maintain its popularity both with residents and 
visitors passing through. The development of trees, &c. is most noticeable after an 
absence of nearly a year. 

б. Considerable progress has been made in the construction of side drains, with 
stone and cement, in the steeper portions 'of the grounds where the wash is consider- 
able. 


7. Anew culvert, one hundred and twenty ivet long and two tect broad, has 

been built to r.rrrv off the rain-water from Government Hill Road, which will, it is 
hoped, give a better chance of establishing an avenue of Polyalthia Ion f if alia, from 
the entrance gate to the garden office. * 

8. Some new beds and a circular path have been laid out around the Band 
Stand, which is an improvement to this part of the grounds. 

n Portions of the main roads have been metalled, and the foot-paths period- 
ically weeded and put in order. Bridges and plant sheds have been repaired, and the 
usual routine work in connection with beds, borders, &c. attended to. 

io.. The Swimming Bath, which was opened on the 1st January at a merely 
nominal* charo-e, has' been well patronized, and yielded a revenue of $180.05, which 
considerably more than covers salary of care-taker and other incidental expenses, 
besides giving an ample water supply to the plant nursery. 


n. The revenue from plant sales is more than in any ^previous year, the total 
amount collected being $312.91, as against $J-20 in 1S90, and $75 m i8S 9 - , 

12. The new Municipal Reservoir in course of construction at the top of the 
garden, and the consequent cartage of all material for the work over the garden roads, . 
render impossible for the present that state of neatness d esirable in a public garden.. 
The ultimate result of this work, as regards its general ct on the appearance of 
the warden, will depend largely on the extent to which the Municipal Commissioners 
co-0 no rate in making up the surrounding, &c. when the work is coipplele. At present 
it is anything J>ut an ornament. 


i3 


13- Through the kindness of the Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, andV 
Messrs. VE1TCH, SANDER, and LOW, I obtained and brought with me from England 
a large and valuable collection of plants which form a grand addition to those already 
in cultivation here. The whole amounted to over three hundred plants, and occupied 
fifteen cases, most’ of which were opened and watered at . intervals during the voyage. 
The losses were inconsiderable, and entirely the . result of a few cold nights before 
getting to the Straits of Gibraltar. In the appendix I have given a list ot the plants 
obtained, and it is understood that, as opportunities occur, Malayan plants will be sent 
to those contributors in exchange. 

Bungalow Garden and Experimental Nursery . 

14. The Tennis Court in front of the new wing to Government Bungalow laid out 
at the beginning of the year, was ready for use about the middle of May. 

15. Of annuals and other flowering plants, a fair display was maintained. 
Achimenes, Pansy and Larkspur did well in pots, and Dahlia, Coreopsis, Ageiatum 
and Cornflower in beds. 

16. Owing to the bungalow being more frequently occupied than formerly, a 
< larger stock of- pot plants is necessary for decorating the corridor and rooms, and the 

same holds good as regards roses and other flowers for cutting. 

17. During a stay of two months in Gwalior on my way to England, I obtained 
from the Superintendent of State Gardens a collection of acclimatised vegetable seeds, 
which were at once forwarded to Penang. The Overseer reports that some kinds, 
especially onions and cucumbers, gave better results than has been obtained from 
English or Continental saved seeds. A further trial will be made this year, and if the 
result is equally good, a supply will be obtained for distribution among Chinese market 
gardeners/ The English vegetables grown in Gwalior during the cold weather are 
equal in every respect to the best obtainable in England. 

18. The roads and paths were maintained in good order, side drains repaired, 
and other routine work attended to. 

• 19. The avocado or alligator pear, known also as vegetable marrow or midship- 

man's butter, fruited for the first time this season. The trees look well and promise 
to be as easy of cultivation as any of our native fruits. 

Preservation of Coco-nut Trees. 

21. The Inspector and two men were employed nine months in Penang and 
three months in Province Wellesley. 

22. One hundred and six notices were served on persons having on their pre- 
mises dead trees or rubbish likely to prove breeding places for beetles ; and as the 
result 2,073 dead trees and 109 heaps of rubbish were destroyed. 

In addition to the above, many trees were destroyed as soon as the owners atten- 
tion was called to the subject. 

23. Four prosecutions were instituted in Province Wellesley, and the offenders 
fined $5 each for neglecting to comply with the terms of the Ordinance. 

Six Summons served in Penang had not been decided at the end of the year. 

24. In connection with the work of the Department, the Acting Assistant 
Superintendent visited the •Dindings, Singapore, Kedah and Langkawi ; and also 
supervised the work of planting, &e. of Residency grounds, the laying out of new 
Cemetery, and planting of shade-trees within Municipal limits. 

General. 

25. The total expenditure of the Department amounted to $10,086.40, as shown 
in the Statement annexed, 

C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests . 

Penang , 18th January , 18 92. 


"h 


Revenue and Expenditure of the Forest and Gardens Department, Penang , iSyi . 


Revenue. 


Grant — Maintenance of For- 
est Reserves, ... $2,300.00 


Grant — Maintenance of Wa- 
terfall Garden, ... $4,500.00 


Grant — Maintenance of 
Grounds of Government Bun- 
galow and Experimental Nur- 
sery, . . ... $2,000.00 


Expenditure. 


,4 ■! 


Travelling and Personal Al- 
lowances, ... ... $700.00 


Salaries of Forest Guards, 

,, Office Asststant and Mes- 
senger, ... ... 

Forest Guards’ U niform, 

Maintenance of Boundaries, 

„ Kubang Ulu Nursery, 

Reconstruction of Station, ... 
Repairs to Station, 

Rent of Temporary Quarters, 
Materials for Herbarium, ■ ... 
i Purchase of Books, 

! Boat-hire and Cartage, 

[_Oil for Station, ... •... 


Salaries, 

Purchase of Plant and Seeds, 

,, Pots and Tubs, 

,, Tools, &c., 

Improvement of Side Drains, 

Material for Plant Cases, 

,, General Repairs, 

,, Plant Sheds, 

Repairs to Bridges, 

Cartage, 

Freight, 

Road Metal, . . . 

Paint, . . . I 

Expenses in connection with Swim- 
ming Bath, ... 

Petty Expenses, 

Miscellaneous, 

Balance, 


Salaries, 

Purchase of Plant and Seeds, 
Pots, 

„ Tools-, 

Repairs to Plant Shed, 
Manure, ... ... 

Miscellaneous, ... ... 

Balance, ... ... 


Pony Allowance, ... ... ... 

Transport and Field Allowances, . . . 
Expenses in connection with Journey 
to Singapore, 

Expenses in connection with Visit to 
the Bindings, 

Expenses in connection with Visit to 

Kedah, .... ... 

Miscellaneous,... 

Balance, ... ... .... ... 


$ c- 
683 58 

245 °5 
72 00 
486 50 
242 25 
400 00 
9 06 
18 00 

54 9 1 

2T 40 

57 55 

9 70 . 


' 


2,300 

— -rt 

O0 

3,057 

99 

163 

49 

171 

99 

133 

11 

: 66 

49 

82 

55 

7 ° 

99 

119 

92 

227 

57 

68 

«5 

33 

01 

. ' " 8 ? 

28. 

, 22 

69 

45 

60 

69 

00 

27 

06 

52 

5 i 

4ffioo 

00 

1.756 

66 

3 i 

00 

i 5 

36 

38 

26 

10 

97 

143 

50 

3 

54 

0 

71 

2,000 

00 

00 

0 

’T 

75 

142 

32 

BO 

65 

IO 

16 

5 

40 

55 

49 

4 7 

2 3 

700 

00 


V: 


i5 


Revenue and Expenditure of the Forest and Gardens 
Department , Penang , 1891 , — Continued. 


J\ . ,1 • 

Revenue. 

Expenditure. 


i Expenses of carrying out the 


$ c. 

provisions of the Coco-nut 

["Salaries, 


Trees Preservation Ordinance, 

547 35 

$700.00. 

•< Transport, 

139 50 

^Balance, 

13 15 



0 

0 

0 

0 

t'- 

Total Receipts from Plant 


$10,086 40 

Sales, Swimming Bath, &c. (Paid 
into Revenue Account), $498.01 

Grand Total Expenditure, 


Penang, i8tk January, 1892 


C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 


List of Plants brought from England by the Assistant Superintendent 
of Forests and Gardens , Penang , December, 1891. 


Contributed by the Director , Botanic Gardens , Kew , 


Anthurium Galeottii. 

leuconeurum. ' 
hybridum. 

,, affine. 

,, Miqueliana. 

,, emarginatum. 

Hookerii. 
a acaule. 

„ Binotii. 

„ Andreanum. 

,, radicans. 

Aglaonema Mannii. 

Philodendron Mamei. 

Nephthytis liberica. 

Dorstenia arifolia. 

Dieffe’nbachia imperialis. 

„ grandis. 

Stenospermation Wallisii. 

Brehonia spinosa. 

Mimusops balata. 

Brunsfelsia ( ? ) from St. Lucia. 
Chrysophyllum majalisvar. montana. 
Courataria exigua. 

Dracaena Hookeriana. 

„ fragrans. 

Gustavia exigua. 

Philodendron selloum. 

Impatiens platypetala. 

Begonia Md. Lionel. 

Steudneria discolor. 

Gvclanthus cri status! 


Dorstenia elata. 

Alloplectus vittatus. 

Scutellaria mocciniana. 

Begonia socotrana. 

Salvia azurea. 

„ Bethelli. 

Jamaica bananq. 

Agave rigid a. 

„ heteracantha, 
ferox. 

,, marmorata. 

Bennetii. 

,, franzoisini. 

,, americana lutea. 

„ viridis marginatus. 

,, filifera superba. 

„ potatorum. 

,, Hookerii. 

Aloe heteracantha. 

,, saponaria. 

,, tricolor. 

1 „ mitraeformis. 

,, glaucescens. 

„ N. Sp. from Turk's Island. 

„ sp. Galpin. 

Achimenes tubiflora. 

Cyrtauthus obliquus. 

Crinum Moorei. 

„ americanum. 

n sp. ( 1 on gi folium ?) Watson, 183-87. 
,, Kirkii. 

Clistocactus colubrina. 


1 6 


List of Plants brought .from England by the Assistant Superintendent 
of Forests and Gardens, Penang, December, iSgi . — Continued . 


Contributed by the Director , Botanic Gardens , A>a>, Continued , 


Cereus flagelliformis. 

Ceropegia Sandersonii. 

Beschorneria superba. 
Ceropegia Monteiroae. 

Cannas dwarf. 

Dyckia princeps. 

„ floriburida. 

,, rarifolia. 

Eucomis bicolor. 

Euphorbia canariensis. 

Furcroea, sp. Shea. 

Gasteria triangularis. 

„ verrucosa. 

„ carinata. 

niaculata. 

„ dicta. 

,, subnigricans. 

Haemanthus Katberinae. 
.. albiflos. 


Haemanthus carneus. 

}> natalensis. ■ 

Kniphofia Northiae, 

Patersonia ccerulea. 

Pilocereus mexicanus. 

Puya Webberii. 

Phyllocactus ( seedling). 

J. T. Peacock. 

,» longipes. 

,, anguligera. * 

Stenomesson luteoviride. 

„ incarnatum. 

Sc ilia natalensis. 

Urceolina pendula. 

gloriosa. 

Veltheimia viridiflora. 

Aristolochia gigas, var. Sturtevantii. 
Impatiens Hawkerii. 


Contributed by Messrs. James Veitch fie Sons, Royal Exotic Nursery, Chelsea . 


Adiantopsis radiata. 

Adiantum oemulum. 

„ amabile. 

}t aneitense. 

Birkenheadii. 

„ cuneatum grandiceps. 

,, ' cyclosorum. 

,, daphnitis. 

Flemingii. 

,, fragrantissima. 

„ *' glaucophyllum. 

„ Hensloviarium. 

,, Lambertianum. 

„ Legrandii. 

„ Luddemannianum. 

,, macrophyllum. 

„ mundulum. 

„ Pacotii. 

„ pulverulentum. 

„ reniforme. 

,, rhodopyllum 

,, rubellum. 

,, Seemanii. 

,, scutum roseum. 

,, tinctum. 

J; Veitchii. 

venustum. 

„ Walton i diffusum. 

„ Weigandii. 

Williamsii. 

,, Feed. 

Asplenium cicutarium. 

,, formosum. 

,, pteroides. 

,, rutcefolia, 

Blechnum brasiliensis. 

,, corcovadense. 

Cheilanthus elegans. 


Cheilanthus hirta. 

Cibotum princeps. 

„ Schiedei. 

! Davallia decora. 

,, fetusa. 

Gymnogramma Laucheana. 

,, Massonii, 

„ tartaricum. 

Lastrea Jepida. 

„ pallens. 

Nephrolepis Bauseii. 

,, cordata compacta. 

Nothochlcena chrysophylla. 

,, nivea. 

Osmunda japonica corymbifera. 
Platyloma flexuosum. 

„ tenuifolium. 

Polypodium refractuin. 
Polystichum triangulare laxum. 
Hymenodiiim crinitum. 

Pteris* Bauseii. 

leptophylla. 

Selaginella grandis. 

,, Lyallib 

,, Emiliana. 

Pteris Victoria. 

Adiantum Maresii. 

,, macrophyllum, var. 

Pteris Srnithiana. 

1 Lomaria gibba rosea, 
j Areca lutescens. 

I Araucaria excelsa. 

1 Anthurium Brownii. 

Medinilla Curtisii. 
j Nepenthes Curtisii. 

1 Impatiens Hawkerii. 

Hybrid rhododendrons. 

! Caladium tine vars. 


I? 


List of Plants brought from England by the Assistant Superintendent 
of Forests and Gardens , Penang s December , i8gi y — Continued. 


Contributed by Messrs. H . Low cr Co., Clapton Nurseries. 


Angrecum citratum. 

„ articulatum. 

,, hyaloides. 

„ sesquipedale. 

Cattleya Mossiae. 

,, Trianse. 

„ Eldorado. 

,, Gaskelliana. 

,, Percivaliana. 

Epidendrum vitellinum majus. 
Gram matophy Hum Ellisii. 
Lycaste sp. 

Maxillaria grandiflora. 
Oncidium papilio majus. 


Oncidium crispum. 

,, tigrinum. 

,, Marshallianum. 

„ ornithorrynchum. 

,, cucullatum. 

Phalcenopsis denticulata. 

Pilumna fragrans. 

„ nobilis. 

Rodriguezia secunda. 

Laelia purpurata. 

,, Dayana. 

Cattleya intermedia amethystina. 
Epidendrum ciliolare. 
Odontoglossum citrosmum. 


Contributed by Messrs . F. Sander < 5 r Co., St. Albans. 


Cattleya Trianae. 

„ maxima peruviana, 

,, Mendelii' 

„ labiata autumnalis vera. 

„ Mossiae. 

„ Bowringiana. 

,, Gaskelliana. 

„ velutina. 

„ Schofieldiana. 

» gigas. 

Laelia barpophylla. 
anceps. 

» grandis. 

Trichopilia coceinea. 

Anguloa Ruckerii. 

Houlletia Brockelhurstiana. 

Dendrobium. phalaenopsis Schroederianum. 
Leptotes bicolor. 

Odontoglossum citrosmum. 

,, vexillarium. 

» grande. 

,, Harryanum. 




Penang , 18th January , 1892. 


Epidendrum macrochilum. 
Ocidium hastatum Roezlii. 

„ splendidum. 

,, roraimense. 

„ crispum. 

Chysis aurea. 

„ bractescens. 

Angrcecum leonis. 

,, Sanderianum. 
Lycaste lanipes. 

Zygopetalum Mackayii majus. 

,, crinitum. 

Miltonia spectabilis. 
Dendrobium Leechianum. 
Cyrtopodlum St. Ledgerianum. 
Renanthera Storeii. 

Phajus Humboltn 
Cypripedium caudatum. 
Lycaste aromatica majus. 
Dendrobium Foelschii. 

,, dicuphum. 

,, undulatum. 


C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 







i8 


APPENDIX B. 


GARDENS AND FOREST DEPARTMENT, MALACCA. 

Malacca, 

18th January, 1892. 

Sir, — 1. I have the honour to submit my report on the Forest Department, 
Malacca, for the year 1891. 

♦ 

2. Mr. Derry left for Penang on the 21st January, 1891, and I was left in 
charge till 4th January, 1892. 

. 3. The principal work of the year has consisted of maintenance, general nursery s 
work and planting, experimental cultivation, and clearing land. 

4. The main drive has been kept in good repair by the Garden staff, and the 
entrance from Batu Berendam Road has been widened and raised and a new bridge 
built, so as to be above the water level during the rainy season. 

5. To the avenue of specimen local trees on the part of the drive which entirely 
belongs to the Garden, the following have been added — Kembang Semangkok, Mer- 
sawa, Kempas Sawang, Klat Nasi Nasi, Kluet, Malbira, Kabu'Kabu Utan, Rambahan 
Bukit, Merbaju, Kuayah, Kanidai, Pisang Pisang, Kranji Burong. Penagah Lilin has 
also been planted during the year. 

6. Thirteen flower-beds have been formed on one side of the main drive, and 
clumps of trees and shrubs planted. 

7. A collection of ornamental shrubs and flowering plants for supplying Govern- 
ment grounds, and for general distribution, has been maintained throughout the year. 


8. The nursery work is shown in the following analysis : — 


Seeds 

sown. 

Cuttings 

planted. 

Seedlings 

transplanted. 

No. of 
kinds. 

Trees prepared 
for box planting. 

No. of 
kinds. 

102 

4;337 

1 947-1 

20 

6,551 

53 


9. Altogether 3,777 trees have been planted during the year, which leaves a 
balance at the close of the*year : — 

Forest trees ready for planting, ... ... ... 2,298 

Fruit trees and other economics, ... ... ... 1,762 

Total', ... 4,060 


10. An area of about 7 acres has been cleared at Bukit Sabukor Garden, through 
which a new road 400 yards in length from the main drive to the Assistant Superin- 
tendent's Quarters was made, and the following trees planted:- — 


* 


My ristica fragra ns. 

Nutmeg, ' 

40 

Ca ryophyll u m aromaticum, . . . 

Clove, 

U9 

Achras sapota, 

Chiku, 

27 

Nep helium Lappaceum, 

Rambutan (Merah & Gading), 

96 

Ananassa saliva var. 

Mauritius Pine-apple, 

297 

Areca catechu, ... 

Areca-nut, 

81 


t Oronbque, 

104 

South American Tapioca for... 

Buck-stick, ... 

. Bitter-stick, 

100 

102 

experiment, 

) Camache, 

104 

\ 

s. Red Sourise, . . . 

121 


Total, ... 1,191 


l 9 


11. All the available land suitable for experimental cultivation has been culti- 
vated throughout the year. 

12. Egyptian cotton, annatto, tea, nutmeg, castor oil, Mauritius hemp, and cho- 
colate have been grown on the land adjoining the lake. 

13. Egyptian cotton (Gossypium arhoreum) made very little progress in its 
growth, the soil of the Settlement generally is not rich enough for its cultivation. 

14. Annatto (Bixa orellana) has grown well and could be cultivated readily ki 
almost every part of the Settlement, but there is little demand for it. 

1.5. Hybrid Assam tea (Thea chinensis , varj has grown well and is now 
in full bearings some of its seeds have been sown and germinated, the seedlings re- 
moved from the nursery bed and prepared for box planting. 

16. Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans ) grows satisfactorily on the hill sides, but it 
requires liberal manuring. 

17. Castor oil (Ricinus communis ) Calcutta variety grows well and fruits freely, 
but it was badly attacked by beetles lately and died. Its cultivation has now been 
discontinued. 

18. Mauritius hemp ( Furcrcea cubensis) grows with great vigour in the nur- 
series, and several hundred plants have-been planted near the lake. There are about 
8,000 plants in the nurseries which could be transplanted. 

19. Chocolate (Tkeobfoma cUcao ). — Chocolate plant has proved very capricious 
in Malacca, whole plantations going off without any apparent cause, except the attacks 
of leaf insects, while here and there a solitary plant will for many years survive its 
fellows and go oh bearing heavy crops of fruits. Therefore its cultivation has been 
discontinued in Malacca. 

20. Liberian coffee. — Coffee requires very liberal manuring. Coffee planted on 
the ordinary soil without manure has not proved a success. 

21. Cloves (Eugenia caryophyllataj . — Some of the plants in the Garden, planted 
by Mr. Derry, are now about 14 feet high, and in full blossom. The dry red soil of 
the Settlement suits cloves admirably. 

22. Maltese lemons, nut-megs, Indian mahogany, camphor, West India crab- 
wood, Mauritius hemp, Ceylon and Mauritius pine apples are growing well and made 
favourable progress during the year. 

23. A large supply of seeds of the common fruit trees such as durian, binjeh, 
pulasan, mangosteen, duku, langsat, rambutan, rambei, were sown in the. middle of 
die year, and a large number of seedlings transplanted and prepared for box planting. 

24. A portion of the shabby looking coolie line in the nursery near the lake 
collapsed a few months ago, and the remains of the building were removed and the spot 
cleared. A piece of jungle land about 2 acres in extent on the slope of the hill on 
the other side of the lake has been cleared, excavated and levelled, on which a new 
kapong-bark-wall coolie-line 60 x 25 feet with Mandor and Printer's Quarters has 
been built. The main posts are of eight-sided Tras Balau, Penagah Lilin, Tampinis 
and Sapan of 14 inches in diameter, and the other materials of hardwood scantlings 
3 to 7 inches in diameter and the roof of double rumbia attaps. Three kitchens have 
also been erected. 

25. Want of space in which to grow the increasing collection of plants neces- 
sitated the erection of an additional plant-house in the nursery for the cultivation of 
ferns, palms, and a great variety of other plants. This is a ventilated roofed house 
40 x 18 feet, the materials being hardwood scantlings 7 inches in diameter, and the 

, roof of double nipah attaps. 

26. A new cart road 600 yards in length from the Assistant Superintendent’s 
Quarters to the new coolie-line running parellel with the lake has been made at the 
close of the year. 



20 


27. The Garden staff and the Forest watchmen have been assisted by a 
band of extra coolies in clearing the brushwood between the lake and the new road, 
about 14 acres in extent, and a portion of it has been planted with 541 Nibong ( Oncos - 
perma tigillaria) and 45 Kabong palms. 

28. Owing to the unusually heavy rainfall, the general works of maintenance, 
especially of roads and paths, absorbed a larger amount of labour than usual. 

Forest Reserves . 

# 

29. The principal works of the year consisted of preservation and maintenance 
of boundaries. 

30. The number of fires which occurred this year within the Forest Reserves 

was two- one at Ayer Kerch which burnt down about 15 am s of lalang and brushwood 

in patches; and another at Sungei Udang which destroyed about 2 acres of lalang. 
Both fires, I believe, originated from the burning of lalang grass. The rapid and easy 
ignition of grass on hot days makes it exceedingly difficult to detect the offenders 
or to prevent the destruction. 

31. There were three prosecutions — two for cutting and removing timber from 
the reserves, and one for theft of fruit from the Bukit Panchor Reserve. Three per- 
sons were arrested and convicted, and fines to the amount of $26.09 inflicted, of which 
$6.09 was paid. 

32. The total number of Forest watchmen employed was 24, comprising one 
Corporal, eight Lance Corporals, fourteen Constables, and one Orderly. All worked 
well, and there were no complaints against them. They were supplied with uni- 
forms this year. 

33. About one-third of the useful timbers planted up on the watershed of the 
water works died, and the rest have grown well. Owing to much sickness and ex- 
cessive rainfall at Ayer Keroh, 1 was unable to get coolies to clearthe lalang and plant 
some more useful timbers on the watershed. It was very fortunate that I had not 
planted them, as a great fire occurred on the 13th of October last and burnt down all 
the lalang and brushwood on the land where I intended to plant the forest trees. 

34. Additions have been made to three Forest Stations during the year at a 
cost of $897.28. 

35. The wood-oil trees in the Sungei Udang Reserve have been farmed to a Malay- 
man of the name of Dali, at $36 per annum, who paid the rent in advance regularly. 

36. In October last, I purchased 1,500 Sagu Rumbia (Sagus la ?vts) seedling 
plants for $20, and planted them on the nursery opposite the new cooly-line, where 
they are growin g well. 

37. It has been proposed to take in the Bukit Kuan and Bukit Katil hill chain 
as mentioned in Mr. DERRY’S report for 1890, but as 1 had to do the Land Office work 
as well, 1 was unable to attend to the above work. During the year, I demarcated, 
subdivided and registered 579 holdings in the Mukims of Padang Semabok and Ujong 
Pasir and also attended to applications for lands for tapioca cultivations, etc., etc. 

38. Bukit Panchor Reserve.- — The Forest watchmen have been assisted by a 
band of coolies in reclearing three and a half miles of old boundaries, at a cost of $30. 

39. Batang Malaka Reserve. — Three miles of new boundary line have been 
opened, at a cost $17.50. 

40. Batu Tiga Reserve. — Half a mile of boundary line has been reopened at a 
cost of $2.25. 

41. Ayer Panas Reserve. — Two and a half miles of boundary line have been re- 
cleared, at a cost of $20.75. 

42. Two hundred and twenty-eight dried specimens of plants were collected dur- 
ing the year and forwarded to the Director of Gardens and Forests, Singapore ; some 


1 


21 


are of rare kinds. A large number of dried specimens of grasses and sedges were also 
collected for the Hon'bte D. F. A. Hervey, who, T believe, took them with him to 
England. 

Exchanges- 

43. Plants and seeds have been exchanged largely with Botanic Gardens, Sin. 

gapore, and also with Botanic Gardens, Penang. 

Total exchanges inwards — plants 723, seeds 44 kinds; outwards plants, 10,051, 

seeds, 33 kinds. 

44, Attached are statements of Revenue collected and Expenditure. for the vAai 
under review. 

Revenue for the year 1891. 


Revenue collected duv/ng 1891 : — 

By sales from Bukit Sabukor, 

Do. Government Reserves, 

Timber supply for use of P. W . D., 

Trfees supplied for Government ground buildings, 


$ c, $ c. 
119.49 
263.42 

382.91 


100.45 

3940 


Total, 

Expenditure for the year 1891 . 


'39- 8 5 

§522.76 


Vote, 


Forest Watchmen, ... • 

Garden, 

Ayer Panas Reserve, 

Batang Malaka Reserve, 

Batu Tiga Reserve, 

Bukit Panchar Reserve, 

Bukit Sabokor Garden, 

Pony Allowance, ... 

Field Allowance, 

Do., Mandor, 

Personal Allowance, 

Transport, 

Cartage, 

Freight and Shipping, 

Incidental Expenses, 

Herbarium Expenses, 

General Maintenance, 

Tools and Implements, ■ 

Purchase of Plants and Seeds, 

Do. 2 Bullocks and aCar 

Uniforms, • •• , , 

Building a cooly-line with Mandor and Printer £ 

Quarters attached, ■ ■■ • . 

* Building a ventilated Plant-house, 

Manure, ■ • 

Balance, 


$ c - 
6,000 00 


I c. 

6,000 00 


2,283 

01 

U39° 

82 

20 

75 

, >7 

50 

2 

25 

3° 

00 

35 

00 

43 < 

99 

TO 

00 

2 

83 

3° 

00 

18 

20 

95 

28 

87 

50 

' [ 5 

56 

3 6 

53 

285 

49 

18 

43 

54 

90 

1 10 

00 

126 

00 

190 

89 

47 

60 

99 

90 


5440 S 3 
559 17 


$6,000 00 


p. J. HOLM BERG, 

Acting Assistant Superintendent of Forests, Malacca, 


"If 


REPORT ON THE GARDENS AND FORESTS DEPARTMENT, 

STRAITS SETTLEMENTS.. 


BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 


Staff. 

1. The resignation of VINCENT CONIS at the beginning of the year, left a 
vacancy in the Upper Garden which was filled by CoORAY, a Cinghalese, from the 
Agricultural College in Ceylon, who gives satisfaction. 

The Mandor, RaSIP, formerly in charge of the Upper Garden was transferred 
to the Economic Garden, and for a short time his services were required as an inter- 
preter in Pahang during the war. Mohammed Aniff was transferred from the 
Economic Garden to the Upper Garden, but as he proved indolent it is proposed to 
dismiss him. . 

Visitors, 

2 . The number of visitors was as large as usual, and the band performances 
once a month on moonlight nights proved highly attractive. There was less damage 
done by theft in the Gardens and plant-houses. than in previous years. 

Aviaries. 

• 

3. During the year a number of animafs and birds were purchased or presented. 

Amono- the most important additions were : — One female Malay bear (Helarctos: 

malayanusj presented; one deer (male) (Rusa equinus) , presented; two remarkable 
varieties of the large squirrel ( Sciurus bicolor), purchased; guinea-pigs (Cavia 
porcella ) ; a rhinoceros hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros ), presented by Mr. J. Hilty ; 
an owl (probably Bubo sp.) said to have come from the Philippines, purchased; 
an egret (Ardea sp.) ; a serpent eagle (Spizaetus sp.) ; a brahminy kite (Haliaster 
Indus ) purchased; two pelicans (Pelicanus philippinensis) purchased; one lesser 
frigate bird { Phaethon minor) ; one large python, purchased, and others presented ; 
one Dips'as cynodon presented by Mr. HUTTON; one hamadryad (Ophiophagus 
elaps) captured; and one river turtle (Trionyx sp.) captured in Singapore, which has 
been p.ut into the lake. 

The only remaining wild dog and a fine sea-eagle were killed by poison admin- 
istered maliciously ; though there was little doubt as to the offenda-, the Police were 
unable to procure any evidence in the matter. This is the third case of malicious 
poisoning of the animals in the Gardens within the last few years. The ease with 
which poison can be procured in Singapore, and the difficulty of the Police in bring- 
ing home cases of this kind make it by no means easy to protect the animals from 
this treatment.. m 

Buildings. 

4. The cooly lines were re-erected and improved at a cost of $140. A small 
house was put up for the Kling coolies on the Economic Gardens, at the corner near 
Dalvey Road, so that this part of the Gardens may be protected from depredation. 

The large plant-house was repaired at a cost of $225. 

New or Rare Plants. 

5. During the year, many new plants were obtained from various countries, and 
from different parts of the Malay Peninsula, chiefly from Perak, Mount Ophir and 
Johor. Among the orchids never or rarely previously seen in flower here before, 
were the following: — Dendroblum phalcenopsid; Eria Kingii ; Liparis latifolia ; 


2 


Nephelaphyll u m pulchrum ; Angroecitm sesquipedale ; Stanhopea grandijlora ; 
Fernandezia acuta ; Pemstema elata ; Leptot'es bicolor Rodriguezia secunda ; 
Brassia cor data ; Oncidium papiho ; Cirrhopetalum m/fkoyanum ; Podockilus 

uncifera ; Arundina revoluta. . . 

The two new Cypripediums, C. O’ Brienianum and C. Chamberlainii were re- 
ceived in exchange. Of plants of interest other than orchids may be mentioned as 
having flowered this year : — D idyty ocar pus atrosanguineus ; D . semitorta } (from 
Mount Ophir) ; D. longipes, (Mount Ophwr) ; Aristolochia Roxburghiana , (Pahang); 
Leea amabilis, (Langkawi) ; Hypericum chinense ; Canscora new species (from Kuala 
Lumpur); Impatiens platypetala, (Sumatra); I. mirabilis, (Langkawi); Aglaonema 
costatum, (Langkawi). A very fine new Begonia from Tringganu, and two other species 
from Pulau Aor and Perak respectively were also introduced. . The Victoria regia, 
plants of which were formerly in one or more of the lakes, died out last year, and seeds 
since received have not germinated, so that now for the first time for many years the 
Gardens do not possess this plant. A very fine tree in the Economic Gardens, 
apparently an undescribed species of Mangifera ; was struck by lightning at the close 
of the year but it does not appear to be much injured. 

Lakes . 

6 . The big lake in the Gardens was drained off and thoroughly cleaned. _ This 
would have been soon necessary in any case, but it was found requisite to do it this 
year as a crocodile which escaped about two years previously had taken up its 
quarters in the lake, and defied all efforts to catch it. It at length beeame^dangerous, 
having seized one of the coolies while drawing water so that it was considered ad- 
visable to drain off the lake to destroy it. 

The new lake near the Tyersall Road was completed and planted with water 
lilies and other aquatics. The bridge across it was made and railed and the drive 
through the palmetum across the bridge into the Tyersall Road was finished. A 
Hibiscus hedge was planted on the outside and much work was done in removing 
unsightly trees and planting others in this pa'rt of the Garden. 

Economic Gardens. 

j. The arboretum on the upper part of the hill known as the Military Reserve 
has progressed favourably. Over ten acres was cleared of fern and brushwood and 
changkolled over. The plots for the different orders of plants have been marked out. 
and labelled and from Dileniaceae to Loganiaceae have been planted up with trees 
and shrubs, all of which have grown remarkably well, as the soil here is very good. 
Grass has been encouraged to grow and has been planted between the trees to pre- 
vent the excessive denudation caused by the rainfall, 

8 . The arranged collections of economics have been added to and continued, 
and many cuttings and seedlings of useful plants have been raised. 

9. A large number of economic plants have been sent out to various parts of 

the world both to private persons and to Botanic and Agricultural Stations. 

10. The Avocado pear fruited well this year, and a further supply of seed has 
been received from Kew and from Trinidad. The Cola-nut (Cola acuminata) has 
flowered but failed to set fruit. Styrax Benzoin also flowered for the first time for 

many years. . 

Attempts are being made to introduce finer classes of pine-apples into Singapore, 
and in answer t§ letters the Gardens received suckers of English hot-house pines 
from Kew and of West Indian strains from Trinidad. The Brazilian pine known as 
Abacaxi has also been promised but not yet received. 

Some plants of the Borneo Camphor tree ( Dryobalanops camphora) were 
obtained by the plant collector in the Indau district of Johor, apparently the only 
locality for it in the Malay Peninsula. Unfortunately most did not recover the effects 
of the long and difficult route by which they were brought down. 

ir. The barks of several of the mangrove trees are used here in tanning and 
it seemed possible that some use might be made of an extract of the bark. Experi- • 
ments have been made with several of these barks, but no record has been kept as 
far as I am aware as to what trees the bark was derived from. 

I boiled in a copper pan ten catties of the bark of the Tengah (Ceriops candol - 
leana) and the same amount. of Blukup (Rhizophora mucronata) and from each 
obtained a quantity, (10 per cent.), of a red brown astringent extract, which was easily 
hardened into a shining black brittle mass. _ . . 

• Samples of these extracts I sent to England in order to get an .opinion as to 
their possible value, but have not since received any reply. Mangrove bark extract 


3 


(from some other mangrove tree) was last year sent home from Jamaica, but was not 
taken up by the trade, apparently from want of knowledge as to the value of its 
tanning properties. As the extract is so easily made, and the bark is practically a 
waste product at the wood-cutting depots in the mangroves, it seems worth while 
to try if its manufacture cannot be taken up for profit. 

12. The large seeds of Millettia atropurpurea , a tree abundant in many parts 
of the Peninsula, were forwarded to the Gardens by Mr. Hill of Linsum Estate, with 
a suggestion that they might be utilised as a manure. The seeds were ground up 
and mixed with the soil and some plants of Ccnx lachryma~Jobi were planted in a 
pot with them, an exactly similar pot of the same plant in similar soil without the 
grounded seeds being put alongside for comparison. At first the unmanured plants 
grew much more rapidly than those with the 'manure, but eventually the latter 
caught them up and were even a little stronger and healthier, but the result did not 
show any great value in the Millettia seeds as a manure. 

13. The cultivation of indigo by the Chinese has lately increased to a consider- 
able extent, but the dye is only used locally and has not been exported. There 
seems to be an idea current that Singapore indigo will not set, - but always remains 
liquid. This is quite an error, as it is easily dried and made into a fine powder. 
Samples of this have been sent to England to be appraised, but it is hardly probable 
that the dye as prepared by the Chinese with the most rudimentary apparatus and in 
the most careless way can be of good quality. Still as this climate has certain ad- 
vantages over that of India for the cultivation of the plant, it may be well worth the 
attention of The planter. A Bulletin treating of the plant as grown here will be 
published as soon as the decision of the home authorities as to the sample sent is 
received. 

14. During the year, Mr. Derry in Malacca made some experiments in ex- 
tracting pine-apple fibre, which gave a good result, but the expense of the manufacture 
of the best quality seems to leave a comparatively small profit. Similar experiments 
have been made^ here, and long-leaved pines have been selected and cultivated for 
this purpose. 

15. Enquiries have been made lately for a material for brush-making to replace 
Piassava fibre now becoming scarce. Mr. BULKELEY, a gentleman much interested 
in the trade, visited the Gardens to make investigations on this point, and after exam- 
ination considered that selected fibres of the sugar palm (Arenga saccharifera) 
would possibly supply the want. As the supply of these fibres throughout the 
Peninsula is very large and no use is at present made of them, an important trade 
might be opened up should they be found suitable. Specimens of these fibres and 
others from the leaves of the sago palm, areca-nut and coco-nut are being prepared, 
and when the series is complete, it will be submitted to experts. 

16. Further experiments in ringing the gutta percha tree ( L?ichopsis t gutta) 
have been tried with greater success than on previous occasions. It is a very difficult 
tree to propagate by cuttings, probably on account of the slowness of its growth. 
Great interest has been taken in its cultivation lately, which has been stimulated by 
attempts to form companies for the extraction of the gutta from leaves and twigs. 

A rtist. 

17. The Artist continued his useful work of making careful drawings of the 
plants of importance economically or botanically of the Malay Peninsula. 

Herbarium. 

18. A very large series of specimens have been added to the herbarium, which 
is now becoming a truly representative one of the Malayan flora. 

In the early part of the year the Director visited the Dindings, and the Larut 
Hills, and the Kuala Kangsa district, whence an extensive series of plants both 
dry and living was obtained, much assistance being given by the Perak Govern- 
ment. Later the Mount Ophir range was explored and a considerable number of the 
plants peculiar to that district obtained, including many novelties, among which was 
a species of Balanophora , the first recorded plant of this order met with in the 
Malay Peninsula. In August, Mr. Lake of the Johor civil service and Lieutenant 
Kelsall, r. A., traversed the Peninsula from Kuala Sedili to Batu Pahat, and by per- 
mission of His Highness the Sultan of Johor, a plant collector accompanied the expedi- 
tion. Good and important collections were made along the Sedili and Sembrong 
Rivers, on the high range of Gunong Janeng, and at Batu Pahat. With Mr. Lake also 
the collectors visited Gunong Pulai and obtained a characteristic collection. In Decem- 
ber the Director visited, while absent on leave, the ridge of Gunong Panti, and 


4 


. collected there and at Kota Tinggi a number of specimens. Mr. T. Feilding, 
during his stay in Singapore, obtained a number of specimens from Muar, Kuala 
Indau and from the eastern islands of Pulau Aor, Pulau Tinggi and Pulau Dayong, 
lying off the east coast of Johor and a small series of orchid specimens was sent to 
the Gardens from Batu Pahat by NONGCHIE, Gardener to the Sultan of Joho # r. By 
these collections the flora of Johor hitherto almost a blank in the herbarium is very 
fairly represented. 

A good number of plants were collected in Singapore by the forest watchmen ; 
316 specimens were sent from Penang by Mr. Curtis ; 236 from Malacca by Mr. 
Derry ; and about 4o-from the Hon’ble D. F. A. Hervey ; 79 specimens chiefly from 
Perak from Dr. King. From Borneo, Dr. Haviland presented 382 specimens in- 
cluding a good series of his valuable collection from Kinabalu; 367 specimens from 
various Eas*t Indian collectors were presented by Kew ; and 478 from the collections 
of Wallich, .Beddome and Thwaites were received from the British Museum. 
Specimens of 430 flowering plants and 20 Algaee were received from Baron VON 
MUELLER from Australia. The total number of specimens received, most of which 
were mounted and arranged in the cabinets was upwards of five thousand. 

The number of specimens sent to various Museums is as follows : — 

2,902 to the British Museum. 

695 to the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

1,425 to Dr. KING, Calcutta. 

369 to Baron F. von Mueller. 

40 mosses to V. Brotherus. 

20 Melastomaceae to M. COGNIAUX. 

A few specimens were also sent to the Perak Museum, and to the Pharmaceuti- 
cal Society. 

The whole of the order Anonaceoe was sent on loan to Dr. King to aid him in 
elaborating that order for the materials for the Flora of the Malay Peninsula, and 
were returned by him critically named. 

Several new cabinets were purchased, and most of the old ones were repaired 
and altered so as to be more dust and insect-proof. 

Owing to the large accessions in the herbarium and library of late years it was. 
found requisite to enlarge the office, and a sum of $500 was voted for the ensuing 
year to pay for part of the needed alterations. 

Coco-nut Trees Preservation Ordinance . 

On the dismissal of the former Inspector, MUSSAFER Ali, M. A. Bakar was 
employed as Inspector under the Act, with one cooly. Inspections were made over 
the greater part of the island from time to time, and 278 notices to cut down 
trees and remtjve stumps and rubbish were served. The number of dying trees 
condemned and destroyed was 1,887, and 4>°5° stumps and pieces of dead trees 
were removed, and burnt or buried. Twenty notices were served on owners 
of tanneries requiring them to burn the refuse bark, in which the beetles were 
breeding, and five notices were served on owners of piles of cow-dung, and four 
on saw-mill owners requiring the removal of decaying saw dust. In all but ten 
cases the notices were speedily complied with, but great difficulty has been ex- 
perienced in the case of one of the saw-mills, in which the accumulation of saw 
dust for many years is so enormous that it is almost impossible to dispose of it. It 
covers a tract of ground of a very large extent to a depth of over four feet. To burn 
it on the spot would be almost impossible, and were it possible would cause great 
risk of firing the mills and other houses on the adjoining property, while to throw 
it into the sea, will be a long and expensive work. This, however, is being done. 
This mill has been doubtless the cause of a great deal of damage to the adjoining coco- 
nut plantations. 

Although a great deal of work has been done in the Kalang district, it still 
remains the worst in Singapore. This is owing partly to the saw-mills and tanneries 
and partly to the small patches of neglected ground, the owners of which are either 
too poor to remove the trees themselves, or have disappeared and cannot be traced. 
Still there is a marked improvement here, but as the vote for last year was insufficient 
to employ an adequate number of coolies to destroy the dead trees and stumps on 
the property belonging to the poorer classes here, a good deal of work has still to be 
done. 

Ten summonses were taken out against persons not complying with the notices 
served. In four cases an extension of time was allowed, and the work completed, 
and in two cases the defendants could not be found, so that they had to be struck 
off. In the remaining four, fines were inflicted to the amount of $24 in all. 


Expenditure. 

Vote, 

Additional Grant asked for, ... 

Salaries, ... • d 

Transport,... 

Uniforms, ... ... ••• 

Contractors for removing and destroying 
trees and stumps, 

Balance, 





$ c - 

$ 

c. 


... 700 

00 

. . . 

43 

00 

45 1 16 

89 33 

14 00 

* 


188 35 

0 16 

$743 00 

$743 

00 


Exchanges. 

Plants and seeds were received during the year from the following contri- 


butors : — 


Plants. Seeds. 


Royal Gardens, Kew, 


Do., 

/ * 

Ceylon, 


8 

Do., 

Trinidad, 

... 27 

17 

Do., 

British Guiana, , . . 


6 

Do , 

Jamaica, 


8 

Do., 

Grenada, 


1 1 

Do., 

Brisbane, 



1 

Do., 

St. Petersburgh, 



70 

Do., 

Buitenzorg, 



1 

Do., 

Mauritius, 

. . ; 

12 

Do., 

Hongkong, 


7 

Do., 

Fiji, ... 



2 

Do., 

Hanoi, 



1 

Do., 

Antigua, 


1 

s. Cannell & Son, England, 

38 

56 


,, Dammann & Co., Naples, 

„ Sander & Co., England, ... 

Baron von Mueller, Melbourne, ... 

Mr. Goodhart, Sumatra, 

Mr. Baker, Perak, 

Mr. Micholitz, . .. 

The Hon’ble A. L. Donaldson, Singapore, 
Mr. Larken, Johor, 

Mr. C. Hose, Sarawak, ... 

Mr. Pryer, Borneo, 

Mrs. Phillips, Singapore, 

The Hon’ble D. F. A. Hervey, Malacca, 
Mr. R. Little, Singapore, 

Mr. Robinson, Norfolk Islands, ... 

Sir G. Elphinstone, Perak, 

Mr. Vade, Singapore, 

The Hon’ble G. S. Murray, Singapore, 
Mr. Hilty, Singapore, ... 

Mr. von Ravensway, Singapore, ... 

Mr. Pereira, Singapore, ... 

Miss Ridley, England, ... 

Major-General Berkeley, England, 

Mr. Lake, Johor, 

Mr. Gueritz, Borneo, 


’ 48 


21 


20 


28 


100 

12 

1 


1 

12 

13 
7 2 

15 

25 

12 

5o 


1 box. 

9 packages, 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 


42 


23 


496 308 


The usual inter-departmental exchanges were very heavy, some thousands of young 
seedlings were received from Malacca. Duplicates of most of the rare and interesting 
plants brought from England by the Assistant Superintendent of Forests, Penang, 
mentioned in last year's Report, were received from Penang. 


6 


Plants and seeds were distributed to the following recipients : — 


Plants. Seeds. 


Royal Gardens, Kew, ... 

34 

. . . 

packages. 

Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, 

100 


do. 

Do., Trinidad, 



do. 

Do., Antigua, 


9 

do. 

Do., British Guiana, 


10 

do. 

Do., Bangalore, 

. . . 

9 

do. 

Do., Fiji, ... 


9 

do. 

Do., Lagos, W. Africa, 


10 

do. 

Do., Mauritius, 


5o 

do. 

Do., Hongkong, 

Do., St. Petersburgh, 


10 

do. 


14 

do.* 

Messrs. Sander & Co., England, 

400 


do. 

Major-General Berkeley, England, 

1 7 


do. 

Messrs. B. S. Williams, .... 

150 


do. 

Mr. Voute, Java, . 

22 


do. 

Dr. Buysmann, 

Mr. Goodhart, Sumatra, 


8 

do. 

30 


do. 

Messrs. Boustead & Co., 

2 


do. 

Superintendent Government Plantations, 
Perak, ... 

100 


do. 

Dr. F. Kamienski, Odessa, 

25 

50 

do. 

Mr. F. Griffith, Madras, 

32 

. . . 

do. 

His Excellency C- V. Creagh, Borneo, 

6 


do. 

Mr. W. B. Pryer, Borneo, 

25 

... 

do. 

Mr. G. Peche, Moulmain, ... ... 

His Majesty the King of Siam, ... 

St. Andrew's Flouse, Singapore, 

25 

. . . 

do. 

100 


do. 

100 


do. 

Mr. Brindaboon Ghose, Calcutta, 


10 

do. 

Mr. J. Ravensway, Singapore, ... 

7 


do. 


1,175 208 


Library. 

The following publications were added’ to the Library during the year: — 

Presented by the Royal Gardens, Kew : — 

Pierre, L. — " Flore Forestiere de la Cochin Chine," 14th Fasc,, 1889. 

Do-, do., 15th Fasc., 1890. 

Baker, J. G. — “New Ferns," 1874-91. 

Presented by the British Museum : — 

Nees AB Esenbeck — “ Systema Laurinearum," 1836-1840. 

Reichenbach Ludwig—" Nomenclator Botanicus Hortensis.” 

WlKSTROM — “ On Daphne,” 1820. 

CUNO — "Enumeratio Methodica Plantarum." 

Blanco — "Flora de Filipinas," 1837. 

Presl — "Tentamen Pteridographias," 1836. 

Crantz— r" Institutiones Rei Herbariae," Tomes 1 and 2, 1766. 

Jacquin — “Collectanea," 1, 2, 3, 4 Supplements, 1786-89. 

Vahl — " Symbolae," pars. i, 2 and 3. 

WendlAND — " Botanische Beobachtungen," 1798. 

SlEBOLD and ZUCCARINI—" Flora Japonica," (text only) 1835-70. 
Thunberg — " leones Plantarum Japonicum,” 1794. 

Host — “ leones et Descriptiones Graminum Austriacorum," 1801-09. 
Lambert — "Catalogue Botanical Museum," 1842. . 

Treub, Dr. — ’SLands Plantentuin te Buitenzorg," 18 Mei, 1817; 18 Mei, 
1892. 

Kamienski, Dr. — " Lentibulariaceae." 

Nordstedt, Otto — "Australasian Characea;," by Baron von Mueller. 
Sanyal — "A Handbook of the Management of Animals in Captivity in Lower 
Bengal." (Presented by Mr. W. Davison). 

OYSTER, Dr. — " Catalogue of North American Plants Paolo Kansan, 
U. S. A.,” 1888. ' 

HART, H. L. — " The Agricultural Record Trinidad, July, August, December, 
1890," — Sur 1'isonandra Percha on I Gutta. (Presented by M. Serullas.) 




7 

HENNINGS, P. — “Fungi Novo Guineensess” 

The following were purchased : — 

Hooker, Sir W. I. — “ leones Plantarum ” Vol. I — new series ; Vols. II, III, 
* and IV. 

Leonard and Christy — “ Dictionary — Materia Medica,” 1892. 

Curtis — “Botanical Magazine,” Vols. 17-70. 

Miquel — “ Illustrationes Flor. Archip. Ind.” 

Korthals — “ Verhandlingen.” 

The usual periodicals and the Annual Reports from the various Botanical Gar- 
dens were received. 


BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 
Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the year 1892. 


Receipts. 


By Balance in Bank, .. 
„ Government Grant, 
,, Sale of Plants and 
Flowers, 

„ Interest, 


Expenditure. 


1 

Salaries . 

$ c. 

826 04 

Herbarium Keeper, 

205 87 

8,500 00 

Mandor, 

165 96 

Assistant Mandor, 

4 25 

1,061 08 

Carpenter, 

164 46 

39 73 

Assistant Carpenter, 

86 3&I 


Printer, 

120 00 


Assistant Printer, 

61 00 


Peon, 

96 00 


Aviary-keeper, 

96 00 


Mason, 

50 00 


Police, 

346 5° 


Coolies, 

Bills. 

3,209 91 


Manure and Cartage, 

Food for Birds and Ani- 

37 1 38 


mals, 

754 14 


Pots and Tubs, 

Purchase of Plants and 

312 28 


Seeds, 

Purchase of Botanical Books 

368 38 


and Herbarium Paper, . . . 

1,116 01 
467 42 


Repairs to Buildings, 


Tools and Stores, 

Wood for Construction 

568 64 


purposes, 

Bricks, Lime, etc., 

378 12 


120 90 


Laterite and Gravel, 

346 66 


Director's Petty Expenses, 
Assistant Superintendent's 

i73 54 


Petty Expenses, 

131 78 


Miscellaneous, 

255 42 


Balance, 


$10,426 85 




c . 


4,606 33 




5*364 67 


9,971 00 

455 85 

1110,426 85 


li 1 


i 


8 




FOREST DEPARTMENT, SINGAPORE. 

Area. 

1. No additional land was taken over this year* so that the area remains at 
14,509 acres 1 rood and 3 poles. 

Staff. 

2. The same number of Forest Watchmen was employed as last year, viz., 

23 in all. All worked well. # 

Buildings. 

3. Four Forest Stations have been re-built, viz., at Changi, Bukit Timah, Sungai 
Jurong and Bukit Mandai, at the expense of $290.43 each. 

Farming. 

4. One pepper encroachment only was leased this year, the others and the old 
gambir plantation having ceased to be sufficiently productive to let. . 

Licenses . 

5. Passes for cutting mangrove for firewood, fishing stakes and rattans were 
given out in the reserves of Seletar, Sungai Jurong, Changi, Kranji, [Sungai Morai, 
Toas and Pandan, and brought in a revenue of $470 under the following items : — 


Mangrove — firewood, 

... $310 

Fishing Stakes, .. . 

... 139 

Rattans, 

14 

Lalang, etc., 

7 


$ 47 ° 


Planting. ' ■ 

6. The planting up of waste land has been carried on as rapidly as possible 
throughout the year. 

At Bukit Mandai 2,090 young plants of Para Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) were 
planted and 1,950 of these are growing very well and strong. With them 50 seed- 
lings of Castilloa elastica have been planted. This covers an area of 13 acres 
of previously useless land. In a few years these trees should produce a revenue from 
the sale of the India-rubber and will also be of value in producing a good stock of seed. 

At Upper Mandai 400 seedlings of the broad-leaved mahogany (Swietiena 
macrophylla) have been planted together with 500 seedling oaks (Quercus) covering 
an area of 10 acres. There are great hopes of the success of this mahogany in the Pen- 
insula. It grows well and strongly and does not seem at all inclined to die down on 
account of poverty of soil as. the common mahogany does. The oak gives a useful 
timber with a good figure. 

The fireguard at the 12th mile, Kranji, has grown well and the lalang has been 
kept down so that there is now but little fear of damage from fire here. Along the 
upper portion of the hill, an area of 15 acres has been planted up with various 
trees, upwards of 2,050 in number, including Penaga (Myristica elltptica ) , a good 
timber; Saga (Adenanthera pavonina ) , a rapid growing tree which will aid in 
keeping down the grass ; (Cassia siamea) ; Rasak (Vatica russak ), a good timber 
much in request and getting scarce; Ebony (Maba buxifolia) r known as " kayu 
arang ” (300 plants) ; Kranji (Dialium), three species, 700 trees, all good timbers, 
indeed equal in strength and durability to any timber in the Peninsula; and 540 other 
trees in small lots. % 

A nursery was started at Bukit Timah in which 6,000 seeds of Belian, 
(Eusideroxylon schwageri, Teysm.) have been planted, and seedlings of this most 
valuable tree raised from a small quantity of seed were planted here and there in 
other reserves. 

Along the edges of all the newly planted ground, a border of Gelam trees 
( Melaleuca leucadendron) has been planted and is coming up well. 

During the past ’two years many acres of worthless grass land have been 
planted up with timber trees, which in a year or two will be able of themselves to 
keep down the lalang, which otherwise would choke them. Unfortunately the vote 
for the Forests for next year (1893) has been so reduced that not only can no more 


9 



planting be done but it will be impossible to properly weed and clean the trees 
already planted. This is the more to be regretted as it has been at last found 
possible to induce the Natives to bring for sale at cheap rates seeq and seedlings 
of the most valuable timbers. Belian seed too has been, through the aid ot Mr. 1RYER 
of Sandakan, sent in large quantities, and did funds permit it would be possible to 
plant many acres of worthless ground with this tree which produces probably the 

best timber in the Oriental region. . 

The tree is being cut down wholesale in Borneo and exported, but in Singapore 
the wood is very expensive, and, with the destruction that is going qn, will ere long 
be even more so. There is an idea in Singapore that it is too hard to work, but the 
great use of it in Borneo shows the fallacy of this. Like all good timbers it is of 
course very hard, and the Chinese carpenter finds it more .profitable to work with 
the softer and inferior woods, not only on account of their being easier to cut but also 
because they soon perish and have to be replaced. There is no reason except that 
of expense why the timbers of at least the more important buildings should not be 

of Belian instead of softer and more perishable woods. 

No one who visits the saw-mills of Singapore can fail to be struck with the poor 
class of timber to be seen there now many planks are cut from the sap wood ot 
the inferior classes of Meranti and SerSm, and every year must see a still poorer 
supply of good timber, as the Siak, Johor and Bornean forests are being heavily 
-denuded. It would, therefore, seem advantageous to plant up the worthless lalang 
fields with seedlings of such timbers as Belian, Kranji, Rasakandthe like, in order that 
by the time all the good accessible woods are destroyed, a fresh supply may be ready. 

Nor would any future time be more suitable than the present while the seed 
of these trees is still procurable. Belian seed which, if properly planted and looked 
after, would develop into valuable timber, is wasting in the Bornean forests. Kranji 

fruit is imported in quantity into Singapore merely for eating, the seed being prac i- 

cally destroyed. It was formerly abundant in Singapore, but was in such demand for 
coffins that the Chinese practically exterminated the tree, shipping the wood to China 
Both trees grow rapidly and well here, and at a small expenditure might be planted 

extensively. 

Fires. 


7 There were eight fires during the year, some of considerable extent. One 

broke out at Bukit Panjang, and burnt about ,50 acres of lalang and medium sized 

trees It had been raised by two Chinese for the purpose of clearing a small patch 
of gfass on their property in order to plant pineapples. They were arrested and 
fined $25 apiece ; one paid the fine, the other suffered a month s imprisonment. 

At Bed P ok 40 acres of grass were burnt in February ; at Jurong one acre rf 

arass and fern; at Chan Clm Kang two acres of grass were burnt in July In the 

Changi reserve there were no less than four fires, about 32 acres of grass, fern and 
small trees being burnt. ' / 


F> i / / I n ‘t't C 


S. The were 15 cases of prosecution for cutting and removing timber, grass, etc. 

Of these, four defendants were cautioned and discharged, and m one case ^ de- 
fendant absconded. .The remainder were convicted and fines to the amount of 
$141.50 inflicted, out of which, $65 was paid. 


Expenditure. 


Vote, ... 

$4,000 00 

Salaries, 

Buildings, 

Uniform, 

Miscellaneous, ... ■ - 

... $2,748 17 
871 28 
147 00 
226 77 

Balance, 

$6 78 

Revenue . 


Encroachment, ... 

Sales of Forest Produce, ... 

... $ 15 00 

470 00 


$485 00 


HENRY N. RIDLEY, 

Director of Gardens and Forests, S. S~ 


IO 


APPENDIX A. 


GARDENS AND FORESTS DEPARTMENT, PENANG. 

1. The only important change in the staff was caused by the death of Mr. P. 
NlEUKEY, who had been Overseer of the Waterfall Garden almost from its commence- 
ment. Mahomed Haniff, now in the last year of his apprenticeship, is acting as 
Overseer on probation. 

2. After a further trial of five months, during which the health of myself and 

family suffered severely from fever, it was found necessary to vacate the Garden bunga- 
low and rent quarters as convenient to the work as possible. Thinning out the jungle 
in the neighbourhood of the bungalow had no effect whatever in making the bunga- 
low more healthy. I am thankful to say that the change has proved most beneficial, 
as none of my family have since suffered from fever, and myself only slightly, 
caused in my case by exposure such as would induce fever almost anywhere in the 
tropics. $ 

Maintenance of Forest Reserves. 

\ 

3. In this branch of the Department the work of the year consisted principally 
in the performance of Police duties, and the re-clearihg of boundaries. Forty-three 
persons were prosecuted for various offences, the more important being timber 
cutting, encroachment, and setting fire to Crown forest. Of this number, thirty-two 
were convicted and fined in sums varying from one to fifty dollars ; the total amount 
aggregating $314. 

4. Since January, 1889, up to which time great leniency was shown, in order 
that the villagers and hill cultivators principally concerned might become acquainted 
with the limits within which timber cutting or cultivation is prohibited, and which 
had been defined during the two previous years, two hundred and fourteen persons 
have been prosecuted, and it is safe to assert that had no conservancy measures 
been taken up to the present, there would now be but little old forest remaining 
in Penang. 

5. During the last three months of the year, thirty-seven miles of boundary 
were gone over and re-cleared where it had become overgrown with lalang, resam , 
&c. It is principally on abandoned land and along the edges of clearings that 
difficulty is experienced in keeping the boundaries open. In old jungle there is 
scarcely any trouble. 

6. In this connection I may point out that satisfactory maps of each separate 
reserve are much needed. 

Waterfall Garden. 

7. Perhaps the most noticeable of the many improvements effected during the 
year is the re-placing of two wooden bridges over the main stream with new opes of 
iron and granite. One of these old bridges was in existence before the land was 
acquired by Government for the purpose of forming a public garden, and the road 
was laid out so as to utilize it, but for the past two years it has been in so unsafe 
a condition that carriage traffic has been suspended, greatly to the inconvenience of 
visitors. The new one has been built a few feet higher up the stream, and the 
approaches improved by altering the curve on one side, and cutting down the road 
to an easier gradient on the other. 

8. The second bridge was built by the Garden coolies about five years ago, 
and the masonry is still in good condition. What has now been done is to replace 
the wooden beams with an iron frame-work, granite pillars at each end, and an iron 
railing. At the same time it has been ^raised about eighteen inches which has afford- 
ed an opportunity of improving the gradient of the road. 

g. Various other works of importance have been carried out, including the 
cutting down and sloping a steep cliff, thirty feet high, close by the main bridge, and 
re-metalling 9,448 superficial feet of carriage road. The development of the sur- 
roundings of this slope will be gone on with in 1893. 

10. Several beds of annuals and shrubs have been re-planted, some of the . 
former three times, supply of plants being maintained in pots and boxes for this 
purpose so that the beds are not long out of flower. 


11. In no previous year has there been so much colour in the Garden, and 
this is in a great measure due to the liberal use of hybrid varieties of Indian shot 
(Canna indica ), obtained in Europe during my visit in 1891. These have been 
propagated extensively from the original thirteen varieties brought out, and several 
hybrids of merit have been raised here during the year. 

12. The lily pond has been deepened, and the Victoria regia continues in good 
condition. 

13. A few nutmeg and clove trees have been planted near the turning to the 
bungalow, where there were already durians, betel-nut and other interesting things 
for which the Island is famous, so that now visitors from steamers, who have often 
very little time to spare, will be able to see these trees in one place without loss of 
time. 

14. In the Chitty Temple nursery a collection of “Pisangs” ( Bananas ) have 
been planted and labelled distinctly with the local names, for the purpose of com- 
paring their relative merits, and of affording a supply of young plants to correspond- 
ents. 

15. Consequent on the 'Municipal Commissioners laying the main from the 
new Reservoir across one of the Garden roads, at a height of about three feet above 
the level, it became necessary to make a detour involving the cutting of about six 
hundred lineal feet of new carriage .road. This was brought to the notice of the 
Commissioners, and also the damage done to other parts of the Garden road by cart- 
ing over it all the material required for constructing the Reservoir. The Commis- 
sioners agreed to re-metal the road referred to and to supply the necessary labour 
for cutting the new portion, supervision to be undertaken by the Garden staff. 
When completed this will afford an easier means of access to the Reservoir and upper 
portion of the ground. 

16. No considerable addition has been made to the area of the Garden, but 
much lias been done towards developing the land already inclifded by planting 
additional groups of flowering trees, palms, &c. and by reducing to more effective 
proportions the clumps of jungle left standing when the first clearing was made. 

17. The plant sheds, of which there are four, exclusive of the shelter, near, the 
band-stand and those in the nursery, are a source of never failing interest to visitors 
and residents of Penang. These have been numbered for convenience of reference, 
and a notice board placed at the entrance gate indicating the route by which these 
sheds, waterfall, swimming bath, &c. can be most conveniently reached. 

18. No. 1 is an octagonal shed with a water tank, rockery and fountain in the 
centre, and is such as in an English nursery would be termed a show-house. Moder- 
ate sized palms in pots and tubs surround the water tank, and the side beds are 
filled with a great variety of ornamental foliage, flowering plants, ferns, &c. which 
are changed from time to time. Four new wings, each 16 x 20 feet, have been added, 
and more lightly shaded than the centre, and a pretty regular display of annuals 
and other flowering plants is kept up in these. 

19. No. 2 is situated just at the end of the lower bridge. It is a span-roofed 
shed 88 x 40 feet principally devoted to aroids, the whole of which are planted out 
among rockwork. The posts and roof have been entirely renewed during the past 
year and a re-arrangement of the plants made, those that had grown too big being 
removed to the shady ravine leading to the swimming bath. For effectiveness and 
economy in labour this system of planting among rockwork has much to recommend it. 

20. Shed No. 3 opposite the entrance to the plant nursery, erected about six 
months ago, is devoted to orchids and ferns in pots. It has a double span roof and 
covers an area of 42 x 58 feet. The covering is made of Bertam chicks and attaps, 
and the beds on which the plants are set is built of rough stones, the interstices 
planted with small ferns, mosses, &c. In Table C I have given a list of some of 
the interesting plants, from a decorative point of view, that flowered in the Garden 
during the year, many of which were placed in this shed during the time they were 
in flower. Angrecum sesquipedale , H abenaria carnea, Cattleyas, Calanthes and 
Dendrobiums were much admired. 

21. Shed No. 4 is situated in the upper portion of the grounds and the plants, 
consisting of local tree ferns, aroids, begonias, &c., are all planted out in the same 
manner as No. 2. 


22. The principal trouble in connection with these plant sheds is the perishable 
nature of the material used, but with the amount granted for maintenance of this 
garden it is not possible to do more than has been done. Light T and angle iron 
structures, such as are used all over India, with the modifications rendered necessary 
by difference of climate, would, as I have pointed out in previous reports, be more 
ornamental, prevent the destruction of many valuable plants by the falling of rotten 
supports or’unavoidable accidents during repairs, and prove cheaper in the end. 

23. The demand for plants has been largely in excess of previous years, and 
although the prices charged are very moderate, $61 2.24 was received and paid into 
Revenue account, as against $312,91 in the previous year. 

24. The swimming bath has not been so well patronized as in 1891, the falling- 
off being principally in annual subscriptions. The total amount received is $1 17 - 95 * 
against $180.05 in 1891. 

25. A large number of plants and seeds have been exchanged, much to the 
advantage of the & Garden ; the additions to the orchid collection especially being of great 
value. A list of the principal donors and recipients is given in Appendix C annexed. 

Government Hill Gardens. 

26. Fruit trees in the Experimental Nursery were manured about the beginning 
of the rains, but no fruit of any importance has vet been produced. A small plantation 
of Liberian coffee and nutmegs was made in thi$ nursery in March, but the former 
were soon attacked with leaf disease. 

27. The routine work of maintaining the Garden and grounds in connection 
with Government bungalow has been carried on much as in previous years. A fair 
display of flowering plants in beds, and in pots for the decoration of the corridor, occ. 
has always been available, and occupants of the bungalow have been supplied daily 
with vegetables. 

Coco-nut Tree Preservation. 

28. The inspector with one climber and one notice server has been employed 
alternate months in Penang and Province Wellesley, and the work has been satis- 
factorily performed. 

Four hundred and sixty-nine (469) notices were served ordering the destruction 01 
5,815 dead trees, or portions of trees, and 60 heaps of refuse likely to prove breeding 
place for the beetles. 

29. In the majority of cases these notices were complied with, but in 88^ cases 
it was found necessary to enforce the law, and fines were inflicted amounting al- 
together to $198. 

General. 

30. Press of work in the Waterfall Garden, especially since the death of the late 
Overseer, prevented much time being devoted. to the collecting of plants. 

A hurried trip to Pulau Langkawi in the month of April yielded a good result 
a great many of the plants collected having been exchanged for South American and 
African orchids. 

31. Brief visits were also paid to the Dindings, Kedah, and Perak In connection 
with the work of the department, and a few plants obtained on each occasion. 

32. The Director of Gardens and Forests visited this Settlement in February, 
and afterwards proceeded to Perak; while he remained in that State his collections 
of living plants were forwarded to the Penang Gardens to be established, and sub- 
sequently a portion were sent on to Singapore. 

33. A good deal of work was got through at the Residency, principally by the 
aid of convict labour. This consisted in raising the ground on the Tramway side 
and of planting a screen of quick-growing trees to shut off the buildings belonging 
to this Company. Clumps of shrubs were planted on the land raised, and a num- 
ber of fruit trees planted in the background. 

34. As in former years, the supervision of planting shade trees, and Dato 
Kramat Garden has been undertaken for the Municipality. 1 he laying out of the 
new Cemetery has also been completed. 

35. The total expenditure of the department for the year amounts to $9,657.63, 

and the revenue received from sale of plants, &c., $753- 2 4- The total amount of fines 
in connection with the preservation of forest reserve and coco-nut trees amount to 
$512, as shown in Table A annexed. % 

C. CURTIS, ; % 

Assistant Superintendent of Gardens and Forests. 


Penang, 23rd January, 1893. 


i3 


Table A. 

Revenue and Expenditure — Gardens and Forest Department , Penang , 1892. 


Revenue. 


Expenditure. 


Grant — Maintenance of For- 
est Reserves, . . . $2,300.00 


Grant — Maintenance of Wa- 
terfall Garden, ... $4,500.00 


Salaries of Forest Guards, Apprentice 


Grant — Maintenance of 
Grounds of Government Bun- 
galow and Experimental Nur- 
sery, , . ... $2,000.00 


c. 


and Messenger, ... 

997 

62 

Salaries of Coolies re-clearing Boun- 



daries &c., ... 

233 

id 

Maintenance of Kubang Ulu Nursery, 

258 

20 

Tools and Material, ... 

28 

17 

Oil for Stations, 

16 

80 

Repairs to Boat, 

5 

05 

House Rent, ... 

210 

00 

Plants and Seeds, 

79 

32 

Materials for Herbarium, 

36 

82 

Cost of Periodicals, ... 

20 

00 

Transport, &c., 

52 

40 

Miscellaneous, 

6 

00 


L943 

48 

Balance, 

356 

52 


2,300 

00 

"Salaries of Gardeners and Coolies, ... 

3,237 

04 

Plants and Seeds, 

86 

54 

Pots, 

92 

50 

Tubs and Baskets, 

3i 

64 

Planks for Plant-cases, &c., ... 

69 

46 

MaterialforextendingPlant Shed No. 1, 

40 

88 

,, renewing Plant Shed 



No. 2, 

,, new Orchid Shed, 

1 6 1 

48 

IOI 

78 

Corrugated Iron for Drying Shed, .... 

l 9 

96 

Cartage, 

99 

00 

Freight, 

3i 

22 

Road Metal, ... ... 

1 10 

40 

Laying on Water to Plant Sheds, ... 

27 

42 

Tools and Material, 

249 

36 

Petty Expenses, ... ... .... 

1 16 

20 

Miscellaneous, 

24 

40 


4)499 

22 

^ Balance, ... ... 

0 

78 


i 0 

0 

m 

00 

"Salaries, 

1,614 

96 

Seeds, 

46 

04 

Pots, ... 

48 

42 

Tools, ... 

55 

62 

Manure, 

114 

20 

Temporary Quarters, .. . 

1 16 

56 

Transport, 

1 

60 


L997 

40 

^ Balance, 

2 

60 


2,000 

00 


H 


Table A, — Continued. 

Revenue and Expenditure , Gardens and Forest Department, 
Penang, i8g2, — Continued. 


Revenue. 


Travelling and Personal Al- 
lowances, ... ... $700.00 


Expenses of carrying out 
Provisions of Coco-nut Trees Pre 
servation Ordinance, ... $700.00 


Expenditure. 



$ c. 

r Pony Allowance, 

390 19 

Gharry hire, ... 

33 64 

Passage, Personal Allowances, &c. in 


connection with Visit to the 


Dindings, 

32 70 

Passage, Personal Allowances &c., 


Perak, 

52 50 

Expenses and Allowances in connec- 


tion with Visit to Langkawi, 

19 75 

Expenses and Allowances, Kedah, . . . 

*2 75 

Field Allowance, 

8 00 


* 549 53 

Balance, ... ... ... • 

i 5 ° 47 


700 00 

Salaries, 

544 40 

Allowances, 

120 00 

Petty Expenses, ... ... .... 

3 60 


668 00 

Balance? ... 

32 00 

• ' 1 

700 00 


$ c. 

Plant Sales, 612 24 

Receipts frpm Swim- 
ming Bath, ... 1 17 95 

Sales of Confiscated 
Timber, &c., ... 23 05 


Grand Total,... 


753 24 


Grand Total Expenditure, 


$9,657 63 


i5 

Table B. 


A List of the Principal Contributors and Recipients of Plants and Seeds. 


• 

Remarks. 

Contributors. 


Superintendent of Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, 

Miscellaneous plants. 

Director of Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg, ... 

Palm seeds and orchids. 

Director of Gardens and Forest Department, Singapore, 

Miscellaneous seeds and 
plants. 

Superintendent of Botanic Gardens, Hongkong, 

Seeds. 

Superintendent of State Gardens, Gwalior, 

Roses, ferns, &c. 

Superintendent of Gardens, Saharanpur, 

Guava seeds. 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., England, 

Orchids. 

Messrs. Jas. Veitch & Sons, England, 

Miscellaneous plants and 
seeds. 

Mr. H. G. Batten, Mergui, 

Orchids, &c. 

Messrs. Hughes, Do., 

Orchids. 

Sir Graeme Elphinstone, Perak, 

Orchids, &c. 

Mr. G. Peche, Moulmain, 

Orchids. 

Mr. W. Scott, Perak, 

Australian seeds. 

Messrs. Baldwin, Do., 

Miscellaneous plants. 

Mr. J. C. Ravensway, Singapore, 

Orchids. 

Mr. E. C. Harte, Penang, 

Australian seeds. 

Mr. A. T. Bryant, Dindings, 

Miscellaneous plants. 

Mr. L. Hawkins, Do., 

Do. 

Mrs. Pole Carew, Ceylon, 

Orchids. 

Recipients. 


Director of Royal Gardens, Kew, 

• 

Miscellaneous plants. 

,, of Botanic Gardens, BuitenzQrg, ... 

Do. 

,, of Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, 

Do. 

,, of Gardens and Forest Department, Singapore, 

Do. 

Superintendent of State Gardens, Gwalior, 

Do. 

'Right Rev. Bishop Hose, Sarawak, 

Cannas, &c. 

His Honour Mr. Justice Goldney, 

Ferns, &c. 

Sir Graeme Elphinstone, Perak, 

Nutmegs. 

Messrs. Jas. Veitch & Sons, England, 

Miscellaneous. 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., Do., 

Do. 

The Hon’ble the Resident Councillor, Penang, 

Do. 

The Resident of Perak, 

Vegetable seeds. 

Mr. G. Peche, Moulmain, ... 

Ferns, &c. 

Mr. L. Hawkins, Dindings, 

Nutmegs and coffee. 

Mr. J. C. v. Ravensway, Singapore, 

Miscellaneous plants. 

Mrs. Mower, Rangoon, 

Begonias, &c. 

Mr. S. P. Chatterjee, Calcutta,... 

Bananas, &c. 

Mrs. Pole Carew, Ceylon, 

Orchids. 

Superintendent of Lower Perak, 

Seeds. 


* 


[6 

Table C. 


A List of the more important Plants and Trees flowered in the 
Botanic Gardens , Penang 3 1892 . 


Name. 

Remarks. 

Achimenes hyb. vars., 

In flower nearly all the year. 

,, tubiflora ... 

Acrotrema costatum, .... 

Aerides virens, 

„ odoratum, 


Amorphophallus sp. n., . .1 

Collected in Langkawi. 

Angrecum bilobum, ... 

Madagascar orchids of great interest, especially 

,, scottianum > 

,, sesquipedale, J 

A. sesquipedale. 

Arisema anomalum, ... 

Collected in Perak ; recently figured in “ Botanic 

fimbriatum, ... 

Magazine.” 

Habitat uncertain until I found it abundant in 

J; t 

Anthurium Dechardii, 

„ ferrierense, > 

Langkawi. 

Nearly always in flower. 

,, Andreanum, J 

Aristolochia elegans, 

Very free flowering climber. 

„ ridicula, 

» sp., 

Amaryllis hyb. vars.,... 

Many plants from Veitch’s seed. 

Arundina bambusifolia, 

,, sp.,sepalsand petals white 

Siam. 

Aphelandra fulgens, ... 

.^Echmea fulgens, 

• Aischynanthus Wallichii, 

Beautiful b^ket plant. 

,, marmorata, 

Aster, 

Best from- Indian saved seeds. 

Bignonia magnifica, ... 7 

Two excellent climbers ; seldom out of flower 

,, Chamberlaynii, j 

Bauhinia acuminata, 

• 

Brassaia actinophylla, 

Brownea grandiceps, 

Bcea sp. n., 

Collected in Langkawi. 

Bougainvillea glabra, 

Cattleya aurea, 

» gig as > 

„ trianae, 

„ Lawrenciana, 

Cattleyas are among the most lovely of the orchid 

„ intermedia, ... 1 

tribe. Several species do well here with pro- 

„ eldorado, ... ' 

„ Mossiae, 

per attention, especially as regards water. 

„ Gaskelliana, 

,, Schroederae, 

„ speciosissima, J 

Cypripedium niveum, • > 

„ bellatulum, > 

A great number of these flowered. 

„ insigne var, exul, J 

„ insigne Lowii, 

„ barbatum, 

„ haynaldianum, 

• 

Crossandra undulcefolia, 

One of the best bedding plants. 

Crypteronia pubescens, 

Tree with catkin-like flowers. 

Cyrtodeira fulgens, ... .7 

,, chontalensis, J 

Largely used as rock plants. 

Calanthe vestita, ... 7 

Several hundreds grown annually and flower 

„ rubens, ... J 

from November to February. 

„ „ var. alia, 


„ regnieriana, 

„ veratrifolia, ... 

Veitchii, 

„ limatodes, ... 



Table C, — Continued. 


A List of the more important Plants and Trees flowered in the 
Botanic Gardens , Penang , i8g2, — Continued. 


Name. 

Remarks. • 

Coelogyne Parishii, ... 

„ Cumingii, ... 


,, asperata, ... 


„ pandurata, 

Several of botanical interest. 

„ sps., 

Crinum Mooreii, 


,, pedunculatum, 

The plant referred to in FI. Br. Ind. 

Clerodendron macrosiphon, 

Free flowerinP useful shrub. 

„• . nutans, J 

0 

Calophyllum inophyllum, 

Ornamental trees. 

Cinnamomum iners, ... r 

Cassia fistula, ... ' 


Cannaindica, 

Most useful for beds or borders. 

Dillenia ovata, 

Dendrobium chrysotoxum, 

„ Dearii, ... 

Handsome tree. 

Most of the dendrobiums from Borneo, Java, the 

„ secundum, 

Philippines and Lower Burma do well in 

,, moschatum, 

Penang. 

„ Pierardii, 

„ densiflorum, 

„ cretaceum, 

,, Farmerii, 

„ formosum, 

„ fimbriatum, 

„ „ oculatum, 


,, Dalhousianum, 


,, tortile, ... 

■ 

„ sp. from Sikkim, 

„ Bensonii, 

„ phalanopsis var. 

schroederianum ... 
„ dicuphum, 

,, Veitchii, 


Didymocarpus lacunosa, . . 

Native species recently figured in “ Botanic Mag- 

azine.” 

„ cordata, 

Collected in Langkawi. 

,, crinita, 


n sps., ... 

Several unnamed. 

Dianthus smensis, 

Good beds. 

Daisy, ... ... ") 

Dahlia, ... ... J 

Fairly good beds. 

Eucharis amazonica, ... 

Grown in every garden. 

„ Candida, 

• 

Eranthemum sps., 

Several. 

Eriasps.,... 

Several, mainly of botanical interest. 

Epidendrum sp., 

- 

Faradaya papuana, 

Useful climber. 

Gloriosa superba, 

Collected in Penang ; rare. 

Gesnera, 1 

Many varieties. 

Gloxinia,... J 

Gomphrena striata, ... ") 

Good beds. 

„ purpurea J 

Gaillardia hybrida, ... ... 

Good beds. 

Globba sps., 3 unnamed, 

Hibiscus sinensis, 

Collected in Perak and Penang. 

Many varieties; used for beds and hedges; always 
• in flower. 

Helichrysum (everlastings), 

Very fine orchid. 

Habenaria carnea, 

Impatiens sultanii, 

Always in flower. 

„ Hawkerii, ... 


,, sp., unnamed, 

Received for I. Hawkerii. 

„ mirabilis, ... 



Table C, — Continued. 

A List of the more important Plants ar.d Trees flowered in the 
Botanic Gardens , Penang, 1892, — Continued . 


Name. 


Ipomea superbiens, ... 
Ixora Duffii, 

Jacaranda mimossefofia, 
Jatropha sp., 

Jasminum sps., 

Lselia Dayana, 

Lycaste Skinnerii alba, 

,,, aromatica, 

Leea sps. 2, 

Lagerstraemia floribunda, 
Lon ice ra sp* (Honeysuckle), 
Medinilla javanica, 

,, sp., 

Mussaenda sps., 

Oncidium crispum, ... 

,, papilio majus, 

,, ornithorrynchum, 

,, splendidum, 
Phalanopsis violacea, 

,, cornu-cervi, 

„ amabilis,,.. 

„ grandiflora, 

„ tetraspis, 

„ suraatrana, 

Phajus alba, 

,, grandifolius, ... 
Piper magnoliaefolia, . . . 
Plumbago capensis, . . . 
Petunia nyctaginioeflora 
Phlox Drummondii, ... 
Phyllobaea sp. n., 

Ruellia rosea, 

Renanthera sp., 

Russelia juncea, 

,, floribunda, ... 
Saracaindica, 

Saccolabium Hendersonii, 

,, curvifolium, 

,, Blumii, ... 

Spathoglottis Wrayii, 

„ plicata, 

,, alba, 

Spathodea campanulata, 
Sericographis squarrosa, 
Salvia splendens, 

,, azurea, 

Streptocarpus hyb. vars., 
Sunflower, 

Torenia Fournerii, 

Tainia penangiana, ... 
Tecoma stans, 

Tricbopilia coccinea, ... 
Tacca cristata, 

„ pinnatifida, 

Veronica rosea, 

,, alba, 

Vanda tricolor, 

„ suavis, 

„ gigantea, 

„ insignis, 

,, Hookerii, 

Victoria regia, 

Wormia Burbidgii, ... 

,, suffruticosa, ... 
Zygopetalum Mackayii majus, 


Remarks. 

Free flowering shrub. 
Handsome flowering tree. 
Several. 




Unnamed. 
Fine tree. 
Good beds. 


Very fine. 


Many of thees grown. 


Good beds. 

Fairly good beds from December to June. 

Collected in Langkawi. 

Good beds. 

Fine tree. 

Fine variety with 12. 14 bis. on a scope. 

Pulau Sembilan. 

Fine flowering tree. 

Flowered many, but the climate is too moist. 
Good beds. 


Useful flowering shrub. 


} 


Good beds. 


C. CURTIS, 


■9 

APPENDIX B. 


GARDENS AND FORESTS DEPARTMENT, MALACCA. 

Revenue. 

1. The revenue collected during the year has exceeded that of any preceding 
year. Sums (now received) amounting to $74 were not received in time to be 
credited to collections for 189?, and are, therefore, carried forward to 1893 account. 

2. The account for the year closed as follows : — 

Sales from Experimental Garden, $162.62 

Sales from Forest Reserves, ... ... 34 2 *^3 

$505.45 

Value of Timber supplied for Government 

use, (P. W. D.), 538 - 79 . 

Total, $1,044.24 


Revenue Detailed. 


Experimental Garden. 


Sale of Nutmeg Plants, ... 

$ 55-47 


„ Clove ,, 

5 2 -77 


„ Liberian Coffee, ... 

12.00 


Ornamental Plants, 

6.20 


Fruit Trees, 

i 3* 6 5 


„ Fruit^rop, 

18.00 


,, Plantains (fruit), ... 

4-53 




$162.62 

Forest Reserves. 



Tenths on Damar, 

$ 86.27 


Kabong Palm (tali hijau and toddy), 

20.21 


Rent on Wood-oil, 

21.00 


Sale of Timber, 

3 6 - 8 5 


Sale of Fruit, 

178.50 




$ 34 2 -83 

Total,... 


$50545 


Experimental, Garden . 

4. Nursery Work.— The Garden has been maintained in good order throughout 
the year and the usual nursery work and experimental cultivation continued. 


5. The nursery work is shown in the following analysis : — 


Seeds sown. 

Cuttings 

planted. 

Seedlings 

transplanted. 

Prepared for 
sale or 

Planted. . 

Sold. 

No. of kinds. 

Seeds 

counted. 

Seeds not 
counted. 

planting. 



78 

1 9,636 

gallons. 

1,696 

6,763 

11,067 

11,099 

2,223 


Balance remaining available for planting or distribution 


Forest trees, ... ... ... M29 

Fruit trees, ... ... ... 1 » 5 1 5 

Miscellaneous economics, ... ... 1,860 


Total,... 4»5°4 


20 


6. The following trees have been planted permanently in the Garden — (a) for 
timber supply or stock, (£) for shade purposes or experiment : — 


(a) — Mentangor bunga {Chrysophyllum sp.) } ... ... 350 

Tampines {Sloetia sideroxylon),... ... ... 275 

{b) — Buah keras, {Aleurites molluccensis), ... ... 32 

Cacao {Theobroma cacao), ... ... ... 32 

Cloves {Eugenia caryophyllata) > ... ... 43 

Nutmegs {Myristica fragrans), ... ... 105 

Tea — hybrid Assam {Camellia thea var.), ... 838 


Total,... 1,675 


Experimental Cultivation. 

7. Cloves {Eugenia caryophyllata ) has been cultivated with success from 
the nursery-bed to the commercial product. The plant is well adapted for general 
cultivation, and if taken up by Natives would form an important subsidiary industry. 
The market price of cloves compares favourably with pepper, while the cost of pro- 
duction of the latter is four times higher than the former. Planted on high land 
where the roots cannot reach water, and without shade, cloves flower in about four 
years. The commercial product is the unopened flower-bud which should be dried 
in a partially shaded place, and when dried, the product is ready for market. Some 
of the Garden trees planted in 1888 are now 15 feet high and are flowering freely. 
From seeds collected in January, a stock of 1,758 plants have been raised. Of 
these, 43 have been planted, 735 sold, and the remainder 960 will be sold when 
strong enough. 

8. Nutmegs {Myristica fragrans ) grow well in the Settlement with liberal 
cultivation, but are not of easy culture in the young stage, and have the further 
disadvantage of taking from 8 to 10 years before jfriMing. During the year, 
105 plants have been planted, and 795 plants sold. 

9. Tea Hybrid Assam {Camellia thea var.). — About one-third of an acre of land 
* has been cleared and planted with tea, (838 plants) raised from seeds grown in the 

Garden. The young plants are growing freely and promise well. The stock plants, 
two years ago, suffered from the attacks of white ants, but have been frep from this 
pest throughout the year. 

10. Liberian coffee {Coffea liberica). — Several attempts have been made in the 
Settlement to grow coffee on abandoned tapioca lands, as might be expected, without 
success. Some splendid specimens may be seen, wherever the attempt has been 
made, proving, beyond doubt, the hardihood and adaptability of the plant to the soil 
and climate, if cultivated under suitable conditions. 

A few plants have been maintained at the Garden as stock plants, 400 young 
plants sold, and a supply of seedlings raised for general distribution. 

11. Mauritius hemp {Fourcroya cubensis). — Fibre producing plants might be 
cultivated with advantage on much of the land in Malacca now covered with brush- 
wood and which is too poor for such a crop as coffee. A suitable plant must be a 
lover of shade, as the brushwood once felled — bearing in mind the poverty of the soils 
referred to — such lands soon become too arid and impoverished to sustain a crop more 
than two or three years. Mauritius hemp has not proved itself to be adapted to 
these conditions ; about ten per cent, produce long leaves, and the remainder pole 
before the leaves are long enough to be valuable for fibre. 

Miscellaneous Plants. 

12. West Indian crabwood (Carapa guyanensis) ; Satin wood (Chloroxylon 
swietenia) ; Cuba least (Paritium elatum); Balsam of Copaiva (Copaifera gors- 
kiana) have all grown well, and a tree of Camphor (Cinnamomun camphora) is 
now flowering. 

13. Pine-apple fibre {Ananassa sativa var) — Experiments on this and on the fibre 
of Musa sumatrana (Pisang Karok) were made during the year, a report on which 
will be published in the next Bulletin. 


21 


Exchanges. 

14. Plants and seeds have have exchanged with the following establishments : — ■ 

Botanic Gardens, Singapore, outwards — cuttings 200, seeds 100, plants 140 
and seedli ng gelam trees 6,500; inwards— seeds 3 packets, plants 50. 

Botanic Gardens, Penang, inwards — seeds 15 packets. 

Botanic Gardens, Bangalore, inwards — seeds 1 packet. 

Tan Hun Guan, Malacca, inwards — half gallon coffee seeds; outwards — 1 
gallon tea seeds. 

. ’ Forest Reserves. 

15. Excepting a part of the unsettled frontier which forms part of a reserve 
boundary between Batang Malaka and Nyalas, the whole of the reserves have now 
been demarcated. 

16. Batang Malaka Reserve. — Owing to my absence on duty in Penang during the 
year 1891, this reserve has remained undemarcated until the present year. The 
work has now been completed, and boundaries extending over four miles have been 
opened at a cost of $35.75. The reserve is entirely hilly; the hills are : — Bukit 
Punggor, 1,303 feet, Bukit Batang Malaka,' 1,419 feet, Bukit Jus, Bukit Bembun, 
1,601 feet, and Bukit Nyalas about 1,200 feet. The Malacca River has its source 
in these hills, as well as several smaller streams. The area of the reserve is approxi- 
mately 3.000 acres, it is well wooded, and I. expect to find some young plants of 
gutta percha, as this district ha£ been famous for its getah trees, and a few young 
plants have been found near the reserve boundary. 

17. Brisu Reserve. — Pending the completion of a survey of this district, it has 
not been possible to complete this reserve earlier. All private rights have now been 
excluded from the reserve, and boundaries extending twelve miles opened at a cost 
of $180.75. 

18. The reserve is divided into two blocks, making a total area of 3,440 acres. 
Several small hills are included within the reserve, the most important are : — Bukit 
Putus, Bukit Jelutong. Bukit Baling, 614 feet, Bukit Senggeh and Bukit Peninjau, 
280 feet. The smaller block is well wooded with mostly Seraya (Hopea cernua), but 
the larger block contains younger jungle. 

19. ' Bukit Bruang Reserve. — A fire broke out amongst the lalang near Ayer 
Keroh, damaging a plantation commenced in 1892, but about seventy per cent, of 
the trees have since revived. The vacancies have been re-filled during the year, and 
the plantation extended. Including the ground re-planted, about twenty acres have 
now been planted at a cost of $355-70. 

20. The following seeds and trees have been planted : — 

In plantation 

Leban seeds (Vitex pubescens) y 
Kledang (Arlocarpus sp.) , ... 

Merebau (Afzeha palembanica) y 
Tampines (sloe'ia sideroxylon) , 

Tembusu ( Fagrcea peregrina ) y 
Leban ( Vitex pubescens), 

Poko Perak ( mangifera sp.), ... 

Getah Terap ( Artocarpus hlumei ), 

Keranji papan fDialum platysepalum ), 

Keranji burong fDialum indicum var.) t 
Mersawah, 

Mentangor bunut ( ChrysophylLum sp.) y 
Ribu-ribu, 

Kembang sa-mangko’ ( Sterculia scaphigera), 

Chempedak ( Artocarpus chempedak) y ... 

Kay u malaka [Phyllanthus emblica) i ... 

Poko sena [Pteroyarpus indicus). 


8,640 

... 124 do. 

... 360 do. 

...* 300 do. 


Total,... 9,424 


Planted on separate ground 

Rattans, ... ... 

Pandans (Mankvatig paya ) , ... 
Kabong ( Arenga laccharifera), 


22 gallons. 
1,050 plants. 


3 20 

do. 

890 

do. 

1,200 

do. 

4 > 55 ° 

do. 

80 

do. 

50 

do. 

60 

do. 

40 

do. 

20 

do. 

75 

do. 

40 

do. 

105 

do. 

60 

do. 

3 ° 

do. 

70 

do. 


22 


21. Merlemau Reserve. — The watchmen have been assisted by a band of fifteen 
men in re-bridging the swampy portions of this reserve, and a new boundary, three 
miles long, instead of a swampy one, opened at a total cost of $179.25. 

22. Other Reserves. — Inspection-paths extending over eight miles have been 
opened at Bukit Sadanan Reserve at a cost of $57.50. Portions of the boundaries 
of Batu Tiga Reserve readjusted at a cost of $36.50; and a foot-path to the top of 
Bukit Pancbor opened at a cost of $36. 

Prosecutions . 

23. Two cases of illicit wood cutting occurred during the year, both were o*f a 
petty nature and only nominal fines inflicted. 

Fires. 

24. Excepting the fire mentioned at Bukit Bruang^ no other fire has occurred 
on reserved lands. 

Expenditure . 

25. A statement of expenditure for the year is attached : — 

Expenditure during the year 1892 . 


$ c - 

Forest Watchmen, • ... 2,362 07 

Experimental Garden, . .. ... 1,487 09 

Personal Allowance, ... 60 12 

Pony Allowance and Pony Hire, ... 429 52 

Field Allowance (Assistant Superintendent), 216 00 
Field Allowance (Mandor), ... ... 9 50 

Bullock-cart, ... 24 78 

Tools, Implements, Pots, *... 43 93 

Maintenance, ... .. 121 86 

Incidental, ,.. ... ... 47 29 

Freight and Shipping, ... ... 29 70 

Uniform, ... ... ... 6 30 

Office and Herbarium, ... ... 150 20 

Rent of Quarters (Forest Watchmen), ... 21 00 

Purchase of Plants and Seeds, 72 80 

Manure, ... ... ... 15 80 

Bukit Sadanan Reserve, ... ... 57 50 

Batu Tiga Reserve, ... . .. 36 50 

Batang Malaka Reserve, . ., , 35 75 

Bukit Bruang Reserve, ... ... 355 70 

Merlemau Reserve, ... ... 179 25 

Brisu Reserve, ... ... ... 180 75 

Bukit Panchor Reserve, ... ... 36 00 

Sungai Udang Reserve, ... ... 1400 

Balance, .... ... ... 359 


Total,... $6,000 00 


*R. DERRY, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 

Malacca, goth January, 1893. 


REPORT ON THE GARDENS AND FORESTS DEPARTMENT, 

STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 


BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 


Staff. 

1. In the early part of the year, the Mandor, Aniff, resigned his appointment, 
and T. C. PEREIRA replaced him. The coolies worked well throughout the year, bat 
there was a good deal of sickness, mostly of a mild type, among them. There were 
two or three cas^s of injury from poisonous trees or fruits, the dangerous plants being 
Melanorrhcea, Hippomane Mancinella (the Manchineel), and Kentia MacArthurtt ; 
and one man was much hurt by a deer which attacked him while feeding it. 

Visitors . 

2. The number of visitors to the Gardens was as large as usual, and included 
many European botanists of note, on their way to Java to make botanical researches, 
several of whom expressed regret that there was no laboratory -accommodation in the 
Botanic Gardens, as, in many respects, Singapore was better suited for the carrying on 
of research than Java. 

The Regimental Band performed once or twice a month on Friday afternoons m 
the Gardens, and attracted many visitors. 

A viaries. 

3. The zoological collection proved as attractive as in former years, and several 
interesting animals and birds were added to it. Among these were: — A mi as (pur- 
chased) ; six common monkeys (presented by Mr. Machado) ; a golden cat ( Felts 
Temminckii, presented by Mr. MOUSLEY) ; a black bear (female, purchased) ; an 
Australian dingo (presented by Captain Pitts) ; a black buck (presented by the 2nd 
Battalion of the Lincolnshire Regiment) ; one rusa (female, Cervus equinus ) ; one 
American deer (presented by Captain Davies): two bamboo rats {Rhizomvs, pre- 
sented by Mr. Goodhart) ; two Raffles’ squirrels (purchased) ; two common squirrels 
(caught) ; one emu (presented by Captain TalbOYS) ; one purple coot (presented by 
Mr. Machado ) ; two Malacca swamp tortoises ( Cestudo Amboinensis, captured) ; one 
monitor [Hydrosaurus salvator, presented). Two hamadryads {O phiophagns elaps) 
and several other snakes were captured in the Gardens. 

A common monkey was bo*rn in the aviary on the 27th of March. The teal on 
the lake also hatched out a brood of ten ducklings, which were unfortunately all 
destroyed by hawks or eagles. 

New and Rare Plants . 

The following plants, seldom or never before flowered in Singapore, flowered 
this year: — Brassia candata ; Aspasia variegata ; Cattleya Schroderce ; C. Bownn- 
giana ; Oncidium cebolleta ; O. roraimense ; O. lundum ; Mormodes pardmum ; 

.* Lycaste aromatica major; Miltonia spectabihs ; Laelia harpophvlla ; Stanknpea 
grandiflora ; S. eburnea ; Catasetum tridentatvm (from South America and the 
West Indies) ; Dendrobium sanguinolentum and var. cerinum (from Kedah Peak ) ; 
O . antennatum (New Guinea);./?. hymenop*erum (Kedah Peak); Cymhidium 
lancifolium (Malacca); Sarcanthus castaneus (Singapore); Vanda, Miss. Joaquim 
( a hybrid between V. teres and V. Hookeriana) ; Cleisostoma crassum (Borneo); 
Saccolabivm calceolare ( Borneo ); Rhododendron Brookei ( Borneo ); Amstolochta 
gigas Sturtevanti (Trinidad); Didymocarpvs cifrinus (Kedah Peak); Sonerila, 
a new species with tuberous rhizomes ( Kedah Peak ); and another large-branched 
species from I egeh, which was presented by Mr. A. MACHADO, together with a very 
fine flame-coloured Didymocarpvs, a new genus of Commehnaceoe , near Pnllia, and 
Codonacanthus sp., all from the same locality; Trevesia ei?iinehs (Philippines); 
Entada folystachya ; Hedychium longicornutum (Malacca); Clerodendron mma- 
kassce ( Celebes ). 

\\f Among the ornamental foliage plants and ferns, the most remarkable species 

received were: — Asplenium scandens (Borneo, presented by Bishop Hose) ; A. sp. 
( Perak ) ; Leca?iopieris carnosa, Bl. (Malacca); Adiantum, nsp. (Singapore); 
Ne^ ahyllvm tenuifiorum ( Kedah ) ; Cyrtandra, sp. ( Borneo, presented by Mr. 
Down, 


2 


During the year, a catalogue of the Garden plants was drawn up. _ It is hoped 
that it may be printed this year, as it will be useful as a reference list, and in arran- 
ging for exchanges with other Gardens. A bulletin, treating of the cultivation of 
indigo, patchouli, and fibre plants, was also published. 

A rtist. • 

The Artist, Mr.. James D’Alwis, was employed during the year in making draw- 
ings of new and rare plants peculiar to the Malay Peninsula. 

Experimental Garden. 

The clearing of the ground formerly known as the Military Reserve, for the 
arboretum was continued, and the positions of the natural orders as far as 
Urticacese were marked out, labelled and planted up with such species as could be 
procured. The economic groups were also further developed, and many additional 
kinds planted. A piece of damp waste ground was devoted to a collection of screw- 
pines (Pandani) . and a number were planted and labelled. 

During the year, a number of plants of economic value were obtained, including 
several new strains of pineapples, viz., the black pine of the West Indies, the Abacaxi 
from Pernambuco, and English pines from Windsor Castle. A valuable cooking plantain 
• was received from Jamaica, and a stock of the best native kinds' received from Malacca. 
Some seeds of good strains of Florida oranges, presented by Admiral Ammen of Wash- 
ington, failed to germinate. A valuable yam from New Guinea was also presented 
t to the Gardens, and is growing rapidly. A good stock of Cola nuts was received from 
Kew. This plant grows very well here, and has flowered, but has not yet borne fruit. 

Among fibre plants, Ur era tenax was received from Natal, and a stock of the 
wild plantain ( Pisang Karok ) from Malacca. 

Inspection of Coco-nut Trees. 

The inspection of trees, and destruction of dead or decaying trees, was carried on 
as in past years, and 279 notices were served on various persons during the year. Four- 
teen hundred and sixteen (1,416) dead trees and stumps were ordered to be destroyed, 
and twenty-six piles of rubbish, likely to act as breeding-places for beetles, were cleared 
away. In most cases, the notices were promptly complied with, as the Natives quite 
understand the damage which has been and is being caused by the insects, but in sixteen 
cases it was found necessary to prosecute. Fines to the amount of $33 were inflicted 
on seven persons. Six others, immediately complying with the notices on receiving 
summonses, were dismissed on paying the cost of the summonses, and in three cases the 
owners could not be found and the summonses had to.be withdrawn. 

Much trouble has been caused by one or two cases in which the piles of sawdust 
and refuse tan-bark were so extensive that it was impossible to entirely destroy them. 

In these cases the owners are compelled to employ men to turn over the refuse, and 
destroy the grubs and beetles, which, as the insects are found to have some value for 
feeding ducks, they are not unwilling to do. 

Experiments were made in destroying the larvae, with gas-water and with London 
Purple. But it was found that the former had but little more effect on them than 
ordinary water, while grubs put into London Purple seemed quite unharmed. 

During the year, one tannery was burnt down, and underneath and between the 
houses many larvae w'ere found to exist, nor had the fire made any great diminution 
in their numbers, as living grubs were found less than a foot below the ground 
where the houses had been burnt. 

Expenditure. 

$ C. 

Vote) ... ... ... 700 00 




$ c. 

Salaries, 


. . . 444 20 

Transport, ... 


76 61 

Uniforms, ... 

• • . ... 

10 00 

Expenses m removing trees and stumps, ' 

0 

0 

ON 

NO 


699 8 r 

Balance, ... . . .. o 19 


$700 00 


Herbarium and Museum. 

During the year, a large number of specimens were added to the herbarium. 
In an expedition to Kedah Peak and its neighborhood and, later,, to the Perak Hills 
I obtained 860 specimens; 259 plants were collected by Mr. Fox, and 175 by a native 
collector in Pahang; 196 specimens were sent from Penang by Mr. Curtis, and 
486 from Malacca sent by Mr. GOODENOUGH ; Dr. King ‘ presented 318 specimens 


from Perak .and India, and 64 specimens were sent from the almost unknown region 
of Legeh by Mr. A. MACHADO. 

Dr. HAVILAND presented 454 specimens from Borneo, and Mr. A. EVERETT 83 
specimens of mosses from Borneo and the Natuna Isles. Baron VoN MUELLER pre- 
sented 76 Australian plants. _ 

Specimens were sent in exchange or for identification to the British Museum, K.ew 
Gardens, Dr. King, Baron Von MUELLER, Dr. COGNIAUX, Colonel BEDDOME, Dr. 

Hackel, Dr. Brotherus, and Dr. Burck. . 

A good series of named varieties of paddy was received from Manila ; a series 01 
named dammars was procured in Malacca, and a number of other economic products 
were collected, and the whole collection re-arranged and classified. Several large 
specimens of timber were also obtained and the hand specimens were arranged in 
a cabinet. 

Library. 

In addition to the usual periodicals and Garden Reports, the following works 
were received and added to the Library : — 

Presented : — • 

Dr. Trimen. — Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon, Vol. I. 

Dr. King. — M aterials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula— part 4. 

C. MOORE. — Handbook of the Flora *of New South Wales. 

F. Sander. — Reichenbachia, Vol.'ll. 

Dr. MASTERS. — List of Conifers and Taxads cultivated in Britain. 

Do. — Conifer Conference 1891— Introductory Address. 

TRELEASE^-Missouri Botanic Garden — 3rd and 4th Annual Reports. 

RendlE, A. B. — Falling of Leaves. 

Do. — An Advance in our Knowledge of Seedlings. 

GreSHOFF, M. — Monographia de Plantis Venenatis et Sopientibus ad pisces ca- 
piendis. 

Looker, Sir Joseph. — Flora of British India, Part XIX. 

Macmillan, Conway.— T he Metaspermse of the Minnesota Valley. 

Ridley, H. N. — Flora of the East Coast of the Malay Peninsula. 

Bailey,' Vernon. — The Prairie Ground Squirrels. 

A. K. Fisher. — Hawks and Owls of the United States. 

VEITCH, H. J. — Manual of Orchidaceous Plants— part IX. 

MACDONALD, A. C.— Ensilage ( Capetown ), presented by the Author. 

Bulletin van het Kolonial Museum te Haarlem, 1892-3. 

Acta Horti Petropolitani, Tom. XII, fasc. II, presented by the Director ot the 
Botanic Gardens, St. Petersburg. 

Presented by* the Government of the United States ' 

Dr. G. VaSEY. — The Agricultural Grasses and Forage Plants of the United 
States, 1889. 

p) Q .Monograph of the Grasses of the United States — Grasses of the 

South. 

Do. Report of an Investigation of the Grasses of the Arid Districts. 

Do. Illustrations of North American Grasses, Vol II. 

Do. Reports of the Botanist for 1889 to 1892. 

J, M. Coulter— Manual of the Phanerogams and Pteridophytes of W. Texas, 
Vol II, Parts 1 and 2. 

J. N. ROSE.— List of Plants collected by Dr. Edwin Palmer in 1890, in Mexico 
and' Arizona, Vol. I, 4. 

Report of the Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, 1892. 

Purchased : — - * ' 

MlOUEL. — Choix des Plantes Rares. 

Ma~RTIUS. — Historia Naturalis Palmarum. 

CASTILLO. — Flore de la Polynesie Fran^aise. 

LOCK. — Coffee and its Culture. 

Jackson, B. D — Index Kewensis, Part I. 

SAGOT, P. — Manuel Practique des Cultures Tropicales. 

SCORTECHINI. — Description of new Scitamineae of Malay Peninsula. 

BECCARI, O. — Description of new Palms, New Guinea. 

Exchanges. 

The usual exchanges of plants, and seeds with kindred institutions have been 
maintained ; 1,247 plants and 5^8 packets of seeds were received from the undermen- 
tioned contributors, and 841 plants and 133 boxes and packages of seeds were sent 

out : — • 


4 


Contributors : — 

Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. 


Do., 

Ceylon. 

Do., 

Durban. 

Do., 

Saigon. 

Do., 

Hongkong. 

Do., 

Bangalore. 

Do., 

Buitenzorg. 

Do., 

. British’Guiana 

Do., 

Jamaica. 

Do., 

Adelaide. 

Do., 

Paris. 

Do., 

Trinidad. 

Do., 

Port Darwin. 


Messrs. E. Sander and Co., St. Albans. 
„ Canned and Sons, Kent. 

,, Dammann and Co., Italy. 

„ Boehmer, Yokohama. 

,, Reasoner Bros., Florida. 

Baron von Mueller, Melbourne. 
Agri-Horticultural Society, Madras. 

J. Ravensway, Singapore. 


J. d’ Almeida, Esq., Singapore. 

A. Cohen, Esq., Pernambuco. 

Admiral Ammen, Washington, U. S A. 
Miss Ridley, England. 

J. P. Joaquim, Esq., Singapore. 

R. Little, Esq., do. 

W. Boxall, Esq., do. 

W. Micholitz, Esq., do. 

St. V. B. Down, Esq., do. 

H. M. Becher, Esq., do. 

A. D. Machado, Esq., Kelantan. 

W. Nanson, Esq., Singapore. 

Geo . Derrick, Esq., do. 

G. Peche, Esq., Moulmain. 

J. R. Hilty, Esq., Singapore. 

The Right Revd. Bishop Hose. 

A. Ericsson, Esq., Singapore. 

T. Sarkies, Esq. 

Hon. Martin Lister, Negri Sembilan. 
Dr. Ellis, Singapore. 

Seah Liang Seah, Esq., Singapore. 

M. Myre de Vilers, Siam. 

R. W. Hullett, Esq., Singapore. 


BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 
Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the Year 1^93. 


Receipts. 

Expenditure. 

' 


* $ e . 

Salaries . 

$ c * 

t 

By Balance in- Bank, ... 

455 85 

Herbarium Keeper, 

235 


,, Government Grant, 

8,500 OO 

Chief Mandor, 

235 oc 


,, Sale of Plants and 


Carpenters, 

212 34 


Flowers, 

821 59 

; Printers (Label), 

I 20 oc 


,, Miscellaneous Re- 


; Peons, 

167 5c 


ceipts, 

150 85 

j Aviary-keeper, 

95 88 


,, Interest, 

27 10 

1 Mason, 

123 40 


» 


Police, 

348 05 




Coolies, 

3,298 OO 


m 


Bills.' 


4-835 70 


• 

Manure and Cartage, 

189 6*7 




Food for Birds and Animals, 

802 66 




Purchase of Pots and Tubs. 

322 66 




Purchase of Seeds and Ani- 





mals, 

184 55 




Purchase of Books and Her- 





barium Paper, 

658 53 




Purchase of Tools and 





Stores, 

372 43 




Purchase of Timber, Planks, 





etc., 

35 i 47 




Purchase of Bricks, Lime, 





etc., *. . 

214 81 



■ 

Purchase of Laterite and 





Gravel, 

5 T 9 06 




Repairs to Buildings, 

333 o6\ 




Subscription to Telephone, 

90 OO 




Director’s Petty Expendi- 





ture including Freight, ... 

. 3 6 ° 2 4 j 




Assistant Superintendent's 





Petty Expenditure, 

112 10- 



- 

Miscellaneous, 

529 88 









0 


9,876 82 



Balance, 


78 57 


® 9 > 9 J 5 39 



$ 9-955 39 

• 






5 


FOREST DEPARTMENT, SINGAPORE. 

Introduction. 

The great reduction of the Forest Vote for this year has precluded any great 
progress being made in forestry, and the consequent reduction of the number of men 
employed has been followed by an increase, in thefts of Government timber and in 
fires. Two small reserves have been practically abandoned, viz., Bedok, and Upper 
Tanglin, and it has been difficult to protect the other reserves or to keep the bounda- 
ry-paths open and clean. 

Staff. 

The absence of Mr. Derry on leave in June, entailed transferring Mr. GOOD- 
ENOUGH to Malacca to take up the acting appointment, and his place was taken by 
the Coco-nut Trees Inspector, Baker, Tor some months, when T. Bayliss was appointed. 
From January to November, 19 forest watchmen were employed, but it was then found 
necessary to reduce them to 10. 

Planting . 

A considerable number of timber trees were planted during the year, chiefly 
Bilian ( Eusideroxylon Schwagerii ) , of which, 2,270 young trees were planted on 
Bukit Timah, and 1,680 at Bukit Mandai, where also 970 trees of Balam and 370 
Kuku Balan Utan were planted. The “ Fire-guard ” along the Bukit Mandai Road was 
cleaned of weeds. The trees have now attained, a fair size, and have already shewn 
their use in resisting the advance of fire.- 

The India-rubber trees ( Hevea braziliensis ) , male bamboos ( Dendro- 
calamus strictus) , and Rengas ( Gluta Renghas), planted some years ago, have made 
rapid growth and seem to be doing very well. Many more young plants of Bilian 
and other timber trees sown in 1892, remain in the Nursery beds, but cannot be 
planted out on account of want of funds. Indeed, an extra grant of *$500 was 
found necessary in order to cover the expenses of planting out those which were 
ready for removal this year. 

Licenses. 

' Owing to the working out of most of the mangrove swamp districts in the 
neighbourhdbd of Singapore, the application for firewood licenses has very much 
increased, and the demand can hardly be supplied, although the price of the licenses 
has again been raised. One hundred and thirty-six (136) passes for cutting firewood', 
fishing stakes, lalang, and rattans, in the reserves of Changi, Kranji, Seletar, Sungei 
Pandan and Toas were issued. 

$ c. 

The revenue derived from these passes and other sales amounted to 441 50 

$ c. 

356 50 
35 00 O 
1 00 

1 50 

12 OO 

2 OO 

4 OO 

2 OO 

# 2 50 

416 50 
18 OO 
7 00 

$ 44 i 5 ° 

Fires. 

Fourteen fires occurred in the reserves during the year, about 202 acres of lalang, 
and brushwood being destroyed. The largest outbreak was at Bukit Mandai reserve! 
where 152 acres of grass and secondary forest, and upwards of four hundred seedlings 
were burnt. 

Prosecutions . 

Nine persons were prosecuted for removing timber, etc., one of whom was cau- 
tioned and dismissed, the remainder were fined or imprisoned, the fines amounting to 
$ 104. of which, $66 were paid. 

H. N. RIDLEY, 

Director of Gardens and Forests. 


Mangrove firewood, 

Fishing stakes, rollers, etc., 
Rattan, ... 

Lalang, ... 

Sale of gutta-percha leaves, 
Sale of an old hut, 

Sale of an old boat, . . . 
S'marum timber, • 

Temporary occupation licenses, 


Farming of pepper encroachments, 
„ fruit trees, 


6 


A. 


GARDENS AND FORESTS DEPARTMENT, PENANG. 

1. There has been no change in the staff during the year. Mahomed Haniff, 
who was Acting Overseer of the Waterfall Garden at the date of my last report, was 
confirmed in the post on the completion of his apprenticeship in June. 

M aintsnance of Forest Reserves. 

2. Consequent on the reduction of the Government Grant from $2, 300*10 1892 
to $>1,000 in 1893, the ’number of Guards had to be reduced to five, which is the least 
with which any effective protective work can be done in such small and scattered 
mountainous reserves as thosefin this Settlement. 

With this staff, the boundaries, aggregating 65 miles in length, have been kept as 
clearly defined as circumstances would permit. Twelve persons were prosecuted for 
illicit timber cutting, and two for causing jungle fires. Two of these cases were dis- 
missed, and the remainder fined in sums varying from $>2 to $50, the total amount of 
fines inflicted amounting to $>174. 

3. The Sergeant s quarters on Government Hill tumbled down during the year, 
and there being no money available for re-construction, he has been obliged to hire a 
house and live at an inconvenient distance from his work. The temporary station at 
Tclok Bahang is also in an advanced state of decay and will soon be uninhabitable. 
These buildings have hitherto been maintained out of the annual grant, but on the 
reduced scale this is no longer possible, and additional provision for buildings is 
necessary. 

4. The Revenue Survey, completed during the year, shows that the protected 
forest area is greater than wag originally estimated, the actual extent being 15.75 
square miles, or 10,057 a cres, equal to about one* seventh of the whole island ; and 
Pulau Jerejak 1.30 square miles, or 830 acres. These reserves are in eight blocks, 
mainly on the sides and crests of steep hills at from 1,000 to 2,750 feet elevation, and 
are for the greater part stocked with valuable kinds of timber. Owing^ however, to 
their inaccessibility to timber-cutters, it is improbable that any considerable revenue 
will be derived from the greater portion, unless timber and charcoal become much more 
expensive than at present. 

5. It must, however, be borne in mind that the value of these hill reserves is not 
represented by the probable amount of revenue to be derived from them, either now or 
in the future, as their purpose is mainly climatic, and if would be a great misfortune 
should they by any means be destroyed. 

... 6 - W most important, from a revenue-producing point of view, is the North- 

West reserve, a great portion of it being bounded by the sea. Licenses for cutting 
within this, and easily accessible parts of some of the other reserves, would, I believe, 
be willingly taken outfit considerably higher rates than at present. paid, but consider- 
ing that no restriction had been put on timber-cutting up to 1885) and that all the 
best kinds of timber are of slow growth, strict supervision would be necessary. My 
opinion is that it would be better to wait a few years longer before issuing licenses 
for these reserves. 

7. A good number of specimens of forest trees, &c. were collected during the 
year while on inspection duty in connection with forest reserves, &c., and about 720 of 
these were sent to Kew, Dr. King, the British Museum, and Singapore. Early in the 
year, the whole of the Dipterocarpeae collected by myself in Penang and Langkawi 
were sent to Dr. King, on loan, for use in connection with the working out of this 
order for “ Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Peninsula. ” These he has since re- 
turned named, and a large proportion prove to be previously undescribed. 

Waterfall Garden. 

8. There has been no falling off either in the attraction, or appreciation by the 
public of this garden, and, as in previous years, by far the greater portion of my time 
has been devoted to it. Many additions and improvements have been effected, and a 
great number of new and interesting plants added to the collection. 

9. Two thousand and five hundred {2,500) plants and 82 packets of seeds were 
distributed free to public institutions and by way of exchange, and about the same 
number of plants sold, the total amount received from this source amounting to 
$500. Ornamental foliage and flowering plants are most in demand, but a good 
number of shrubs, fruit trees, shade trees, &c. are included in these figures. A list of 
the principal Contributors and Recipients is given in Appendix B annexed. 


10. Among the more striking plants that flowered in this garden during the 
year ( of which an abbreviated list is given in Appendix C ) was a giant plant of 
Grammatopkyllu m speciosum, which bore about one thousand flowers. T his plant 
was photographed by local photographers both amateur and professional. Another 
was Aristolochia gigcts var. Sturtevantii, with enormous flowers over twenty inches 
across. This plant was, by the kindness of the Kew anthorities, carefully packed and 
sent on board the steamer the morning I left London for Penang, and, although a 
rather weak plant, reached here alive. It is now nearly always in flower, and several 
plants have been propagated from the original, some of which have already flowered 
in the other Settlements. It is a truly remarkable plant, its great drawback being 
its abominable smell, 

11. Some new beds have been made near the office and planted with annuals, 
flowering shrubs, &c., and also a circular clump of palms that had outgrown their 
tubs. Many trees of various kinds, principally indigenous, such as Sty rax sernUata , 
Pentace Curtisii, &c., have been planted in various parts of the grounds. Cannas 
have, as in 1892, the first year the finer hybrid forms were introduced, been a strik- 
ing feature. Messrs. JAS. VEITCH & Sons kindly presented a set of a dozen varie- 
ties of the best new ones that have been distributed since 1890. Several new hybrids 
have also been raised in the garden here from crosses made by myself, one of which 
is superior to any of those received from England, and by the permission of His Ex- 
cellency Sir Cecil Clementi Smith, the late Governor, bears his name. 

12. A new shed for ferns and begonias has been erected, mainly with material 
that had been used for the Agricultural and Horticultural Show, and the plants have 
made excellent progress since being placed in it. It will, however, like all soft wood 
structures in this climate, last only a comparatively short time. 

The octagonal plant shed, which contains many of the more valuable plants in 
the garden, has been entirely renewed with well seasoned chengal timber and berta?n 
chick roof for shade, so that it will not require any further attention for at least three 
years. 

13. Two new water tanks have been built, one for ferns and the other for 
orchids, and connected with the water supply from the swimming bath, so that now 
there is scarcely a botanical garden in the Tropics so well provided with water, which, 
in a country subject to spells of dry weather of from two to three months’ duration, 
is a most important matter. 

14. Re-metalling of the main road leading to the reservoir was done in the 
months of January and February, with material supplied by the - Municipal Commis- 
sio.ners, when we were under the impression that all heavy cartage in connection 
with the new reservoir was finished, but as that proved to be an error, and it is not 
finished yet, this ‘will have to be done over again when the leak in the i^servoir has 
been stopped. The expense of this will not, however, I hope, fall on the gardens but 
on the Commissioners. Until the work at the reservoir is finished, a great portion of 
the garden cannot be kept in decent order. 

15. Unusually heavy rains in June did much damage to roads and paths, and 
caused some considerable slips along the river banks, which necessitated re-sloping 
and turfing. 

White ants having proved very troublesome in the office, especially on account 
of their depredations among herbarium specimens. The whole surface below the arches 
was cemented, and there has since been no trouble. This was done by the Public 
Works Department, but all the other works by the garden coolies. 

16. The total expenditure in connection with this garden amounts to $4,499.52, 
and the revenue derived from sale of plants and use of Swimming Bath to $568.50, as 
shown in Appendix A annexed. 

Government Hill Gardens. 

# 

17. Work in the Experimental Nursery has been principally confined to keeping 
the ground clean and manuring the fruit trees. The orange trees obtained from 
Malta* by the late Sir J. Dickson produced a few fruits of fairly good quality, but 
the prospect of a paying crop is not promising. The expenses of carrying up 
manure is too great to allow of the cultivation of many things that could otherwise be 
profitably cultivated in this nursery. 


8 


18. In Government Bungalow Gardens, the work has been of the usual routine 
order, consisting of keeping the grounds in order and maintaining, as far as possible, 
a regular supply of vegetables and flowers for occupants of the bungalow and the 
Resident Councillor. The Overseer in charge, in addition to his garden work, attends 
to the Post and Telegraph Office, which takes up the greater portion of his time. 

Coco-nut Tree Preservation. 

ig. As in previous years the Inspector has divided his time equally between 
Penang Island and Province Wellesley. Two hundred and ‘six (206) Notices were 
served on owners requiring them to destroy dead trees or material which serve as 
breeding places for the beetle. Of this number, 43 were summoned for non-compliance 
with the order in accordance with the Ordinance, and fines inflicted amounting to 
$42.25. 

Altogether 1,704 dead and diseased trees were destroyed, and 58 heaps of rub- 
bish, 75 diseased trees growing on Crown land were also cut down and destroyed. 
The total expenditure in connection with this work is $692. 50. 

General. 

20. A short trip for the purpose of collecting new and interesting plants for 
cultivation and exchange was made to the Siamese West Coast, ‘about 200 miles North 
of Penang, in February, and the result was most satisfactory. Leaving Penang by 
one of the local Chinese steamers, I arrived at Tongkah, also known as the Island of 
Junk Ceylon, after a passage of 24 hours. After spending four days in this island, the 
Siamese Chief Commissioner kindly lent me a boat and furnished me with a letter of 
introduction to the Raja of Pangah, whose residence is about 40 miles from Tong- 
kah. On the way we touched at several small islands, generally adding something 
to the collection at each place. A striking feature of this part of the Peninsula is the 
abrupt manner in which the islands rise from the sea, so much so that landing on 
’some of them is impossible. The same character marks the rocks and small hills for 
some miles inland, so that looking land-ward from some distance out at sea, there is 
no means of distinguishing between the rocky islands inshore and similar rocks 
among the mangrove forest. It is evident that a great silting up has taken place 
here in recent times. The town and the Raja's residence are situated some miles 
up the river, which in places flows between the high rocks that are seen from the sea. 
The whole valley in which the town is situated is surrounded by hills of the same 
character, except at the upper and lower ends. It is an ideal place for a botanist, and 
should be visited at the beginning or end of the rains, when many interesting plants 
that were quite dried up at the time of my visit will be discovered. In one place I 
saw an immense mass of Vanda gigantea with at least -fifty' spikes of fully expanded 
flowers, and near this several plants of Cypripedium niveum. Among the interest- 
ing plants%btained here was a lovely blue Didymocarpus , and a species of Tetraphyl- 
lum with rosy pink flowers. A few plants of Dendrobium aggregatum, and D. 
Farmerii were collected, but they' are extremely rare here and it is apparently their 
extreme Southern limit. The Siamese Chief Commissioner, Tongkah, kindly sent a 
.steam launch to tow my boat from near the mouth of the Pangah River to Ghirbee 
River, and when I had spent a day there back to Tongkah, whence I returned to Pe- 
nang. I cannot sufficiently* express my thanks to the Siamese Commissioner at Tong- 
kah, and the Raja of Pangah, for the assistance they rendered during my fourteen 
days* stay. 

21. An Agricultural and Horticultural Show was held on the -Race Course du- 
ring the first three days in June and proved a great success. Temporary sheds were 
erected for plants, fruits, vegetables, poultry and cattle, while the existing buildings 
were used for produce &c. Malacca and the Native States sent many exhibits, and 
perhaps the most noteworthy' exhibits of the whole Show were the Liberian coffee 
and pepper plants in tubs, covered with fruits, from Selangor. The prizes offered 
for native medicinal plants, coco-nuts, betel-nuts, paddy and other products in which 
natives are mainly interested, brought hundreds of samples, so that judging in these 
classes was a matter of extreme difficulty, ft is to be hoped that this kind oT exhibi- 
4 ion will be repeated at no distant time. 


C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 


Appendix A . 

Revenue and Expenditure — Gardens and Forest Department , Penang, i8gg. 


Revenue. 


Grant — Maintenance of. For- 
est Reserves, ... $1,000.00 


Grant — Maintenance of Wa- 
terfall Garden, ... $4,500.00 


Expenditure. 


Grant — M aintenance of 
Grounds of Government Hill 
Bungalow and Experimental 
Nursery, ... $600.00 


Grant— Expenses of carrying 
out Provisions of Coco-nut 
Trees Preservation 0 r d i - 
nance, . . $700.00 


Salaries of Forest Guards, 

House Rent for Assistant Superin- 
tendent, ... 

House Rent of Sergeant of Forest 
Guards, ... 

Transport and Field Allowances, 
Uniform, 

Materials for Herbarium, 

Oil for Stations, 

Miscellaneous, 


Balance, 


Salaries, 

Tools and Material, General Repairs, 
&c., 

Pots and Plant Tubs, 

Material for new Ferns Shed, 
Material for renewing Plant Sheds, ... 
Planks for Plant Cases, &c., 

Seeds and Plants, 

Freight on Plant Cases,... 

Manure, ... * . . . 

Cartage, 

Furniture for Bungalow, 

Articles for Swimming Bath, 
Periodicals,... 

Advertising, 

Field Allowances, 

Paper for Herbarium, 

Miscellaneous and Petty Expenses,... 


Balance, 


Salaries, 

Purchase of Seeds, 
Purchase of Tools, 
Miscellaneous, 


Balance, . . . 


Salaries, ... ... * 

Fixed Allowance, 

Uniforms, ... 

Cutting down dead Coco-nut Trxs 
on Crown Land, 


Balance, ... 


$ c. 

503 46 


360 

00 

18 

00 

45 

55 

33 

00 

18 

00 

5 

40 

12 

92 

996 

33 

3 

67 

1,000 

00 

3)231 

68 

292 

38 

144 

90 

80 

34 

214 

30 

84 

93 

89 

23 

18 

00 

56 

40 

42 

20 

i5 

50 

6 

84 

14 

00 

5 

90 

17 

56 

34 

60 

150 

76 

4,499 

S 2 

0 

48 

4,5oo 

00 

57 i 

48 

6 

75 

19 

05 

2 

28 

599 

56 

0 

44 

c* 

0 

0 

00 

552 

00 

120 

00 

5 

50 

*5 

00 

692 

5o 

7 

50 


700 00 


Appendix A, — Continued. 

Revenue aad Expenditure — Gardens and Forest Department , 
Penang , i8g 3, — Continued. 


Revenue. 


Expenditure. 


Travelling and Personal Allow- 
ances, . $700.00 


' Pony Allowance, 
Botanical Tours, 
Journey to Singapore', 
4 Field Allowances, 


Balance, 


Plant Sales, ... ... $50000 

Receipts from Swim- 
ming Batli, ... 6850 

Rents, ... ... 7 00 


Total,... $575 50 


$ c. 
432 00 

159 73 
87 70 
6 00 


685 43 

14 57 


700 00 






Appendix B. 

Principal Contributors and Recipients of*tPlants and Seeds, i8gj. 


Contributors. Recipients 


Director, Royal Garden, Kew. 

Do. do., do., Calcutta. 
Superintendent of Botanic Gardens, Hong- 
kong. 

Superintendent of Botanic Gardens, Ban- 
galore. ■ 

Messrs. Jas. Veitch & Sons, Lon cram 
,, F. Sander & Co., St. Albans. 
Agri-Horticultural Society, Rangoon, 

Do. do., Calcutta. 

Mrs. S. A pear, Calcutta. 

„ Mower, Rangoon. 

Mr. G. Pech&, Moulmain. 

„ J. C. van Ravensvvay, Singapore. 

.„ O. Bartels, Brisbane. 

,, . Pereira, Singapore. 

,, F. G. A. Goedhart, Sumatra. 

,, D. Logan, Penang. 

„ C. Goldham, Tongkah. 

„ C. Maries, Gwalior. 

„ 'l . A. Wooldridge, Penang. 

„ D. Blaze, Penang. 

,, G. Baldwin, Perak. 

Dr. Francesch: California. 

Mr, A. T, Bryant, Dindings. 


Director, Royal Gardens, Kew, 

Do., do. do., Calcutta, 

Do., Botanic Gardens, Java. 

Do., do. do., Singapore, 
Superintendent Botanic Gardens, Hong- 
kong. 

Messrs. J. Veitch & Sons, London. 

,, F. Sander & Co., St. Albans. 
Agri-Horticultural Society, Calcutta. 

Do., Do. Rangoon. 

Mrs. Mower, Rangoon. 

Mr. W. H. Frizell, Penang. 

,, G. Pech£, Moulmain. 

,, S. T. Apcar, Calcutta. 

,, O. Bartels, Brisbane. 

,, A. T. Bryant, Dindings. 

,, W. Egerton, Sungei Ujong. 

,, C. Maries, Gwalior. 

, G. Baldwin, Perak. 

„ D. Logan, Penang. 

., T. A. Wooldridge, Penang. 

,, J. K. Birch, Penang. 

,, G. F. Adamson, Penang. 

! Colonel Frowd Walker, Perak, 
i Public Gardens, Taiping. 


i r 


Appendix C. 

A List of a few of the interesting Plants flowered in the Waterfall 

Garden, Penang , j8gj . 


Name. 


Anthurium Andreanum, 

Dechardii, 

„ ferrierense, 

Angrecum citratum, 

JS articulatum, 

Jt Sanderianum, 

„ # Scottianum, 

„ sesquipeda^e, 

brides multiflorum, ... 

,, odoratum, 

,, virens, 

>Escliynanthus Wallichii, 

„ marmorata, 

Aristolochia elegans, ... 

,, gigas var * Sturtevantii, 
Bulbophyllum radiatum, 

Cattleya Bowringiana, 


)) 

amethystoglossa, 

J J 

aurea, 

>J 

gigas, 

)} 

Mossiae, 

it 

Mendelii, 

ii 

labiata, 

n 

Percivaliana, 

)y 

Schroderae, . 

>> 

Sanderiana, 

ft 

trianae, 

Calanthe 

curculigoides, 


limatodes, ... 

J } 

rubens, 

ft 

Regnerii, 

)» 

vestita, 

) > 

veratrifolia, ... 

}) 

sp., 


#* 


Cirrhopetalum medusae, 

„ longissimum, nsp., 

t) sp., ... 

Cypripedium barbatum, 

,, Lowii, ... 

„ Havnaldianum, 

„ insigne exjil, 

n niveum, 

„ bellatulum, 

„ Spicerianum, 

,, Sedenii, 

Cselogyne Cumingii, 

,, asperata, 

,, tomentosa, 

„ Parishii, 

n pandurata, 

,, Dayana, 

Crinum Mooreii, 

,, pedunculatum, 

Cycnocbes chlorochilum, 
Dendrobium Buissonii, 

,, Dalhousianum, 

,, densiflorum, 

„ formosum, 



Date of 
Flowering, i 

Native Country. 

} 

Always in 
flower. 

Columbia. 

S. America. 

Garden Hybrid. 


May. 

Madagascar. 


March, . 

Do. 


April. 

Do. 


Oct. -Nov. 

Comoro. 


Oct. -Dec. 

Madagascar. 


May- June. 

Burma. 


July. 

India, 


July- Aug. 

Malaya. 

j 

N early 

Dindings. 

£ 

always in 

Penang. 

3 

flower. 

Brazil. 


... 

Do. 


Aug.-Dee. 

Panga, Siam. 

... 

June. 

C. America. 


February. 

Brazil.* 

* . * 

May. 

Costa Rica. 


May. 

S. America. 

. , » 

Dec. -Feb. 

La Guayra. 


March. 

Brazil. 


July. 

Do. 


Sept. -Dec. 

Colombia. 


June. 

Brazil. 


May. 

New Grenada. 

• 

February. 

Brazil. 


September. 

M alaya. 


Sept.-Dee. 

Burma. 


Nov. -Jan. 

Longkawi. 


Oct.-Nov. 

Siam. 


Sept. -Dec. 

Burma. 


Jan. -Dec. 

Malaya. 


• a a . 

Perak. 

, * * 

Sept. -Oct. 

Penang. 


Sept.-Oct. 

Panga, Siam. 

. » , 

Sept. -Oct. 

Do. 


Nov. -Dec. 

Penang. 


April. 

Borneo. 


Nov. -Dec. 

Phillipines. 


December. 

Panga, Siam. 


August. 

Langkawi. 


March. 

Siam. 

. . . 

August. 

Assam. 


Agril. 

Garden Hybrid. 


April-May. 

Penang and Perak. 

. . . 

'. Feb.-July. 

Perak and Borneo. 

, , , 

July. 

Perak and Penang. 

• , 

March. 

Burma. 

• * 

March. 

Perak. 

» a a 

November. 

Borneo. 

... 

April. 

Natal. 


December. 

New Guinea, 

• . . 

February. 

Demerara 

* » , 

February. 

Burma. 


Dec.-Mar. 

Do. 


Dec.-Mar. 

Do. 

... 

August. 

Do. 


Appendix C, — Continued. 

A List of a few of the interesting Plants flowered in the Waterfall 
Garden , Penang, 1893, — Continued. 


Name. 


Dendrobium Dearii, ... 

„ Farmerii, 

„ taurinum, 

,, Jenkinsii, 

,, Wardianum, 

„ phalaenopsis, 

,, Pierardii, 

,, Veitchii, ... 

„ sp., several of bota 

only, 

Didymocarpus sp., fl. blue, 

M sp., fl. yellow, 

Eria albido-tomentosa, 

„ ornata, 

„ sp., several from Perak and 
Epidendrum atropurpureum, 

,, var. album, 

Eucharis Candida, 

Galeandra sp. ( Sander), 
Grammatophyllum speciosum, 
Habenaria carnea, 

„ ,, white var. 

Haemanthus Kalbreyerii, 
Impatiens Sultani, 

„ Hawkerii, ... 

H S P’> 

„ mirabilis, ... 

Lycaste aromatica, 

„ Skinnerii, 

Leptotes bicolor, . . 

Laelia harpophylla, ... 

„ Dayana, 
u anceps, _ ... 

Miltonia spectabilis, ... 

Roezlii alba, 

„ Morelliana, ... 

,, Warscewiczii, 

Oncidium barbatum, 

,, ampliatum majus. 

,, ornithorynchum, 

,, sp. (Sander), 

,, phymatochilum, 

Phajus alba, 

„ Blumii, 

Peristeria elata, 

Phalsenopsis tetraspis, 

,, amabile, ... 

,, esmeralda, 

„ cornu-cervi, 

„ violacea, , . . 

,, sumatrana, 
Saccolabium sp., 

,, curvifolium, 

Vanda caeru lea, 

„ insignis, 

„ teres, 

„ Hookerii, 

„ tricolor, 

Zygopeialum Mackayii, 


^angkawi. 


cal interest 


Date of 
Flowering. 


Jan. -Dec., 
February. 
September. 
May. 

Feb. -March 
December, 
March. 
Dec. -Jan. 


April-Dee. 

Nov.-Dee. 

July. 

July-Aug, 

August. 

August. 

June. 

July. 

July-Nov. 

July-Nov. 

June. 

) Always in 
t flower. 

May. 
Jan. -Feb. 
August. 
February. 
Aug.-Oct. 
August. 
August. 
July. 
June. 
August. 
November. 
February. 
Dec. -Mar. 

March. 

September. 

June. 

June. 

July. 

Nov. -Dec. 

More or 
[ less in flow 
[ er all the 
year. 

May-June. 

May-June. 

July. 

April. 

April. 

September. 
Sept. -March. 


Native Country. 


Philippines. 

Mergui. 

Phillipines. 

Burma. 

Do. 

New Guinea. 
Burma. 

Java. 


Panga, Siam. 
Kedah. 

Langkawi. 

Do. 

Mexico. 

Do. 

New Grenada. 

Malaya. 

Langkawi. 

Do. 

Guinea. 

Zanzibar. 

Pacific Islands. 

Langkawi. 

Mexico. 

Guatemala. 

Brazil. 

Do. 

Do. 

Mexico. 

Peru. 

Do. 

Do. 

Brazil. 

Guatemala. 

C. America. 

Mexico. 

Brazil. 

Burma. 

Perak. 

Panama. 

Andamans, 

Borneo and Java. 
Langkawi and Siam. 
Malaya. 

Perak and Borneo. 
Perak. 

Tongkah. 

Langkawi. 

India, 

Timor. 

India. 

Perak. 

Java. 

Brazil. 


C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Gardens and Forests \ 


*3 

REPORT ON THE GARDENS AND FORESTS, MALACCA. 

1. Mr. J. S. GOODENOUGH took charge of the Department in June, on Mr, 
DERRY’S proceeding to Europe on leave. 

2. With the reduced staff consisting of only four coolies and a mandor, nothing 
but the usual nursery garden work could be attempted. The beds adjoining the 
proposed lake were kept in good order, and about 6,366 plants of various kinds 
were propagated, of which 2,207, chiefly fruit-tuees, were sold to various private 
persons, and 73 various trees were supplied to Government grounds. 

3. A line of palms were planted along the main drive during the year, and they 
have grown well and already are a noticeable feature in the garden. 

The Plant-sheds. 

4. The plant-sheds, of which there are two, have been well looked after, and the 
plants contained therein are doing well. 

5. One shed is situated a little way above the. nursery. It is a span-roofed shed, 
of rumbia attaps, measuring 51 feet long by 14 feet wide, principally given to 
orchids, lilies and ornamental plants a$d shrubs. 

6. The other one, 41 feet long by 18 feet wide, and situated next to the 
cross entrance, is also a span-roofed structure covered with rumbia attaps ; the side 
tables, made of rough red iron-stones, are one foot high on which are placed ferns 
(some very fine ones), begonias (both native and foreign) and creeping aroids ; and 
it is also used to shelter the more ‘delicate native plants brought in from distant 
jungles. 

Experimental Cultivation . 

7. The clove trees, which were planted in 1888, have flowered twice during the 
year, and 1 hope to be able to get some data as to the probable yield of cloves per 
tree and of the market value. 

8. Some of the young plants planted in the upper portion of the gardens in 
1891 have not thriven as the soil was too hard. They nave been removed to a more 
suitable spot, which has been, more beneficial to them. 

9. Nutmegs. — It would seem that dry, clayey s*o^ does not suit these. A few 
trees planted fur experiment in a dry spot dwindled away till they had a starved and 
stunted appearance, while trees planted in the lower p irt of the gardens where the 
soil is richer and less dry, have thriven and are all that can be desired. 

10. Tea (Hybrid Assam) and Liberian coffee are growing well, and endeavours 
will be taken to keep a good stock supply, especially of the latter, for which there is 
an increasing demand in the Settlement. 

11. Farming. — The fruit crop of the gardens was let for $33.99 during the year. 

12. Exchanges. — A large number of fruit trees and other economic plants 
were transmitted to Singapore and Penang, for shipment to other parts of the world, 

13. Herbarium . — -An extensive series of specimens was collected during the 
year, a set of which was sent to the Singapore Herbarium. The collection has now 
become so large that additional accommodation was found essential. * Two new 
cabinets were, therefore, purchased at a cost of $35. 

14. Forest Reserves , — The total area of reserved forests in the Malacca Settle* 
ment is now 49,210 acres. The boundaries of all the reserves have been kept clear 
of weeds and grass, as well as possible with the reduced staff, except in the cases of 
the Brisu and Mertimau reserves, which had to be much neglected. 

15. Staff .— The Forest Police, having been reduced by 12 men, now consists 
of only two Corporals, 3 Lance-Corporals and 7 Watchmen. All worked well, 
with the exception of one Corporal, who was found to be neglecting his work, and 
was dismissed. 

16. Licenses. — Passes for timber-cutting, collecting dammar and woOd-oil, 
cutting rattan, collecting palm-toddy and fibre were given out, for various reserves, viz., 
Sungei Udang, Bukit Bruang, Bukit Panchor, Merlimau, Bukit Sadanen, Jus and 
Batu Tiga, and brought in a revenue of $593.10. The fruit-trees were farmed in the 
Panchor reserve and produced $85.23. 

17. Fires. — One large fire- occurred at Ayer Kurau, which burnfc down grass and 
brushwood to the extent of about forty acres. The cause was undiscovered. 

18. Prosecutions. — There was but one prosecution during the year, for timber 
putting at Batang Malaka. The defendant was fined $20, which was paid. 





14 


19- 


Expenditure. 

Total Revenue and Expenditure . 


Revenue . 

Gardens and Forests, 


Expenditure. 

$1,022.67 | Gardens and Forests, $,2499.64 

Expenditure . 

$2,500 00 


Detail of Expenditure. 


Vote, 

$ c. 

Salaries of Forest Guards, 

1,272 96 

„ „ Gardens, 

49i 99 

Pony Allowance, 

432 00 

Field ,, 

145 00 

Freight and Shipping, 

8 35 

Maintenance of Bullock and Cart, ... 

12 30 

Purchase of Plants and Seeds, 

0 35 

Incidental, 

30 89 

Office arid Herbarium, *. 

46 40 

Transport, 

59 40 

Balance, 

0 36 


Total, ... 


$2,500 00 


Detail of Revenue , Gardens and Forests 
Gardens. $ Forests. 


Sale of Fruit-trees, ... 

„ Shade trees, 

„ Clove trees, 

„ Nutmeg trees, 

„ Ornamental trees, 

„ Coffee trees, 

„ Orchids, 

Fruit crop and Plantain, 
Sale of Mangkuang leaves, 
„ Rumbia leaves, 
Packing and Cart-hire, 


i 


106 91 

5 00 

109 72 
24 72 
19 94 

6 00 
4 15 

33 99 
1 00 
1 20 
24 41 


Total, ... 337 04 
Plants supplied for Government 
use. , .. *■* ••• 7 3° 


Grand Total $344 34 


Tenths on Dammar, 

Wood-oil, 

Sale of Timber, 

Water Supply to Sago Factory, 
Sale of Rattans, ... 

„ Kabong Palm-toddy and 
Fibre, ... 

„ Fruits, 

„ Charcoal, ... 

„ Gutta, ... 


$ c. 

87 25 

36 00 
284 35 
20 00 
r8 65 

19 05 
85 23 
23 00 

3 66 


Total, ... 577 '9 
Timber supplied for Government 

use, Public Works Department, 92 52 
Timber supplied to Penghulu 

for a Mosque, ... ... 8 62 


Grand Total, .. $678 33 


J. S. GOODENOUGH, 

Acting Assistant Superintendent of 

Gardens and Forests. 


Report on the Gardens and Forests Department, Straits 
Settlements, for the Year 1894. 


Botanic Gardens, Singapore. 


Staff. 

Several changes in the staff took place during the year. MandorT. C. Pereira 
was replaced by Ahmat ; Chief Mandor P. C. COORAY resigned; and the Inspector 
of Coco-nut Trees was dismissed. The frequency of these changes is to be deplored, 
but I can see no help for them without paying much larger salaries than we do. 
The Artist, Mr. D’AlAVlS, who had previous to this year been paid from a special 
vote, was in January transferred to the Gardens vote. He too resigned his appoint- 
ment on account of the smallness of his pay : this is particularly to be regretted, as 
it stops altogether, or at least considerably delays, the figuring of the new and charac- 
teristic plants of Malaya, with which it is intended to illustrate a written Flora. The 
Director, Mr. H. N. Ridley, went on leave to England in September ; and Mr. Derry, 
the Assistant Superintendent of Forests, Malacca, returned from England also in Sep- 
tember, and was detailed for duty at Head Quarters pending the result of the recom- 
mendations of'the Retrenchment Committee, who had recommended that his office 
should be abolished. 

. Visitors. 

3. There is a steady increase in the number of visitors. I am glad to report a 
less number of thefts than usual ; one resident, however, was caught stealing orchid- 
flowers, was prosecuted, and fined $30. The Regimental Band played frequently in 
the Gardens on Friday afternoons, and on several occasions by moonlight, the latter 
performances attracting enormous crowds. 

Aviaries. 

4. The aviaries, which form such an attraction to visitors, have absorbed a- con- 
siderable amount of labour and money, as they have'been -entirely reconstructed dur- 
ing the year. The old structures, which were made of wood and shingle roofs, had 
become absolutely dilapidated, and it was resolved to rebuild them in a. more perma- 
nent manner. The enclosures have been m&de by brick walls, and the roofs of cor- 
rugated iron, and better accommodation has been given to the animals. Several 
additions have been made to the collections, amongst them being a mynah from Java, 
presented by His Grace the Duke of Newcastle; two crowned partridges ( Rollulus 
cristatus), presented by Dr. Johnston of Pahang; three pelicans { Pelicanus manil- 
lensis), presented by Messrs. MACHADO* and Ojmming ; one emu (Dromceus norse- 
hollandae) and two jabirus ( Mycteria australis ), presented by Captain Vincent,- Singa- 
pore ; two Brahminy kites ( Haliastur indus ) and one Malayan palm civet ( Parado - 
xurus hermaphroditus ), presented by Mr. C. P. Derrick, Singapore; and one female 
bear {Ursus ?nalayanus ), presented by Miss Aylesbury, Perak. The following were 
purchased : — Three bandycoots {Parameles sp.) from New Guinea, and two young mias 
(Simia satyrus). I regret to report the death of the large Malay bear from inflamma- 
tion of the stomach ; he had been in the Gardens nearly five years. The large mias 
purchased last year died from general debility ; and the black buck, which was pre- 
sented by the 2nd Battalion The Lincolnshire Regiment, was killed by a deer, which 


broke thr.ough the partition of the next compartment. A common monkey was born 
in the aviary on the 2nd of September ; the mother having previously given birth to 
two others in the same place in 1892 and 1893, respectively. A young deer was also 
born in the Gardens on the 30th March. Two young tiger cubs from Pahang were 
deposited by His Excellency the Governor pending arrangements for their transfer to 
the Zoological Gardens, London. 

* # Plant Houses. 

5. Extensive repairs were carried out in the large plant house and orchid house 
adjoining. Many of the cross beams and their upright supports have been renewed : 
these ballow wood beams had stood since the house was erected some twelve years 
ago. The other plant sheds have been repaired where necessary. 

* 6. Most of the plants mentioned in last year’s Report have again flowered, as well 
as several new introductions. Among the latter is a new genus (named by the Director 
“ Machadoa ”) after its discoverer, who found it in Tringganu ; it belongs to the natural 
order Commelinacew, and is a pretty little plant. A new Trichoglottis. flowered and 
was named T.zebrinh — a very handsome puqile-leaved grass. Penmsetyim was in- 
troduced from New Guinea, and proved on flowering to be P . macrostachyum. Other 
new introductions are : — Bougainvillea Sander tana , Dracaena Sander iana , Trades- 
cantia decora , new hybrid Begonias , Cypripednim Charlesworthii , Collabium nebu- 
losum , Selaginella usta, Selagmella grandis, Ar istolochia saccata , M edimlla Teys- 
mannii, PTc. Especial mention should be made of several important collections from 
Kew, including a complete set of Phyllocacti, a mixed collection of valuable economic 
plants, and 632 seeds of the cola nut. Messrs. SANDER & Co. have also contributed 
some valuable South American orchids, and mixed plants of a decorative character. 

7. An 'attempt has been made to improve the cultivation of roses, and seveial 
consignments have been received from Bangalore, Calcutta and Saharanpur. It is 
hoped that by inarching the better kinds on the stock of one of the common strong 
growing local varieties, the flowers will be kept from degenerating as they do when 
left to grow on their own roots. 

Lawn and Flower Beds. 

8 Greater attention has been paid to the cultivation of flowering plants such as 
annuals, and the beds have been kept gay with a succession of such plants as Gail- 
lardias, Zinnias, Petunias, &c. The most serviceable plants in this direction, however, 
have unquestionably been the Cannas , obtained chiefly from Mr. Curtis in Penang, 
who has been so successful in introducing and growing most of the best varieties. 

Lakes. 


q. The lakes have received the usual attention in clearing the weeds ( Utricu - 
l aria) which grow with such astonishing rapidity, and about a hundred cart-loads 
of silt were removed from the top end of the big lake. Tire Nympheas were manured 
from time to time. I am gted to be able to report the re-mtroduction of the \ ictona 
Recdalily after repeated failures. Our only plant died in 1891, and since then no pains 
have been spared to re-introduce it by seeds and young plants. Seeds were received 
from British Guiana and Kew, and a.yo.ung plant obtained from Penang, but m spite 
of every care, the latter died, and the former failed to germinate. In September last, 
our efforts were rewarded with success, several plants germinated from seeds kindly 
supplied by Dr. Treub from the famous Gardens at Buitenzorg, the largest plant is 
now' well established in the small lake near the nursery. 

* • Roads and Walks. 

10 No extensive re-metallingTias been done, but repairs have been made where 
necessary, and all the small walks around the Band-stand coated with a fresh layer 
of gravel The bridge on the new lake has been removed, the planking being rotten, 
and on the recommendation of the Superintendent of Works and Surveys the culvert 
has been replaced by cast iron pipes 2' 6" in diameter obtained from the Municipality. 
The erection of granite posts and chains along both sides of the dam has yet to be 

Economic Garden and Arboretum. 

1 1. The arboretum may now be said to be practically complete, so far as allot- 
ting the space to the various natural orders ‘is concerned. The space for the remain- 
ing* natural orders from Urticaceae were marked out and planted during the year. A 
good deal of time was taken up in turfing the ground between the trees to prevent 
the washing away of the surface soil by heavy rains, and it is found the trees grow 


3 


very much better when the ground is under grass. This part of the Garden, although 
not much visited now, will, it is hoped, be more frequently visited' as the trees grow up 
and become more interesting. ' 

12. Some experiments were made in making paper from various fibres, such as 
lalang, ginger plant stems, the sheaths of various palms, &c,, with a fair amount of 
success. As these and some other experiments have been detailed more fully in 
Bulletin No. 4, I need not further allude to them here. 

1 aspect ion of Coco-nut Trees. 

13. Two hundred and fifty-eight (258) notices calling upon ‘occupiers to destroy 
1,800 trees and stumps were served during the year, and in two cases only was it 
found necessary to prosecute, small fines being inflicted in both cases. In August 
last, the Inspector was dismissed by order of the Government for misconduct; ancfas 
in the opinion of the Government it was not considered necessary to keep up the 
post, the inspection of plantations and the working of the Ordinance is now carried 
on by one man only, which hardly needs pointing out is quite inadequate to do the 
work properly. In support of this, I may quote some figures taken from a letter sent 
me by Mr. ALLINSON, wlio was lately in charge of the Grove Coco-nut Estate, Tanjong 
Katong. He says : — “ Three beetle-men are constantly employed on the estate, whose 
“ duty it is to search for and destroy the beetles found in the trees. The crop of 
“ beetles averages about 25 per diem. In addition to the searching of the trees, just 
“ described, a regular examination of stumps has been initiated with startling results, 
“ the figures are given in the Appendix. 

* 

“APP.ENDIX. 


“ Result of Daily Searches for Beetles. 


“April, 

“ May, 

“June, 

“July, 

“August, 

“ September,. 
“October, . ■. 
“November, ... 
“ December, . . . 


‘ Black. 

Red. 

Trees cut 

526 

1 

3 ° 

637 

2 

16 

521 

5 


612 . 


• 

54 



680 

4 

. . . 

759 

20 

28 

700 

9 

15 

515 

3 

1 1 

5 >534 

44 

1 14 


a 

Inspection of Stumps. 



“ Black. 

Red. 

Larvee . 

November, 

724 * 

5 

5,000 

December, 

228 

2 

2,000 


. “ 952 

7 

7,000 


14. The above figures bear eloquent testimony to the. fertility of the beetles, in 
spite of the greatest efforts to keep them in check, for if such numbers are to be 
found on one of our very best and most highly cultivated estates, what are we to ex- 
pect from the less cultivated ones, to say nothing of the countless numbers of small 
holdings which carry a- few coco-nut trees ? There can be no doubt that, if we are to 
combat the scourge successfully, greater efforts will have to be made to carry out the 
Ordinance more effectively, and this can only be- done by an increased staff working 
under an intelligent Inspector. (This will, however, form the subject of a separate 
report to Government.) 


Vote 


... $700.00 


Salaries, 

$320.52 

Expenses, removing trees and stumps. 

286.00 

Transport, 

39 - 4 y 

Uniforms. - ... 

7.00 


$< 55 2 -94 

Balance, . . . 

47.06 


$700.00 


' Herbarium and Museum. 

15. No botanical tours outside Singapore were taken during the year, never- 
theless a considerable number of Singapore species were added, collected mainly 
by the Director in the ouflying parts of the island. Four hundred and seventy-seven 
(477) specimens were received from Dr. King, Calcutta; 36 from Dr. HAVILAND, 
Borneo; 272 from Malacca; 97 from Baron VON Mueller, Australia; 88 speci- 
mens were collected in Java by Mr. HuLLETT, and 30 from various sources. Many 
plants, chiefly orchids, were sent in to be named by local cultivators. 

16. The following specimens were distributed (many of them for identification 
by various, specialists) : — One thousand four hundred and sixteen (1,416) to Dr. 
King, Calcutta; 1,862 to the British Museum; 452 to the Royal Gardens, Kew ; 101 
palms to Professor O. BECCARI, Naples ; 25 Melastomaceie to Professor COGNIAUX, 
France; 96 species of mosses to Professor BrotheRUS, Russia; 33 species to Dr. 
HAVILAND; 29 ferns to Colonel Beddome, England ; 13 ferns to Bishop HOSE ; 28 
Graminese to United States Department of Agriculture and Professor Hackel, St. 
Polten. Our herbarium of Malayan bamboos was loaned to Mr. Gamble of the India 
Forest Department, who was engaged on a monograph of the Indian species. After 
critical examination, several of ours prove to be new. 

17. The Museum was enriched by a very complete set of Johor timbers to the 
number of 614, and while some uf these, no doubt, will* prove to be duplicates, it is 
nevertheless the most complete set ever got together: they have been cut to a uniform 
size, and will be placed in cabinets for reference. 

18. A series of saprophytes were preserved in spirits, one of them proving new, 
and has been named Thismia fumida. Some plants used by the aborigines of the 
Peninsula for making their arrow poison, were presented by Professor Vaughan 
Stevens. A series of various natural history specimens . were sent to the British 
Museum and to Mr. HolmbS of the Pharmaceutical Society. 

M iscetla n eous. 

19. A successful Flower Show was held in June, under the auspices of the Gar- 
dens Committee, the main feature of which was the very good display of orchids. 

A Bulletin on Sago was prepared during the year, but the press of work at the 
Government- Printing Office prevented its being published within the year, the same 
cause preventing the publication of the Garden Catalogue, drawn up some time ago. 
I hope these will be taken in hand in 1895. 

Library. 

20. In addition to the usual Periodicals and Garden Reports, the following works 
* were received and added to the Library : — * 

Presented : — 

Dr. Treub. — Verslag omtrent den Staat van Stands Plantentium to Buitenzorg, 
1892 and 1893. 

Dr. Treub. — Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, Vol. XII, Part I. 

DuthiE, J. F. — Records of the Botanical Survey of India, Voh I, No. r — Report 
on a Botanical Tour in Kashmir. 

Gammie, G. A .-. — Report on a Botanical Tour in Sikkim. ^ 

Dr. Prain. — Memoirs and Memoranda, 1894. • 

Dr. CROMBIE. — British Lichens. 

Dr. Watt. — Agricultural Ledgers, No. 1-4 1892, Nos. 1-20 1893, Nos. 1-6 1894. 

Under-Secretary for Agriculture, Brisbane. — Agricultural Bulletins. 

United States Department of Agriculture. — Experiment Stations Records. 


5 


MOLL, J. W. — Een toestel on Planten voor het herbarium Te Drogen. 

Do., — Rapport sur quelques Cultures de Papaveracies. 

Dr. BORSMA. — Bulletin No. 13. 

Purchased : — 

Index Kewensis, Fasc. II and III. 

VASQUE. — Monographic Phanerogarum Guttiferae, Vol. VIII. 

Dr. Trimen. — Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon, Part II with Atlas. 

Exchanges. 

21. The usual exchanges of plants and seeds with kindred institutions outside 
the Colony have been maintained. Twelve hundred and fifty-four plants and three 
hundred and sixty-nii^e packets of seeds were received from the under-mentioned 
contributors, and three hundred and thirty-four plants and one hundred and four 
boxes and packages of seeds were sent out : — 

Contributors : — 


Royal Gardens, Kew. 


Do., 

Calcutta. 

Botanic Gard 

ens, Ceylon. 

Do., 

Bangalore. . 

Do., 

Saigon. 

Do., 

St. Petersburgh. 

Do., 

Buitenzorg. 

Do., 

Trinidad. 

Do., 

Hongkong. 

Do., 

Durban. 

Do., 

British Guiana. 

Do., 

Mauritius. 

Do., 

Rockhampton. 

Do., 

Saharanpur. 

Do., 

Apia, Samoa. 


Agri-Horticultural Society, Calcutta. 

Baron von Mueller, Melbourne. 

Prof. Max. Cornu, Paris. 

Messrs. Sander & Co., St. Albans, London. 

„ Bull, London. 

,, Canned & Son, England. 

,, Dammann & Co., Italy. 

,, Stanley Prise & Co., India. 

Revd. Schlechter, South Africa. 

Conservator of Forests, Dehra Dun. 

J. O’Brien, Esq., England.'* 

Geo. Peche, Esq., Maulmain. 

F. Gilmour, Esq., Missouri, U. S. A. 

Admiral Ammen, Washington, U. S. A. 

Rt. Rev. Bishop Hose, Borneo. 

W. Scott, Esq., Perak. 

Dr. Johnston, Pahang. 

Dr. Braddon, Sungei Ujong. 

Major-General Berkeley, England. 

Messrs. Pereira & Co., Florists, etc., Singapore. 
R. Cundall, Esq., Manila. 

W. Boxall, Esq., Singapore. 

A. Ericsson, Esq., Singapore. 

W. Micholitz, Esq., Singapore. 

M. Langlasse, Singapore. 

Mrs. A. S. Murray, Singapore. 


-A *5. 


6 


BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 
Statement of Receipts and Expenditure, for the Year 1894. 


Receipts. 

Expenditure. 


$ c. 

Salaries. 

? f. 

s$ c. 

fBy Balance in Bank, . . . 

78 57 

Artist, 

250 00 


m Government Grant, 

8,500 00 

Herbarium Keeper, 

239 02 


m Sale of Plants and 


Mandor, 

• 217 .59 


Flowers, 

864 51 

Carpenters, 

281 81 


„ Interest, 

49 48 

Mason, 

98 25 




Plant Collector, 

100 00 




Printer (Label), 

165 48 




Peon, 

96 00 




Aviary Keeper, 

96 00 



• 

Police, 

348 00 




Coolies, 

2,963 29 






4.855 44 



Bills . 





Manure and Cartage, 

205 39 




Food for Birds and Animals, 

824 55 




Purchase of Pots and Tubs, 

158 06 




Purchase of Plants & Seeds, 

i 94 32 




Purchase of Books, 

19 95 




Purchase of Tools and 





Stores, 

614 62 




Purchase of Timber, Planks, 





etc., 

3° 3 97 




Purchase of Bricks, Lime, 

3*8 45 




Freight on Plant Cases, etc., 

232 35 




Director’s Petty Expendi- 





ture, 

217 31 




Assistant Superintendent’s 





Petty Expenditure, 

1 15 24 




Subscription to Telephone, 

97 5 o 




Miscellaneous, 

304 02 






$3,605 73 



♦ 


$8,461 17 


■ 

Balance, 

... 

$1,031 39 

• 

$9,492 56 



$9,492 56 


WALTER FOX, 

Assistant Superintendent of Gardens and Forests, in Charge 


Forest Department, Singapore. 


22. A further reduction of the vote precluded very much being done, except pro- 
tection and planting the remaining bilian plants that were not big enough to plant out 
in 1893. About a thousand plants were planted at Bukit Timah and Bukit Mandai. 
The young trees planted in former years were attended to as regards clearing of 
weeds, &c. The boundary paths and fire guards have been kept in order. A consi- 
derable portion of the time of the forest guards was taken up patrolling those coast 
and river reserves in which licenses were issued for cutting timber, &c., the amount 
of revenue obtained from this source being more than sufficient to pay the forest 
guards during the year. 

Licenses. 

23. A still further increase in the number of applications to cut mangrove fire- 
wood, fishing stakes, rollers, tan bark, &c. was made during the year, indeed some 
had to be rejected, as more . applications were made than we could with prudence 
grant. Three hundred and thirty-five (335) permits were granted, as against 136 last 
year, yielding a revenue of $982.75, as against $416 in 1893. 

24. Fifteen fires occurred during the year in the various reserves. Very little 
damage, was done in any case, except the one that took place at Sungei Jurong and 
Pandan during the very dry weather that prevailed in February. On this occasion the 
lire swept over nearly 150 acres, and destroyed some good forest, and young plants. 
In every case it was found impossible to find out how they had originated. In one 
case some Chinese squatters were prosecuted on good circumstantial evidence, but 
the Magistrate did not think the case proved, and acquitted the prisoners. 

Prosecution. 

25. Three cases of illicit timber cutting were prosecuted, and fines inflicted in 
■each case, amounting in all to $30. 

26. Since Mr. Derry’S return in September, 'the Department has been without 
the services of an Inspector of Forests. Mr. GOODENOUGH who had been acting for 
Mr. Derry reverted to the salary of his own appointment, and as there was no pro- 
vision for the Acting Overseer, he was discharged. This explains the reason of • a 
balance appearing on the vote at the close of the year. 

General. 

27. In accordance with the recommendations of the Retrenchment Committee, 
the forests were handed over from the isb of January, 1895, to the charge of the 
Collectors of Land Revenue in Singapore and Penang, and the Collector of Land 
Revenue and District'Officers in Malacca. As this is probably the last Report which 
this Department will make on them, it would be advisable that this opportunity 
should be taken of putting on record the present state of the Forest Department, 
and reviewing briefly its work since its initiation and comparing it with what ex- 
isted before its creation. It will be remembered that it was in 1884 that the Govern- 
or Sir F. A. Weld commissioned the then Superintendent, the late Mr. CANTLEY, to 
prepare a Report on the Crown Forests of the Colony, and to make recommendations 
for the creation of a Department for their preservation.* Mr. CANTLEY was eminently 
fitted for the task entrusted to him, no more b‘y having just relinquished charge of the 
Gardens and Forests in Mauritius, than for his admirable powers of organization: and 
he threw himself into the ‘work with his characteristic energy, the result was a most 
elaborate and valuable Report, in which he discussed the subject in a masterly 'and 
complete manner, he shewed the urgent necessity for stopping the ravages of the 
wholesale destruction of the forests which had been going on ever since the foundation 
of the Colony, and made no less valuable suggestions .for the creation of a Depart- 
ment which would check those ravages, and carry out those principles of Forestry 
which have been shewn necessary in every country to be absolutely essential to its 
wel lbeincr. Unfortunately death prevented him from carrying out the task he had 
sketched out, nevertheless the thoroughness with which he laid the foundation have 
enabled his followers to bring the Department to the comparative state of efficiency 
'it is in at present. 

28. Durino- the last few years, however, the votes hatfe been so reduced as to pre- 
vent any work except almost that of protection, nor is this policy altogether to be re- 
gretted, for the comparative big votes of the. first few years, necessitated by surveys 
And demarcations, were no longer required, as owing to the limited area of the for- 
ests in Singapore and Penang, their utility as a source of revenue, was subordinated 


to their climatic and hygienic uses. This has not prevented, however, steady 
perseverance at re-afforesting which has been going on, brought about by pro- 
tection, and assisted by artificial planting as far as funds allowed, thus building up a 
valuable source of revenue for the future, and especially so in Malacca, where the area 
of Crown Forests is considerable. 

29. Mr. Cantley’s recommendations did not only apply to the Colony, but 
equally with all their force to the forests of the Peninsula, which, ii carried out, in time 
would at all events prevent their indiscriminate destruction. But it is more to what 
has actually been accomplished in the Colony.that I would beg leave to point out. W hat 
was the state of things before 1884 ? As has been said, indiscriminate felling had been 
going on since the early days of the Settlement, the Crown Forests, such as were left 
of them, were the prey of the illicit tree-feller, who from want of any one to prevent 
him, helped himself to whatever he pleased; encroachments again went on unchecked, 
because seldom or never found out; fires were numerous ; and most Important of all 
the very sources of our water supply were being endangered both from destruction of 
forests, and the introduction of squatters with their pigs and other pollutions. All 
this has been stopped, and various parts of the island have been reserved, surveyed, 
and properly demarcated with boundary paths and fire guards, and an endeavour, so 
far as funds have permitted, to reafforest these reserves with young plants of the 
more valuable timbers which had become extinct on the island, and were getting 
scarce in accessible positions elsewhere. 

30. The total area of Forest Reserve in Singapore amounts to 12,965 acres, 
divided into 13* reserves. A description of their contents will .be found in the Annual 
Report for 1889, 

[The area of Forest Reserves in Penang and Pulau Jerejak amount to 11,226 
acres, and in Malacca to 42,000 acres.] 


FOREST DEPARTMENT. 


Vote, ... 
Salaries, 
Cartage, 
Seeds, 

Miscellaneous, 


Expenditure for 1894. 


... $999.00 
33.00 
... 24.50 

... 54-5S 


Balance, . . . 


$1,400.00 


$1, r 1 1.08 
$288.92 


$1,400.00 


WALTER FOX, 

Assistant Superintendent of Gardens 
and Forests, in Charge. 


9 

Gardens and Forests Department, Penang. 


Waterfall ^Botanic Garden. 

Numerous improvements to grounds, plant-sheds, &c. have been effected and no 
pains spared to make this Garden attractive to the general public. One great draw- 
back to high class cultivation of difficult subjects is the lack of intelligent labour. All 
the gardeners and coolies employed are immigrants from Southern India and it al- 
most invariably happens that by the time a- man begins to be useful, he either returns 
to his native country, or obtains employment elsewhere at a . higher rate of pay. In 
spite of this, we have established a more than local reputation for the cultivation of 
orchids and other choice plants, but this is only maintained by constant personal 
supervision and hard work. . 

2. A considerable increase in revenue from the sale of plants is shown in the 
Statement of Revenue and h'xpenditure annexed, the total amount being $>948.24, as 
against $500 in 1893. I am doubtful whether this can be maintained in 1 895, especially 
as the vote for travelling has been reduced to a point that allows of very little in the way 
of botanical collecting being undertaken for the • purpose of obtaining new and rare 
plants for sale and exchange. 

3. The usual interchange of plants and seeds has been carried on, with the re- 
sult of adding a great number of interesting plants to our collection. A list of the 
principal contributors and recipients Is given in Appendix B. 

4. Many .interesting orchids and other plants, some of them new and undescri- 
bed, flowered 'during the year, but none, I think, attracted more attention "than a plant of 
Congea tomentosa , trained against the end of the fern-shed. This plant was collect- 
ed by me two years ago, and herbarium specimens distributed under the name Spheno- 
desma sp. It is deserving of a place in every tropical garden, for as a decorative plant 
it must be classed with Bougainvillaea and Petrse volubilis , but of an entirely different 
colour to either. . It may be already in cultivation, but I do not remember seeing it. 

5. Several new beds have been formed and pBnted, and old ones re-planted from 
time to time so as to keep up, as far as possible, a show of flowering and coloured 
leaved plants. Roses, which are generally considered difficult to grow in the plains, 
have done remarkably well, but the choice of varieties suitable to this climate is limit- 
ed. Marechal Neil and Gloire de Dijon are superior to all others fhat have been tried 
so far. By grafting on a strong-growing stock found growing semi- wild in a garden 
in Penang, of which I do not know the name having never seen it in flower, greater 
success has been obtained than by using Rosa gigantea, the one generally used in 
India. During the dry season, from November to March, Dianthus made a grand 
display and deserve to be more generally grown than at present. Flowering plants 
are much less generally grown in Penang than foliage plants. 

6. The principal orchid-shed, .which was in a bad state of repair, has been re- 
constructed with hardwood timber. This shed is 58x40 teet. One of the sheds in 
the, nursery, 50 x 18 feet, has been renewed with 3" and 4" iron supports and old boiler 
tubes from the sugar estates, and this is, I hope, the beginning of a new era in plant- 
shed construction. In this climate iron is not only the most suitable, but in the end 
the cheapest material, but the initial expense has hitherto prevented its use in this 
Garden. A portion of the material necessary for renewing another shed in. 1895 has 
been purchased and paid for out of 1894 vote. 

7. A new pond for the cultivation of the Victoria Regia lily in a more con- 
spicuous place than that in which it was formerly grown, has been made by throwing 
a stone-work dam across the hollow a few yards above the Office on the opposite side 
of the road, i his was finished, and three young* self-sown plants from the old 'pond 
planted in June, and by the 1st September, they completely covered the whole area. 
The depth of water is from 3 to 4 feet, and the material in which they were planted 

leaf-mould and cow manure, a cart-load of which has been added every two months. 

8. For the cultivation of annuals, and other flowering plants requiring sun, a 
raised octagonal bed of rough' stone-work has been made opposite No. 1 plant-shed 
and been kept bright with a succession of flowering plants during the whole year. 
Want of full exposure to direct sunlight is the principal cause of failure in growing 
the majority of flowering plants, especially annuals. 

9. This year has seen the completion of the Reservoir at the top of the Garden, 
and lias enabled us to complete the formation and metalling of the new road to it, as 
well as re-metalling the road over which all material for constructing the Reservoir 


has been carted. Altogether 1,525 lineal yards of carriage road have been re-metal- 
led. In doing this, the Municipal Commissioners assisted both with labour and mate- 
rial. 

,10. A catalogue of flowering plants and ferns found growing wild in Penang 
has been compiled by me and printed by the Royal Asiatic Society, Straits Branch ; 
about 50 copies of which have been distributed to various Botanists and Forest Offi- 
cers. Phis list contains 1,971 species belonging to 793 genera, and 129 natural or- 
ders. It will require revision when the more recent collections have been critically 
examined by competent authorities, as many additional plants have been collected 
since this paper was printed. 

11: In the beginning of the year, I was absent on two months' leave and visited 
Rangoon, Mandalay, Bhamo and the Mergui Achipelago. During this trip I obtained 
many interesting plants for the Garden, and made the acquaintance of several gentle- 
men interested in Botany, Horticulture, and Forestry, who' not only did all in their 
power to assist me while on the spot, but have since contributed additional plants and 
seeds, arid will, I hope, continue to do so in the future. 

12. In July, a hurried visit- was made to Taiping, my absence from Penang only 
extending over three clear days. One of these days was spent in judging at the Tai- 
ping Agricultural and Horticultural Show, and the other two in collecting plants of 
Lecanopteris carnosa, and other plants, a portion of which were sent to the Royal 
Gardens,.' Kew, at the request of the Director of that establishment, and it is gratifying 
to find that the majority arrived alive. 

13. In October, I obtained permission to visit Perak for ten days for the purpose 

of obtaining plants for cultivation and exchange. A report on this trip was submit- 
ted, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, on my return, a copy of 
which is attached (Appendix. C). . . 

14. A visit was also made to the Dindings in connection with the planting. of 
cloves an’d nutmegs in that Settlement. 

Government Hill Gardens . 

15. A fairly good and regular display of flowering plants, both In beds and pots, 
has been maintained in the grounds of the Government Bungalow. Among the more 
striking and easily grown plants for beds at this altitude (2,500 feet) may be noted 
cannas, roses, dahlias, dianthus, begonias and corn-flowers. As a pot plant nothing 
surpasses in brilliancy at this altitude Impatiens Hawkerii , which is grown in great 
numbers. The whole stock in this part of the world has been propagated by cutting 
from the original plant I brought from Kew in December, 1891. All attempts to in- 
duce this plant to produce seed has been abortive. 

16. The old plant-shed on Gun Hill has been taken down and removed to a less 
exposed position below the Governor’s Bungalow, and the original site planted with 
grass. 

17. Vegetables have been regularly supplied to the Governor's Bungalow when 
occupied, and fwice a week to the Residency throughout tlie year. Only a limited 
nuinber^of European kinds can be profitably grown, the easiest and most satisfactory 
being carrots, beet, leeks, lettuce, khol rabi, radish, peas, and, in the dry season, 
tomatos- “ Collections ” of both vegetable and flower seeds put up by the trade, 
either in Europe or India, always contain at least 5o-per cent, of varieties quite un- 
suitable for this climate, and it is, therefore, cheaper and better in ordering seeds to 
specify the kind and quantity required. Several of these “ collections" were sent me 
during the year by residents in Penang and Sumatra for an opinion as to suitability 
and instructions for cultivation, with permission to take a portion for the Gardens. I 
am afraid in most cases the result to the purchaser was disappointment. 

. 18. In the experimental nursery the most important event of the year is the 

heavy crop of fruit borne by three trees of Avocada pear ( Persia gratissima ), the 
introduction of which is a decided success, and the cultivation of which will be largely 
extended this season from the seed obtained. A few of the orange trees produced 
some fruit, but not so abundantly as could be wished. Lichee, loquat, and olives look 
promising, and we shall see in a year or two more whether these are deserving of ex- 
tended cultivation. 'The great drawback to cultivation in these hill gardens is the 
excessive cost of carrying up manure. 

Preservation of Coco-nut Trees. 

19. Notices were served on 661 persons having on their premises dead trees or 
material suitable for breeding places for the beetles. Of this number, 23 were pro- 
secuted for non-compliance with the orders, and fines inflicted amounting to $30.50, 


There is a general feeling, I believe, that the working of this Ordinance is for the pub- 
lic good, but its good effect can be insured only by frequent inspection and insistance 
on the orders being complied with. 

Maintenance of Forest Reserves. 

20. No addition has been made to the Forest Reserves, and the vv6rk of the year 
has been mainly protective. The total area under protection is the same as last year, 
viz., 10,887 acres in nine separate blocks with boundaries aggregating 65 miles. 

21. The cost of protecting small acres from fire and the inroads of illicit timber 
cutters must necessarily be*comparative!y much more expensive than larger ones, and 
the amount expended on this work ($966.62 as shown in Statement of Expenditure 
annexed) is the least with which efficiency can be expected, and any reduction of the 
present number of guards renders efficient protection impossible. 

22. Twenty-seven persons have been prosecuted during the. year for cutting 
timber and. causing damage by fire, and fines inflicted amounting to $215. 

23. In accordance with the recommendation of the Retrenchment Committee, it 
has been decided to transfer from 1st January, 1895, the management of all Crown 
forests in the Settlement to the Officers in charge of the Land and District Offices, 
and as this is the last Annual Report it will fall to my lot to write on these forests, it 
is desirable to point out the present position. 

24. From a direct revenue-producing point of view, there is no great scope for 
forest operations in a . small and mountainous island like Penang, but at the same time 
the importance of preserving, and, as far as possible, especially by natural reproduc- 
tion, improving the existing forest cannot be overestimated. 

25. Previous to my arrival in the Settlement, in July, 1884, a general report on 
the condition of the forests of the Colony, and forest conservancy generally, had been 
laid before the Legislative Council by the late Mr. N. Cantlf.y, then Superintendent 
of Botanic Gardens, Singapore, but no active measures had been taken to carry his 
suggestions into effect. 

26. After consultation with Mr. CANTLEY and a preliminary inspection of the 
area and contents of Crown forests in Penang v it wa^ decided to demarcate certain 
areas, with a view to future revenue, within which no further cutting should be allow- 
ed for a number of years in order that the better class of timber-trees which were fast 
disappearing might have a chance of re-establishing themselves by means of natural 
reproduction. It was intended, if necessary, to artificially re-stock, where necessary, 
land within these reserves with high class timber, but this has not been done, except 
on a small scale, partly on account of the expense, but mainly because there is every 
reason to believe that efficient protection during a sufficiently long period is all that is 
necessary to effect the same purpose. • 

27. Considerable improvement has already taken place in the character of young 
trees springing up within the reserved areas, but ten years is a very short period in 
the life of the best hardwood trees found in this Settlement, many of which require 
at least from 80 to 100 years to reach a serviceable size and condition. *ReaIly good 
seed-bearing seasons occur only at intervals of several years. The best since Uhave 
been in the Settlement was in 1887, and I can now point to thousands of young trees' 
of the very best kinds such as Dam irlaut -and Mefanti ( Shorea and Hopea sp.) as 
the result of that year’s seed crop. 

28. The greater portion of the reserves are, however, on the crest and slopes of 
ste* p hill-sides, and their value, from a revenue-producing point of view, is not likely 
to be considerable, so long, as timber is obtainable in much more easily accessible 
localities, but their maintenance for climatic purposes is most important. Whatever 
difference of opinion may exist as to the effect of forests on rainfall, there can be none 
as to their use in storing and regulating the' water supply.. 

29. At the time these hill reserves were demarcated, cultivation had already, in 
places, crept up beyond the limit at which, had there been any choice, the boundary 
line would have been carried, but it was decided from the beginning to interfere as 
little as possible with cultivation, which consists mainly of cloves and nutmegs, and 
consequently the boundary line was opened above these Gardens. I point this out 
now so that in case of these Gardens at an altitude of much above 1,000 feet being 
abandoned, as has already happened in two or three cases, the boundary should be 
altered so as to include these lots within the hill reserves. 

30. That protection from encroachment and illicit timber cutting bv means of 

Forest Guards is necessary, is proved by the fact that from 1889 1894* 2 5 ^ prosecu- 

tions were instituted by this Department for forest offences, mainly under these two 
headings, and I am satisfied that a very great number of cases escaped detection. 


12 


31. Acting on the principle laid down in paragraph 26, no licenses for cutting 
timber within the reserved areas have yet been issued, although many applications 
have been received, and a rate much higher than that now paid for timber growing 
on Crown land outside the reserves would willingly be paid. All revenue collect- 
ed from Crown forests outside the reserves has been credited to the Land Depart- 
ment, so that without violating one of the first principles laid down at the beginning 
of the work, it has not been possible for the Forest Department to show a revenue. 
This, of course, makes no difference to the actual revenue of the Colony, but it is not 
in accordance with the general rules of forest conservancy. 


Appendix A. 


Revenue and Expenditure— Gardens and Forest Department , Penang, 1894. 


Revenue. 

Expenditure. 

Amount. 

. 

'"Salaries, 

Purchase of Plants and Seeds, 

Pots and Plant Tubs, ... 

Cartage -and Manure, 

Planks for Plant Cases, & Repairs, 
'fools and Materials, for Current Re- 

$ c. 

3D7 1 2 9 
201 70 
166 66 
84 63 
• 61 47 

Grant — Maintenance of Wa- 
terfall Garden, ... $4,5oo;ocr 

pairs, ... 

Material for renewing Plant Sheds,... 
Freight on Plant Cases,... 

Paper and Cabinet for Herbarium, ... 
Road Metal, 

Periodicals,... 

Advertisement, .... 

Miscellaneous Petty Expenses, 

2 43 

330 30 
24 60 

59 5° 
29 60 

■ 7 75 

7 20 
io 7 37 

• 

Balance, 

$4,495 63 

4 37 


- 

$4,500 00 

Grant — M ainte nance Of 
Grounds of Government Hill 
Bungalow and Experimental 

"'"Salaries,* 

Purchase of Seeds, 

Purchase of Manure, ... ... 

( Purchase of Tools, 

$477 5° 

10 79 
72 52 

38 86 

Nursery, ... ... $600.00 

Balance, ... ... 

$599 67 

0 33 


! 

$600 00 

• . ' 

Grant — Expenses of carrying 

out Provisions of Coco-nut 
Trees Preservation Ordi- ‘ 

("Salaries, ... 

Fixed Allowance, 

Cutting down dead Trees, 

$464 00 
120 00 

39 00 

nance, ... $700.00 

. ' 

^ Balance, ... 

$623 00 
77 00 


$700 00 


Appendix A , — Continued . 

Revenue aad Expenditure — Gardens and Forest Department , 
Penang, 1894, — Continued. 


Revenue. 


Grant— Maintenance of For- 
est Reserves, ... $1,000.00 


Grant — Travelling and Per- 
sonal Allowances, ... $550.00 


Plant Sales, 
Bath Receipts, 
Rents, 


$948 24 

65 85 

12 25 


Total Revenue, ...$1,026 34 


Expenditure. 

Amount. 

( Salaries of Forest Guards, . . 

$ c . 
421 37 

Transport and Field Allowances, 
House Rent for Assistant Superi- 

93 


tendent, ... 

360 00 

House Rent of Sergeant of Forest 

Guards, ... 

36 00 

< Coolies clearing Bpundaries, &c., 

37 00 

Oil for Stations, 

9 70 

To'ols, 

6 25 

Miscellaneous, . 

2 50 


$966 62 

Balance, . 

33 38 


$1,000 00 

Pony Allowance, 

Travelling and Personal Allow- 

$432 00 


J ances, 

117 74 


$549 74 

^ Balance, 
i 

0 26 


$550 00 

Total Expenditure, . i. 

• 

$7,234 66 


C. CURTIS) 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 


H 


Appendix B. 

Principal Contributors and Recipients of Plants and Seeds , 1894. 


CONTRIBUT.ORS. 


The Director Royal Gardens, Kew. 

The Director Botanic Gardens, Java. 

The Supt, Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. 
The Supt Botanic Gardens, Hongkong. 
Agri-Horti. Society, Rangoon. 
Agri-Horti. Society, Calcutta. 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans. 
Messrs. J. Veitch & Sons, London. 
Messrs. S. P. Chatterjee& Co., Calcutta. 
Messrs. Stanley Price & Co., Calcutta. 

C. H. Swindon, Esq., Calcutta. 

C. Marries, Esq., Gwalior. 

E. Versman, Esq., Langkat. 

Luang Narison, Tongkah. 

W. Scott, Esq., Taiping. 

D. Blaze, Esq., Penang. 

Dr. Legg, Perak. 

G. Peche, Esq., Moulmain. 

J. D’A. Pereira, Esq., Singapore. 

Miss Mackintyre, Penang. 

Hon. L. Surowongsee, Penang. 

J. W, Hodge, Esq,, Penang. 

T. A. Wooldridge, Esq., Penang. 

J. F. MacFarlaine, Esq., Penang. 

Mrs. Baldwin, Tapah. 

Mrs. Woodgate, Tapah. 

Capt. Winter, Rangoon. 

Capt. Davis, Rangoon. 


Recipients. 


The Director Royal Gardens, Kew. # 

The Director Botanic Gardens, Java. 
The Supt. Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. 
The Supt. Botanic Gardens, Hongkong. 
Agri-Horti. Society, Rangoon. 
Agri-Horti. Society, Calcutta. 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans. 
Messrs. J. Veitch & Sons, London. 
Messrs. Damman & Co., Naples. 

Messrs. S. P. Chatterjefe & Co., Calcutta. 
O. Bartels, Esq., Brisbane. 

Cfrief Commissioner, Tongkah. 

C.H. Swindon, Esq., Calcutta. 

W. D. Barnes, Esq., Ipoh. 

Public Gardens, Taiping. 

District Officer, Butterworth. 

District Officer, Balik Pulau. 

Col. Walker, Taiping. 

J. D’ A. .Pereira, Esq., Singapore. 
Municipal Commissioners, Penang. 

G. Peche, Esq., Moulmain. 

Capt. Davis, Rangoon. 

Capt. Winter, Rangoon. 

T. A. Wooldridge, Esq., Penang. 

J. F. MacFarlaine, Esq.’ Penang. 

J. W. .Hodge, Esq., Penang. 

Mrs. Baldwin, Tapah. 

C. Maries, Esq., Gwalior. 


Appendix C. 

Botanic Gardens, * 

• Penang , 30th October, /8p}. 

To 

The Hon’ble the Resident Councillor. 

Sir, — : In accordance with instructions in Circular Departmental, No. ig, dated 
1st August, 1894, 1 have the honour to submit, for the information of His Excellency 
the Governor, the following Report on a recent trip to Perak for the purpose of collect- 
ing botanical specimens for the Herbarium, for cultivation in the Garden, and for 
exchange. 

2. Left Penang by tlie s.s. Taw Tong , at 3 P.M. on the 15th instant, and arrived 
at Telok Anson at 6 A.M. the following morning; at 2 P.M. proceeded to Tapah Road 
Station by rail, and arrived there at 3 P.M. From Tapah Road Station to Tapah is an 
hour’s drive by gharry, but, owing to detention, it was 5 P.M. when I reached the Town. 

3. The following morning, Ocrober 17th, commenced work by collecting along a 
bridle-path in the direction of a place called Kalindi for a distance of about four or 
five miles. The afternoon, and in fact all the afternoons during my stay, turned out 
very wet, and little collecting could be done. There are many interesting plants in 
this locality, especially palms, of which J procured seeds of several species. It is also 
a good agricultural country, suitable for many tropical products, particularly Liberian 
coffee, of which there are promising plantations in the neigbourhood of Tapah. 


i5 


4- On the 1 8th, worked up the left bank of the Batang Padang River, and col- 
lected a number of ferns, orchids, &c. Many well known' plants of interest were 
observed, one of the most noticeable being a gigantic specimen of a large fern Angi- 
opteris evecta. Rain came on about noon, and nothing more could be done until 5 P.M., 
when it cleared up, and I managed to collect several specimens of a fine orchid — Ceelo- 
gyne pandurata. 

5. On the morning of the^th, left Tapah for Kuala Dipang, distant about 18 
miles. This is a limestone region of which I had heard much, and was the object 
I had in view on leaving Penang. I did not proceed direct, but stopped first at about 
ii miles from Tapah to see a Liberian Coffee Estate of which about 100 acres has 
been planted. The two-year old coffee is very fine and promises to be a good invest- 
ment. At six miles from Tapah I halted again to examine fhe trees that had been 
felled for a new road. Here I collected some fine specimens of Coelogyne Loivii , a plant 
named after the late Resident of Perak, and originally collected by him in Borneo. 
About noon, I reached Kampar, a large mining village containing -probably 10,000 
Chinese. Remained here until 2 P.M., and then went on to Kuala Dipang in pouring 
rain. The distance from Tapah to Kuala Dipang is about 18 miles. 

6. October 20th . — The village of Kuala Dipang is at the foot of Gunong Bu- 
jang Malaka, and near the junction of the Kampar and Dipang streams. One side 
of the valley is limestone, and the ^opposite granite. The flora of the limestone, to 
which I mainly confined my attention during the limited time at my'disposal, is, as I ex- 
pected to find, quite different to anything I had previously seen in Perak. The gene- 
ral features' is much nearer that of the Langkawi Islands and Panga on the mainland, 
but the same families and genera are here represented by different species. Begonias, 
balsams, alocacias and gesneriaceae are numerous in individuals, but not one species,’ 
so far as I saw, is identical with those found in Langkawi and Panga. Here at the 
foot of the hills are patches of deep. rich reddish soil, not of sufficient area for a large 
estate, but excellent for small cultivators requiring say 40 or 50 acres in a patch. 
In places there occurs in considerable numbers a species of Laportea which the Ma- 
lays call “ jelatang Gajah.” I was warned to avoid thiivplant, and for some time did so, 
but in a moment of forgetfulness I brushed one lightly with the back of my hand. 
The stinging sensation is exceedingly painful and continued in my case for hbout 
thirty-six hours. Cold water appears to increase the pain. Natives say that if any 
considerable portion of the body comes in contact with this plant, diarrhoea and vomit- 
ing is caused, and the pain continues four or five days. 

7. On the 2 1st, I again worked the limestone range, beginning at a place call- 
ed Sungei Siput, about 2 miles from the Rest House. Mining operations are going on 
here at about 500 feet up the face of the cliff, and the material is sent down on rotan 
slides stretched from the working out into the valley, their total length being about 
700 feet. In the hope of finding new plants, I was induced to go up the ladder to this 
working, but I must say, I was by no means comfortable until. I found myself safely 
down again. Several interesting plants were collected in the neighbourhood of these 
mines. - 

8. On the 22nd, time being limited, I hired a gharry and drove to the foot of Gu- 
nong Mesa, ‘distant from Kuala Dipang Rest House abo.ut 5 miles. This is an isolated 
limestone hill, on the top of which there is a trigonometrical station. From this point 
there is a very fine view of the surrounding country, but the flora is poor compared to 
the hills I had been on the two previous days. On another little isolated hill 1 collect- 
ed a new begonia and a balsam. On my return to the Rest House at noon, I met an 
Englishman who has a mine on Bujong Malaka at 3,000 feet elevation. He invited 
me to accompany him there, which l should gladly have done had time permitted. 
Having packed up the plants collected, I commenced the return journey at 4 F.M., and 
slept in the Rest House at Kampar. 

9. October 23rd-. — Raining heavily all night, and no sign of clearing at day- 
break. Waded about for an hour in a swamp to collect plants of Vanda Hookerii. 
At 10.30 left for Tapah, but stopped half-way and struck into the jungle for three 
hours to hunt up a plant I once received from this locality, but did not find many. 

10. October 24th. — Packed up plants collected at Tapah before leaving, and 
those that had been collected by a gentleman, who rendered me great assistance, during 
my absence. Dispatched these in a bullock-cart toTapa Road Station, and followed in 
a gharry at 9.30. Train left at 11 A.M., and reached Telok Anson at noon. Went 
straight on board the s.s. Flying Dragon , and arrived in Penang -at 6 A.M. on the 
25th. 




1 6 


n. The result of this trip is, in spite of the unfavourable weather, very satisfac- 
tory. A number of orchid^ and other ornamental plants, about 500 in all,havebeen added 
to the Garden, some of which are undoubtedly new and undescribed. Others are well 
known, but in demand for the purpose of exchange. I also made the acquaintance of 
several gentlemen who will from time to time contribute to the Gardens plants that 
strike them as being of interest, and to whom in return we shall be able to give assist- 
ance in the matter of seeds and plant of economic value. One gentleman, who had 
some experience in growing vanilla in the Seychelles, asked for plants to try m 
Perak, which will be sent him. I was also able to be of some assistance to another 
gentleman in pointing out the first appearance of "Green Bug” on coffee, an insect 
with which they are apparently and fortunately unacquainted in Tapah, and advising 

as to means of checking it at once. « , , „ 

12, This is, I believe, the first time that any member of the Gardens and r orest 
Department of this Settlement has visited Batu Padang or Kijita for the purpose of 
collectino- plants. What is known of the flora is mainly through the collections of 
dried plants made by Mr. Wray and Dr. King's Collector. As neither of these gentle- 
men collected living plants to any extent, I confined my attention principally to this. 
The area explored by me is, of course, very trifling, and it is to be hoped that some 
day an opportunity may occur of extending our knowledge of this region. 

1 have, &c.. 


C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of 

Gardens aud Forests . 




i7 


Report on the Gardens and Forests, Malacca. 

!. MR. GOODENOUGH was in charge during the year. Nothing could be done 
beyond ordinary upkeep for want of funds. 

Experimental Nursery. 

2 About 30,000 young clove trees were raised and distributed among the 
Chinese tapioca planters, together with 300 nutmeg trees and a few other mixed fruit 

*" reeS ‘ Forest Reserves. 

3. The boundaries have been regularly patrolled and kept open. I ^ret *hat 
the inspection paths have had to be abandoned, .and nothing could be done to the 
Brisu or Merlimau Reserves. The area of the Forest Reserves in Malacca is 42.000 

acres. . r . 

Licenses. 

a The permits issued for collecting damar, wood-oil, fibre, toddy, etc. brought 
in a revenue of §625.72, and the fruit trees at Panchor were farmed out for §105.50. 

Fires. 

s' Three fires occurred during- the year, but fortunately did no particular 
damage, being confined to lalang and brushwood. The origin was unknown in each 

case. . . 1 , 1 

6. There were no prosecutions during the year. 

General. 

7 In accordance with the recommendations of “the Retrenchment Committee, 
the Forest Department has been handed over to the charge of the Collector of Land 
Revenue and District Officers stationed at Alor Gajah and Jasin, respectively. For 
this purpose; I visited Malacca in November, and made the necessary arrangements 

the transfer. 


W. FOX, 

Awictant Superintendent , 


f'bni 


Revenue and Expenditure, Forest Department, Malacca, 1894. 


Revenue. 

Expenditure. (Vote $2,000.) 

— f 

$ c ‘ 


$ c.. 

Sale of Timber,' 

„ Fruit (Forests), 

,, Clove Trees, 

Tenths on Damar, ... \ 

Ornamental Plants, 

Kabong Toddy and Fibre, ... 
Wood Oil, 

Fruit crop (Garden), 

Plants supplied to Government, 
Timber „ # » 

Miscellaneous Receipts, 

296 51 
147 96 
97 00 
70 50 

54 3 1 
39 00 
33 00 
37 39 
97 66 

137 50 
62 10 

Salaries of Forest Guards, ... 

• „ at Experimental 

Gardens, 

Pony Allowance, 

Field Allowance, 

Transport, 

Miscellaneous, 

Balance, 

881 41 

426 86 
432 00 
117 00 
84 00 

.58 6 3 
00 10 

Total, ... 

|i,072 93 

Total, ... 

$2,000 00 


J. S. GOODENOUGH, 

Acting Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 


W. FOX, 

Assistant Superintendent , in Charge. 


ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOTANIC DEPARTMENT, SINGAPORE. 


M. 


n 


1 During my absence on leave till July 2nd, Mr. Fox took sole control of 
the Botanic Gardens, and on my return he applied for a year's leave and left m July 

Mr. J. Goodf.NOUGH who, in accordance with the retrenchment scheme, had 
been discharged from the Department, was taken on temporarily in November as 
Assistant 

The Herbarium Keeper, Tassim Daud, was discharged in September, and 
AHMAT KASSIM was taken on in his place. The Mandor of the Economic Garden, 
XAVIER, broke down in health, and left at the end of the year. 

Visitors. 

2 The number of visitors to the Gardens was as large as.usual, and the Regi- 
mental Band played once or twice a month for a portion of the year, and proved very 

attractive. . , , . 

There were a few cases of theft of flowers, but they were of no great importance, 

and there were no prosecutions. 

Aviaries. 

The improvements made in the aviaries last year have produced satisfactory 
results, the animals being more thriving and looking better. 

Amon^ the additions to the collection of animals were , 

One tforess [Felis tigris ), presented by Mr. D. H. Wise, Acting Resident, 
Pahansz- th?ee jackals {Cants aureus), presented by Captain BROWNE ; three orang 
utans [Simla satyrus ), purchased; one honey-bea r{Ursus malayanus), presented ; one 
Borneo red monkey ( Semnopithecus sp.), purchased; one Indian mungoose \{Herpestes 
trriseus\ purchased; three black Celebes monkey {Macacus niger), purchased; two 
kiianfrs (Cervulus muntjac ). purchased; one sparrow hawk (. Accipiter sp.), presented; 
one Afghan partridge { Caccabis chukar ), presented. A deer {Lervus equtnus ) was 
born in the Gardens, and a hybrid monkey, by a kra ( Macacus sintcus) out of a 
beruk (Macacus nemestrinus) was bred--a very rare occurrence, if indeed it has ever 
happened before. The little animal is growing well and Strong. 

F The pair of herons ( Ardea sumatrana ), which have been so long in the Gardens, 
laid three egg^ as did a box tortoise [Cistudo amboinensis ). A large python 
■ (Python reticulatus) laid a large number of eggs, apparently unfertile. 

V 7 The old deer-sheds being very unsatisfactory and in a state of decay, were pulled 
down and a*ew and stronger enclosure is being built. T^he constant rain at the close 
of the year prevented the work being finished. 

Plant-houses. 

The large plant-house needed very extensive repair, as much of the wood- 
work was rotten, and a number of beams were replaced. , As in the case of the new 
• deer sheds the rain caused much delay in executing the work, to which was added 
some difficulty in obtaining good timber, as Balau, the best timber now procurable at 

a reasonable rate, is getting scarce. 

The orchid-house fell down shortly before my return ; the upper part has been 
renlaced bv an iron structure, and the stages are being replaced with banks of coral- 
t d earth Most of the old houses and stages have now been reconstructed in 

thiTmanner which in many respects is immensely superior to the old plan of planks 
this m ’ brickwork pillars. The centre of the stage consists of earth, 

which r is e enclosed by walls of coral rock cut into blocks, and the top is covered with 

cement. Lawns and Flower-beds. 

These have been kept up to their usual standard during the year, and a 
large number of plants have been planted out where necessary 

g Among the more interesting plants which flowered for the first time or which 
have seldom flowered here were Gongora maculata Vanda hastifera , Renanthera 
Vtnripi Cost its ieneus, Alpinia involucrata, Ntcolaia elatior, Loxococcus rupicola , 
AnisoOtera glabra, Allamanda Williamsi , Garcinia Hanburyi , 7 richolcena 

tene/iffw { a^newly introduced fodder grass), Lespedeza Sieboldi (also a fodder 
plant ) Clerodendron myrmecophila, Anstolochia ungulifoha. 




2 


A superb plant of Todea barbara , stated to be over a hundred years ol I was pre- 
sented to the Gardens by Baron VON MUELLER, and two plants of the rare Ashlenium 
subaquatile from Borneo, were also received. A large tuber of Amorpkophallus 
titanum was presented by Mrs. WlLLlS Smith. 

Both the Vanillas which produce the commercial Vanilloes, viz., V. ptanifolia and 
V. pompona, flowered and fruited this year. 

Herbarium . 

6. During my absence no collections of herbarium specimens were made. The 
most important additions were 1,503 specimens from* the collections of WAL.UCH, and 
HANCE selected by myself from the duplicates of the British Museum Herbarium, and 
presented by the Trustees of that institution. 

Five hundred and thirty-eight (53S) specimens from the Peninsula and India, pre- 
sented by Dr. King. 

Sixty-six (66) specimens of grasses and ferns of North America, received in 
exchange. 

Two hundred and forty-three (243) specimens from Bonthain Peak, Celebes, pre- 
sented by Mr. A. H. EVERETT, and a small collection made in Province Wellesley 
and Penang, by myself in December. A small number of specimens of various kinds 
were sent to the Royal Gardens, Kew, and to Dr. King. 

The cabinets for wood specimens being too small to contain the collection, some 
more have been added, and the old ones repaired and varnished. 

Bulletin. 

0 

7. An Agricultural Bulletin dealing with sago and its cultivation and with soils, 
was published early in the year. 

Forestry. 

# 8. In December, in accordance with instructions, I visited Penang and Province 
Wellesley to look into the remaining forests with a view of taking ste f «s for their 
better preservation, and a report was duly forwarded to the Hjn'ble the Colonial 
Secretary on the subject. 

L ibrary. 

9. The following works were added to the Library in addition to the usual jour- 
nals, bulletins and reports. : — 

Greshoff. — Nutzige Indische Planten, Part I, presented by Colonial Museum, 
Amsterdam. 

Schlich. — Manual of Forestry, presented by Author. 

Trimen. — Flora of Ceylon, Vol. Ill, presented by Ceylon Government. 

Ridley. — Flora of the East Coast of the Malay Peninsula, presented by Author. 

Ridley. — New species of ihismia, presented by Author. 

Waliich’s Catalogue, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 

Beddome. — Ferns of Southern India, presented by the Trustees of Britt di Museum. 

Dunal, — Monograph des Anonacees, presented by the l rustles ot British Museum. 

Dunal. — Histoire des Solanacees, presented by the Trustees of B itish Museum. 

Mold. — Vernicschte Schriften, .presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 

Mold. — Uber des Winlerliche Farbung, presented by the Trustees of British 
Museum. 

Mold. — Bau des Vegetabilisehen Zellmembran, presented by the Trustees of 
British Museum. 

Radlkofer. — Serjania, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 

Bureau. — Loganiaceae.and Bignoniaceae, presented by the Trustees of British 
Museum. 

Soubeiran. — Acclimatation des Cinchonas, presented by the Trustees of British 
Museum. 

Chevreul.— -Absorption de TAzote, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 

Sprengei. — Intfoduction to the study of Cryptogams, presented by the Trustees 
of British Museum. 

Sprengei. — Tentamen Supplement ad syst. vegetat. Linnaei, presented by the 
Trustees of British Museum. 

Victorian Exhibition. — Indigenous Vegetable Substances, presented by the Trus- 
tees of British Museum. 

Wight's Catalogue, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 

Taylor, T. — Arbores Mirabiles, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 

jEgineta. — Pharmacia Simpiicia. presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 

Salm Dyck. — Cacteae, presented by the Trustees of British Museum, 




Turpin, — Organographie Vegetale, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 
Jessen. — Lebensdauer der Gewachse, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 
Gris, — Recherches Microscopiques sur Chlorophyll, presented by the Trustees of 
British Museum. 

Richard, A. — Elements de Histoire Naturelle Medicate Bot. 11 , 111 , presented by the 
Trustees of British Museum. 

Kunze, G. — Index Filicum, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 

Baker, J. G.— Synopsis of Selaginellas, presented by the Trustees of British 
Museum. 

Baker, J. G. — Rhizocarpeae, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 

New Commercial Drugs. — No. xi, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 
Prain.— Vegetation of Coco Group, presented by the Trustees of British Meseum. 
Cooke, M. C. — Index fungorum Britannic., presented by the Trustees of British 
Museum. 

Preiss. — Enumeratio Plantarum Australiae, presented by the Trustees of British 
Museum. 

Trelease. — Structures which favour Cross-fertilizatig , presented by the Trustees 
of British Museum. 

Nordlinger. — Der Holz-ring, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 
Brandel, V. — Insect-fressende Pflanzen, presented by the Trustees of British 
Museum. 

Trelease. — A yellow Opium-mould, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 
Mercklin. — Prothallium des Fames, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 
Klinge. — Graminaceae et Cyperaceae Wurzeln, presented by the Trustees of Brit- 
ish Museum. 

Gaudichaud. — Recherches des Vegetaux, presented by the Trustees of British 
Museum. 

Buee. — Clove Tree in Dominica, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 
Decaisne. — Maladie des Pommes de Terre, presented by the Trustees of British 
Museum. 

Hasskarl. — Plantse Javanicae rariores, presented by the Trustees of British 
Museum, 

Munter. — Krankheiten der Kartoffeln, presentedby the Trustees of British Museum. 
Roeiner and Schultes.— Mantissa, 1827, presented by the Trustees of British 

Museum. 

Catalogue of Plants in Hort Bog. cult, 1866, presented by the Trustees of British 
Museum. 

De Vries. — Protrepticus, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 

Dickie. — Contributions to the Physiology of Fecundation, presented by the Trus- 
tees of British Museum, 

Todaro. — Cultivated Plants in Palermo Gardens, presented by the Trustees of 
British Museum. f 

Trimen. — German’s Ceylon Herbarium, presented by the Trustees of British Mu- 
seum. 

Von Mueller. — New Papuan Dilleniaceae, presented by the Trustees of British 
Museum. 

Von Mueller. — New Melastomaceae, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 
Von Mueller. — New Goodeniaceae, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 
Von Mueller. — Leguminous Trees, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 
Von Mueller. — Descriptions and Notes on Papuan Plants, No. VIII, presented 
by the Trustees of British Museum. 

Martens. — Algae of Burma, etc., presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 
Milde. — Index Botrychiotum, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 

Fries. — Symbolae ad Floram Daliae, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 
Waljich.- — Hedychium, presented by the Trustees of British Museum. 

Prain. — Notes on Lokas, a new Chinese dye, presented by the Trustees of Brit- 
ish Museum. 

Ferguson. — All about Spices, purchased. 

Index Kewensis, Vol. 5, purchased. 


BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 


Statement of Receipts and Expenditure, for the year iSg$. 


Receipts. 

Expenditure. 


<i 5 C • 

Salaries . 

§ f. 

$ * 

By Balance in Bank, ... 

1,031 39 

Herbarium Keeper, 

215 4S 


„ Government Grant, 

8,500 00 

Mandor, 

191 00 


,, Sale of Plants and 


Carpenter, 

304 00 


Flowers, 

497 47 

Plant Collector, 

100 00 


* Interest, * . . , 

30 23 

Printer, 

120 00 




Office Peon, 

95 74 




-Aviary Keeper, 

95 80 




Mason, 

135 26 




Garden Police, 

347 26 




Garden Coolies, 

2 , 9°7 53 



• 



4 . 5*3 13 



„ Bills. 


« 



Manure and Cartage, 

20447 




Food for Birds and Animals, 

701 57 


r. 


Purchase of Animals, 

60 00 




Purchase of Pots and Tubs. 

153 79 




Purchase of Plants & Seeds, 

24^ 33 


f 


Purchase of Tools and 

A 




Stores, 

534 28 




Purchase of Timber, Planks, 





etc., 

440 13 




Purchase of Lime, Bricks, 





Sand, &c., 

36I IO 




Freight on Plant Cases, etc., 

So 51 




Director's Petty Expendi- 





ture, 

86 80 




Assistant Superintendent’s 





Petty Expenditure, 

86 24 




Repairing Coolie Lines, ... 

35 00 




Repairing Orchid House, ... 

663 00 




Garden Police. Uniforms, 



. 


etc., 

52 00 



■ 

Transferring Plants from 





Malacca Garden, 

i 5 15 




Miscellaneous, 

321 S3 


* 




3.145 >6 





8,623 33 



Balance, 

... 

1.435 7 6 


$10,059 09 



$10,059 og 


5 


Economic Garden. 

^ io. Considerable improvements have been made in the Economic Gardens. In 
the lower half the ground was turfed so as to prevent the damage caused by rain 
wash, which has had a good effect on the trees. Many half dead trees have been 
removed and a number of new ones planted, especially in the arboretum. 

The top of the hill has been partially cleared and planted with cloves, nutmegs, 
Sisal hemp, tea, coffee and cola-nuts. 

Among these is a small lot of the new coffee (Coffea stenophylla) a plant 
spoken very highly of. It is growing steadily and well, and at present does not 
appear to be affected at all. by disease. Plants have been distributed to coffee planters 
in different parts of the Peninsula for experiment and observation. 

There is still a great deal of land lying fallow in this garden, the smallness of the 
vote hitherto being issufficient to allow of clearing and planting, but as the vote has 
been increased for 1896 to $1,500, it is hoped to clear and plant a great deal 
more of this land. This is all the more necessary now on account of the rapid deve- 
lopment of agriculture in the Peninsula and its neighbourhood. Rami, indigo, Para 
rubber, coca, spices, as well as fruit trees, are in great demand and hitherto the 
gardens have been unable to supply a sufficient quantity of these and other economics. 


The expenditure is as follows : — 

$ c. 

Mandor’s Salary, ... 144 00 

Coolies' Salary, ... 714 7 1 

Tools and Stores, ... 19 44 

Bricks, Cement, etc., ... 43 7° 

Manure, ... 66 50 

Balance, ... 11 65 


# Total,... $1,000 00 


Revenue. 

$ c ' 

Fruit crop, 13 00 

Grass, 15 00 

. Total, $28 00 
Inspection of Coco-nut Trees . ‘ 

11. As the staff of this department was reduced to a single coolie, the amount 
of work that could be done was not very great, especially as during most of the year 
there was no assistant to the Officer in charge of the Gardens, so that it was impossible 
for him to visit the plantations and supervise the work of the coolie. 

One hundred and foity-nine (140) notices to destroy trees and stumps were 
served, and 448 trees and 8 stumps were removed. There were no prosecutions. 

The refuse tan bark at Rochor is still being burnt, and in some places the old 
accumulations have been built on so effectively as to prevent any lodging of the black 
beetle there. But the red beetle seems to have increased in numbers again in some 
places, especially in Gelang, and strong measures must be taken to reduce them. 

The vote for the year was $350. 

Expenditure : — 

$ c - 

Salary of Coolie, ... 96 00 

Transport, ••• 27 35 

Balance, ... 226 65 


Total, ...$350 00 


Government House Domain. 

12. The Government House grounds were handed over to the charge of the 
Botanic Gardens in January, after a lapse of 8 years, previous to which they were 

under the control of the Superintendent of Gardens. They were found to be in a 

very neglected state, and a great deal of work had to be done in cleaning and plant- 
ing. The Mandor, Mathias, resigned in March, and was replaced by. James. The 
tennis lawn in front of the House was raised, levelled and re-turfed, at a cost of $52.92, 
and*a piece of ground near the stables was planted with fruit trees and vegetables. 

The grass on the grounds was let out for five dollars a month, during the latter 
half of the year. . 


6 


Vote, ... ... $2,360.00 

Expenditure : — 

Mandor’s Salary, *. .. $ 180.00 
Coolies’ Salary, ... 1 , 959-65 

Re-making Tennis Lawn, 5 2 * 9 2 

Materials and Tools, ... 62.91 

Manure, ... ... 18.25 

Miscellaneous Expenses, * 5-45 

Balance,... ... 70.82 

Total, ...$2,360.00 


Revenue from grass cutting, ... $25.00 • 


H. N, RIDLEY, 

Director. 


Botanic Gardens Department, Penang. 


The Assistant Superintendent of Forests was absent on leave in England for six 
months during the year, and in his absence, there being no European Officer of the 
Department available, the work was carried on by the Overseers of the Government 
Hill Garden and the Waterfall Garden. 

2 In accordance with the retrenchment scheme, the supervision of Forest Re- 
serves in this Settlement was transferred to the Land Office Department on the 1st 
January, 1895, and a report on their condition and progress will, no doubt, be made 
by the Collector of Land Revenue. 

Waterfall Botanic Garden . 

3. This Garden continues to increase in interest and popularity, and the number 
of visitors from passing steamers, as well as residents, is* considerable. It is, in feet, 
the one place to which strangers are nearly always taken if they have friends in the 
Island, or are directed to go if they have none. 

4. Further progress has been made with sloping and turfing the banks of the 
stream in places where slips have occurred, or were imminent, and this has absorbed 
a laro-e proportion of the amount of labour available after the ordinary routine works, 
such as mowing, weeding, maintenance of roads, watering, &c. had been provided for. 

3 A new masonry dam fifty-nine feet wide and eight feet high has been con- 
structed a short distance above the second bridge, and in addition to raising the level 
of the stream and preventing slips, forms an effective cascade, especially during the 

rains. 

6 One thousand five hundred and seventy (i, 57 °) 1]neal feet of rou 8 h mason, T 
drains have been constructed alongside the steeper portion of the carriage roads 
where the wash is most destructive. 

7. Preparation for re-constructing No. 2 plant-shed with light angle iron was 

commenced in December by lifting the more valuable plants and removing them to a 
temporary shed. Material for this purpose, to the amount of $490, was purchased 
out of the balance of 1895 vote, and the remainder, or at least as much as can be 
spared after payment of other liabilities, will be paid out of the current year s vote. 
This is a rather big undertaking to provide for out of the ordinary Maintenance, Vote, 
but it has to be faced, for until these old wooden plant sheds are replaced by iron, we 
shall have constant expenses in the matter of repairs. 

8 A great number and variety of trees and shrubs have been planted out in beds 
and clumps, and the general appearance of the grounds and plant-sheds made as 

attractive as possible. . , 

o. During the early part of the year, there was a good show of orchids m the 
sheds and of annuals in pots and beds. At the beginning of the rams when the an- 
nuals had finished flowering, the beds were filled with Coleus, Dracaenas, and other 
bright coloured foliage plants. 

10. The usual interchange of plants and feeds with various correspondents has 
been continued, but owing to the absence on leave of the Assistant Superintendent, the 
numbers distributed by this department were less than they should have been. 


7 


9 


ft 


11. Plant sales realised $939*92, which, as in previous years, was paid in to 
revenue account. These sales represent upwards of four thousand plants, mostly in 
pots. Ornamental plants are most in demand, but fruit trees and trees for shade 
form a fair proportion. These plants are sold at low rates, as it is desirable to encour- 
age their cultivation, but the result is that the more plants are sold the less money and 
labour there is available for the general up-keep of the garden, for pots cost money, 
and plants cannot be propagated without labour. 

12. A large number of interesting and valuable plants hastbeen added during 
the year, the greater proportion having been selected by the Assistant Superintendent 
from Botanic Gardens and nurseries while on leave in England, and brought out by 
him on his return. This selection, which filled eighteen cases and measured over ten 
tons, was attended to and watered, when necessary, during the voyage, and there is 
no doubt that this is the surest way of introducing certain plants that travel badly. 

13. The thanks of this department are specially due to the Director, Royal 
Gardens, Kew ; to Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans ; Messrs. Jas. Veitch & 
Sons, Chelsea; and Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Clapton, for the greater portion of 
this fine collection. 

14. A short trip to the Kinta District of Perak was made during the last ten 
days of the year fo^the purpose of collecting living plants and botanical specimens 
for the herbarium, with satisfactory results. On my return, I submitted a short report 
on the journey, a copy of which I annex to this report (Appendix B). 

15. More room for the accommodation of the herbarium specimens is much 
needed ; for, although the collection is mainly Penang plants, and altogether Malayan, 
the present Office is much too small for the herbarium as well as Office work. 

16. The total expenditure for maintenance of this garden is $4,484.43 as shown 
in statement annexed (Appendix A ), but if from this is deducted the amount of 
revenue collected amounting to $973.32, the actual cost is only $3,511.11. 

Government Hill Gardens. 


17. Nothing new of importance has been done in these gardens, the amount of 
money available for labour being barely sufficient to keep the grounds of Government 
Bungalow in order and maintain a supply of flowers and vegetables. 

18. The grounds of Belle Vue Bungalow badly require attention, but with the 
present labour staff it is impossible to do this work justice. 

19. The Experimental Nursery has been kept clean, and many of the fruit trees 
look well, though in want of manure. If ever the long-talked of tramway to the top 
of the hill becomes an accomplished fact, none will derive more benefit than those 
engaged in gardening pursuits.' At present the cost of carrying up any considerable 
quantity of. manure is prohibitive. 

• Preservation of Coco-nut Trees. 

20. The Inspector with the assistance of one Notice Server and one Climber, 
has been employed alternate months in Penang and Province Wellesley. 

21. One thousand four hundred and twenty-five (1,425) notices have been 
served on persons having on their premises trees, stumps, or rubbish, suitable breed- 
ing places for the beetle ; and as the result, 3,608 dead trees, 3,856 stumps, and 209 
heaps of rubbish have been destroyed. 

22. Seventy-nine (79) persons were prosecuted for non-compliance with the 
notices served on them, and fines inflicted amounting to $170. 

C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests, 


Penang , s8ih January , 1896. 


8 


t Appendix A. 

Revenue and Expenditure — Botanic Gardens Department , Penang y 1895. 



Grant — Maintenance of Wa- 
terfall Garden, ... $4,500.00 


Salaries, 

Purchase of Plants and Seeds, 
Purchase of Pots and Tubs, 

Purchase of Tools and Materials, .. 
Purchase of Lime and Manure, 
Purchase of Planks for Plant Cases 
&c., 

^ Purchase of Iron for Plant Shed, 
Cartage, ... 

Freights, 

Periodicals and Books,' . . . • 

Miscellaneous and Petty Expenses,.. 


Balance, 


Grant — Expenses of carrying 
out Provisions of Coco-nut 
Trees Preservation O r d i - 
... $700.00 


nance 


Grant — Maintenance of Ex- 
perimental Nursery, ... $200.00 



Grant — Travelling and Per- 
sonal Allowances, ... $330.00 


Plant Sales, 
Bath Receipts, 
Rents, . . . 


$939.92 

26.40 

7.00 

$973 32 


'’Salaries, 

Manure, 

Tools, 


Balance, 


f Pony Allowance (6 months), 
j Expenses in connection with collecting 
J Plants in Perak, 

Balance, 


c. 

3#*35 42 
126 50 
101 47 
236 61 
65 70 

86 36 
490 00 

45 90 
81 40 
40 53 
74 54 


$4,484 

43 

i5 

•57 

$4,500 

00 

$641 

8c 

58 

20 

$700 

00 

$158 

70 

21 

00 

r 5 

94 

$‘95 

64 

4 

36 

O 

O 

0$ 

00 

I08 

00 

87 

96 

$195 

96 

*34 

04 

$33° 

00 


C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests, 


9 


Appendix B. 

Botanic Gardens, 
Penang, Jth January , 1896. 

To 

• * 

The Hon’ble the Resident Councillor. 

Sir, — I have the honour to report that, in accordance with your permission, I pro- 
ceeded to Perak on the 21st December last, for the purpose of collecting plants for 
exchange and cultivation in the Botanic Gardens, also botanical specimens for the 
herbarium and distribution. I arrived at Ipoh, Kinta, at noon on the 22nd, and at 
once commenced exploring the hills in the vicinity. By the aid of two European 
residents, who knew the exact localities, I was enabled in a short time to get collected 
about 2,000 plants of what is locally known as “ Kinta Weed” ( Vanda Hookerii) y 
and a good number of “Tapah Weed ” ( Arundina bnmbusoe folia) ; the greater por- 
tion of which I purpose sending to England in exchange for plants received and 
brought out by me on my return from leave in September last. 

Near some hot springs between Ipoh and Tanjong Rambutan I obtained several 
interesting ferns and other plants suitable for pot culture. .Also three plants of 
Arissema fimbriata> a plant no-t hitherto recorded from the Peninsula, but abundant 
in the islands to the North of Penang. The water at these springs is so hot in places 
that it is painful to keep one’s hand in it. It is very clear, but without the strong sul- 
phur smell noticeable in some of the hot springs in North Celebes. 

On the morning of the 26th, I left Ipoh for Kuala Dipang, leaving the Malay man 
I took with me from Penang to complete the drying out of the botanical specimens, 
to pack the living plants and bring the whole direct to Telok Anson by rail to meet 
me on the 29th, which he did. 

On tfce way from Ipoh to Kuala Dipang I examined the limestone hills at three 
or four different places, having different aspects, and found several new plants. One 
of these is a new balsam, the second species 1 have discovered in this district. 

On the 28th December, being the last day of my stay at. Kuala Dipang, I went 
some distance up Gunong Bujong Malacca, to a Sakai clearing, and got one of the 
men as guide for the day. We did not get very far up the mountain — probably not 
more than 1,500 feet — for we struck a ravine so exceedingly rich in interesting plants 
that the tvvo men I had with me were loaded in a couple of hours. 

Many the plants collected were not in flower, but they are of great interest, 
and undoubtedly new to Gardens if not to botanists. 

One of the most interesting is a very distinct begonia with narrow almost lance- 
olate leaves quite unlike any other species of this genus with which I am acquainted. 
It is found growing on huge water-worn boulders in damp shady places. 

Small graceful palms suitable for pot culture are abundant, both in species and 
individuals, especially on the dry ridges, but unfortunately only a few seeds were 
obtainable. This is, I believe, owing to the fact that the monkeys eat them as fast as 
they ripen. It is very desirable that a more extended examination of the flora of this 
mountain should be made at the season when the greater number of plants are in 
flower, if one could ascertain when that is. In Penang, May and June are the best 
months and probably it iithe same on this mountain. 

There are Chinese miners working much higher up than the point I reached and, 
I b'elieve, there is a survey hut on the very top, so that there would be no difficulty in 
obtaining shelter for a few nights. 

I left Kuala Dipang to catch the train at Kampar on the morning of the 29th, 
intending to return to Penang the same evening, but on arrival at Telok Anson found 
there w’as no boat until the following day. This was unfortunate, as had I known in 
time it would have given me another day in the jungle. 

From an agricultural point of view, Kinta is the best district I have seen in Perak, 
and from what I hear, will before long be a large coffee-growing district. Many other 
products would do equally well in such rich soil, but the present tendency is all in 
* . favour of coffee. Ipoh is a large and flourishing town, very hot in the day time and 
• badly in want of shade trees. 

I have, &c., 

C. .CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests, 

% 


ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOTANIC DEPARTMENT, SINGAPORE. 


1. During the greater part of the year, Mr. Fox was absent, returning on Nov- 
ember 17th. I visited Penang and the Dindings in March, returning on April 9th, 
and was away also, in Selangor, from May 9th to June nth, being engaged in re- 
porting on the forests. During these periods, Mr. J. GOODENOUGH acted for me, and 
remained as Assistant till July 7th, when he was engaged as Mining Surveyor in 
Selangor. He was replaced by Mr. Melville, who remained till Mr. Fox J S return. 

2. The Herbarium-keeper, Ahmat Kassim, was discharged in August, and J. S. 
Isaac took his place. The Upper Garden Mandore, Yusuf, replaced Xavier as Man- 
dore of the Economic Gardens, and a man named JUMAT was employed in his stead. 
He proved unsatisfactory and was replaced by one Nathaniel, who was also quite un- 
suitable, and* on October 15th, Aniff, who had formerly been employed here, returned 
from Ceylon and resumed the post. Owing to the demand for coolies for the Native 
States, it was very difficult to obtain a sufficient supply for the Gardens in the early 
part of the year, and the high price of provisions and the fact that private employers 
and other establishments had raised the price of wages, in some cases very consider- 
ably, caused much discontent. There was a serious outbreak of beri-beri also in 
the lines in the spring, but, I am glad to say, only one death. 

Not only was the supply of coolies deficient during part of the year, but the 
class of coolies and mandores obtainable now is very inferior to what it was in pre- 
vious years, and wages, on the whole, are a little higher. The Javanese watchmen, 
having proved unsatisfactory this year, were discharged, and Sikhs were taken on in 
their place, and prove more suitable. 

There were a number of petty thefts and a few more serious ones, due chiefly 
to the action of the Javanese watchmen in collision with some of the coolies. The 
worst case was a charge against five soldiers of stealing plants and assaulting the 
Sikh watchman ; one soldier was convicted and sentenced to a term of imprisonment. 

Visitors, 

3. The number of visitors was quite up to the mark, and the Regimental Band 
played once or twice a month for part of the year, and was much appreciated. 

Aviaries. 

4. Some of the houses in the aviaries were repaired or re-constructed. The 
sheds in the deer-paddocks were closed in with planks, so as to darken them. This 
was found to relieve the animals very much from the annoyance caused by the flies. 

Among the additions to the collections were five common deer, presented by 
'Mr- J. F. CRAIG; one Axis deer, presented by Mr. Kiel; one mias, presented by Mr. 
G. P. Owen ; three common monkeys, presented by Mr. Jelley and Mr. E. SCHULTZE ; 
one Wawa ( Hylobatesvar .), purchased ; two slow Loris, presented by Mr. Trummer ; 
one squirrel (Sciur us bicolor), presented by His Excellency the Governor; one grey squir- 
rel! from Siam, purchased ; one wild cat (Felts planiceps), purchased ; four whistling teal, 
presented by Mr. A. MAXWELL; two Mandarin ducks [Aix sponsa ), presented by Mr. 
Hancock ; one large python, presented by Mr. Zavitz ; one monitor, presented by ■ 
Mr. DENNARD; one large tortoise (Emys sp .), captured in the Dindings. 

Some common monkeys were born, and another hybrid between Macacus nemes- 
trinus and M. sinicus , but it died at birth. The black Celebes monkey ( Cynopithecus 
niger) was crossed with a male Beruk [M. Nemestrinus ) but, unfortunately, died in 
parturition. The female jackal ( Cams aureus ) produced four pups. Three of which 
grew well and strong, the fourth crept through a drain into the adjacent tiger’s cage 
and was destroyed. The Sumatran heron continued to lay eggs, but none hatched. 
Among the deaths may be registered an eagle which had been in the ■ Gardens for at 


2 


least twenty years, and a mouse deer ( Tragulus Kanchil) which had been five years 
in captivity and was evidently -very old. Both the remaining black swans on the lake 
were devoured by a large python, over sixteen feet long, which was eventually killed 
on the island in the lake. 


Plant-houses . 

• 

5. The large plant-house underwent considerable repairs and one side, the 
roof was covered with attaps in place of the laths which were rotten. The orchid- 
house was finished and proved very successful, and the small fern-house was re-con- 
structed, the tables being built of coral, and the roof made of split bamboo, which 
seems a very suitable covering for these plants. 

Lawns and Beds . 

A large portion of the hill near the new lake was cleared of fern, and turfed. 
New beds for the seedling palms were made at the foot of it, and many palms from 
the old beds removed there, the old beds being turfed over. The upper part of the 
new lake was excavated, and the banks raised and strengthened. This work was done 
by contract, and w r as rather laborious on account of the large masses of timber found 
in excavating. The road between the two parts of the lake was also raised. An 
addition of thirty-five yards was made to the fern rockery, and it was planted with 
ferns and other plants, and a small enclosure was made for growing roses in tubs, 
The avenue of Sabal Palmetto near the large lake was badly attacked by palm-weevils, 
and a number of the trees destroyed. 

Among the more interesting plants which flowered here for the first time or 
have rarely flowered were Galphimia glauca (an ornamental shrub), Citrus de- 
cumana var . (the Bali pumelo), Acalypha Sanderiana (New Guinea), Desmodium 
tortuosum (the North American beggar-weed, a fodder plant), Liparis pectinifera (a 
new species from the Dindings), Thunia Marshalliana (Burma), Dendrobium cinna- 
barinum (Borneo), D. inauditum (Amboina), Coelogyne Rumpkn (Amboina), Haben- 
naeria Susannas (Timor),' Thaumanto coccus Daniellii (West Africa), Alpinia vittata 
(New Guinea), Zingiber spectabile (Selangor), Amorphophallus Rex (Sumatra), 
Pennisetum macrostachyum (New Ireland). 

Herbarium . 

During the year, a considerable number of specimens were added to the her- 
barium. An extensive collection of plants from the interior of Selangor was made by 
the plant-collector during my stay there in the early part of the year, and a small 
number from the same district was sent by Mr. GOODENOUGH. Eighty specimens 
were received from Mr. CURTIS at Penang, 505 plants from Perak and India, presented 
by Dr. King, and a specimen of the wild pumelo from Pahang, presented by Mr. 
Machado. 

From Borneo were received a valuable collection of 223 ferns and 17 other 
plants from the Right Reverend Bishop HOSE, and a number of specimens from 
Sarawak by Dr. HAVILAND. From Java twenty-four specimens of Zmgiberaceae, 
presented by Dr. Treub. A collection of mosses from Bonthain Peak, Celebes, was 
received from Mr. A. EVERETT. A small series of, plant from New Guinea and 
Tenimber from Mr. Pereira. A specimen of the bastard teak from Christmas Island 
from Mr. Keyser, and Saccoglottis amazonica from Mr. Hart of Trinidad, and a 
collection of mixed plants, including Indian grasses named by Sir JOSEPH HOOKER, 
was received from Kew. A small collection was made by the Director in the Cari- 

mon Islands. . . 

The wood specimens were re-arranged, and a number of local species added, 
together with a specimen of an unknown Sandal wood from the interior of Pahang, 
presented by Mr. Machado, and a remarkable scented wood from Christmas Island, 
presented by Mr. KEYSER. 

The Guttas and India-rubbers were cleaned and re-arranged, and specimens of 
these and other economic products added to the collection. 

The following specimens were sent in exchange to various botanists :- Over fifteen 
hundred to Dr. King, Calcutta; 1,290 to the Royal Gardens, Kew; a named collec- 
tion to Dr. Treub, Buitenzorg; a small collection to the British Museum; and 
specimens of medicinal plants to the Pharmaceutical Society. A series of specimens 
of barks of chestnuts (Castanopsis) and mangroves, was sent to Dr. Trimble of 
Philadelphia, who is experimenting on the tanning properties of these barks. 


3 

Library. 


The following works have been added to the Library : — 

Hand-list of Ferns, presented by the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Hand-list of Orchids, presented by the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Hasskari. — Retzia, presented by the Royal Gardens, Kew, 

Taubert. — Gattung Stenomeris, presented by the Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Von.Mueller. — New species of Pycnarrhena, presented by the Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Von Mueller. — Rhododendron Carringtoniae, presented by the Royal Gardens, 
Kew. 

Baillon. — Bulletin Mensuelle de la Societe Linneene de Paris, presented by the 
Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Pierre. — Flore Forestiere de la Cochin-Chine, five parts, presented by the Royal 
Gardens, Kew and Calcutta. 

India Museum Notes, presented by the Royal Gardens, Calcutta. 

Annals of Calcutta Gardens, V, VI, VII, presented by the Royal Gardens, Calcutta. 
Duthie. — -Field and Garden Crops, presented by the Royal Gardens, Calcutta. 
Duthie.-^-Indigenous Fodder Grasses, presented by the Royal Gardens, Calcutta. 
Duthie. — Fodder Grasses of Northern India, presented by the Royal Gardens, 
Calcutta. 

Agricultural Ledger, presented by the Royal Gardens, Calcutta. 

Schlich. — Manual of Forestry, Voh V. presented by the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies. 

Annals de Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, presented by Dr. Treub. 

Koorders and Valeton.- — Boomsorten van Java, Vol. IV, presented by Dr. Treub. 
Trimble. — Tannins, Vols. I, II, presented by the author. 

Also, Gardens Report and Bulletins from the Gardens of Lagos (complete set), 
Jamaica, Barbados, Cape Colony, Madras, Ceylon, Michigan Botanic Depart- 
ment, State Agricultural College, U. S. A., Kolonial Museum Haarlem, St. 
Petersburg ; Forest Reports, Punjab and Madras, Kew Bulletin and leones 
Plantarum, from Kew Gardens. 

Purchased : — 

Vidal. — Sinopsis de familias lenosas Pilipinas. 

Decandolle. — Prodromus, Vol. IX.. 

Lodeman. — Spraying of Plants. 

Beccari. — Illustrationes de nuove e rare species Piantas. 

Cesati. — Mycetum Borneense. * 

Beddome. — Supplement to Ferns of India: 

L. Wray. — Practical Sugar Planter. 

Papers respecting the Culture of Sugar, East India Company — 1822. 

Reinwardt, Blume and Nees. — Hepaticae Javanicae. 

Von Mueller. — Sir W. Macgregor’s Highland Plants of New Guinea. 

A. M. Ferguson. — All about Aloe -and Ramie. 

Do., All about India-rubber and Getah Percha. 

Dr. Watts. — Index to Dictionary of Economic Products. 

Hooker, Sir J.— Flora of British India, last two parts. 

Bulletins. 

During my stay in Penang, I investigated the cause of the nutmeg disease which 
was so destructive in i860 and which was said to have re-appeared. I found it to be 
due to a small Scolytid beetle, and an acepunt of the disease and others incident to 
the nutmeg and clove trees was published as a bulletin. Two more bulletins dealing 
with the cultivation of spices and with Ramie, Para rubber and diseases of coffee, 
together with an article by Mr. Curtis on the cultivation of pot plants were prepared, 
and are in the hands of the printers. 

Camphor. 

During my stay in Selangor, I visited the camphor woods of Rawang, and 
obtained specimens of timber, leaves, etc. in order to experiment with them with a 
view of extracting the camphor, which commands an exceedingly high price. The 
material I brought being insufficient, the Resident sent down a beam of the 
wood on which experiments are still being made at the Laboratory of the Govern- 
ment Analyst. The camphor oil, Borneol, is easily extracted by distillation, but the 
solid camphor resists, at present, any methods of extraction. 


4 

• • 

Exchanges . 

The following exchanges of plants and seeds have taken place during the year. 
’Five hundred and seventy-seven plants and four hundred and twenty -seven packets 
of seed. The former comprises a set of the new and beautiful begonias of the Rex type, 
selected by Mr. Fox and presented by Messrs. Sander & Co. The same firm also 
presented a series of new caladiums and seven plants of that most beautiful African 
genus Streptocarpus. It is hoped that by hybridization between this genus and our 
own, nearly allied, one of Didymocarpus, we shall succeed in imparting a vigour to the 
latter which will enable it to be grown freely on the plains. 

Two hundred and fifty-three plants and forty-one packages of seeds were sent 
out to various Botanic Gardens. 

The following contributed to the Gardens : — 

The ‘Director, Royal Gardens, Kew. 


Do., 

Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. 

Do., 

Do., 

Ceylon. 

Do., 

Do., 

Buitenzorg. 

Do., 

Do., 

Mauritius. 

Do., 

Do., 

Saigon . 

Superintendent, Do., 

Brisbane. 

Do., 

Do., 

Japan. 

Do., 

Do., 

Port Darwin. 

Do., 

Do., 

Madras. 

Do., 

Do., 

Grenada. 

Do., 

Do., 

Saharanpur. 

Do., 

Do., 

Trinidad. 

Do., 

Do., 

Lagos. 

Do., 

Do., 

Jamaica. 

Do., 

Do., 

Adelaide. 

Do., 

Do., 

Washington, 

Do., 

Horticultural Gardens, Nagpur. 


Messrs. Sander & Co., St. Albans. 

„ Carter & Co : — 

M. Cornu, Paris. 

Mr. O. Bartels, Brisbane, 

Rt. Rev. Bishop Hose, Sarawak, 

Mr. Pereira, Singapore. 

„ Grosman. 

,, Micholitz. 

„ H. Walker, Sandakan. 

„ Dumas. 

McBain. * . 





5 

BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 
Statement of Receipts and Expenditure , for the year i8g6. 


Receipts, Expenditure. 


• 

$ c ' 

Salaries. 

$ c - 

$ c * 

By Balance in Bank, ... 

1,435 76 

Herbarium-keeper, 

187 99 


,, Government Grant, 

8,500 00 
• 

Mandore, 

149 20 


,, Sale of Plants and 

Carpenters, 

305 97 


Flowers, 

i,6oi 68 

Masons, . 

i 75 56 


„ Interest, 

32 58 

Printer, (Label), 

Plant Collector, 

Office Peon, 

Aviary-keeper, 

Garden Police, 

Garden Coolies, 

Bills. 

120 00 

120 00 
96 00 
96 50 
361 73 
2,890 91 

4,503 86 



Tools & Stores, 

Timber, 

Lime, Bricks, etc., 

Pots and Tubs, 

544 48 
856 90 
603 27 
314 12 

'■ 

it. 


Birds' & Animals’ Food, 
Manure & Cartage, 

Plants & Seeds, 

Wardian Cases, 

i ,039 53 
226 30 
261 71 
146 66 




Books, Papers, etc., 

Uniforms fot Police and 
Peon, 

Freight on Plants, 

191 65 

1 16 30 
39 5 8 


• 


Repairs to Buildings, 

65 00 




Subscription to Telephone, 
Laterite, 

97 5 o 
35 40 


. 


Petty Expenses, 

Excavating Lower Lake and 
raising Road, 
Miscellaneous, 

3 12 04 

600 00 
240 78 

5,691 22 


• 



• 


Balance, 


10,195 

• 

h 1 , 57 ° 02 



1.374 96 

$11,570 02 


* 






6 , 

Economic Garden . 


An additional vote of $500 enabled much more work to be done here than in 
previous years. A large amount of ground was cleared of fern and dug over, 
and partly turfed, especially on the hill facing Dalvey Road where a number of trees 
were planted chiefly belonging to the orders Bignoniaceae , Laurineae y Proteaceae , 
Myristicaceae and Euphorbiaceae. 

On the top of the main-hill, which was turfed, a collection of Coniferae was 
planted, and further patches of land were cleared and planted with Guttiferae and 
Anacardiaceae. In the lower part of the Garden, the ground was cleared, and beds 
made for different kinds of bananas, vanilla, male bamboo, coca, vegetables, ramie, 
and Mauritius hemp,' for all of which there have been considerable demands, but the 
year will be always remarkable for the enormous demand for ramie plants, of which 
a very large number have been supplied to the Native States, Borneo and 
Sumatra, and, in a less degree, to Singapore. The propagation of this plant occu- 
pied a very large share of the labour, as the original stock in the Garden was by 
no means large, it being a plant seldom asked for till this year. Next to ramie, Para 
rubber attracted planters, and a very large amount of seed (2,810) and plants were 
purchased. 

A number of planters and others interested in cultivation of economic plants 
visited the Garden to study the methods of propagation and culture. 


Vote, 

Expenditure : — 

Mandore, 

Coolies, 

Manure, 

•Materials and Tools, 
Laterite, ... . 

Lime and Bricks, 
Balance in Bank, 


... $1,500 


$ c . 
180 00 
909 66 
101 50 
132 46 

39 50 

40 98 

95 90 


Total, ...$1,500.00 


Inspection of Coco-nut Trees. 

As mentioned in last year’s Report, the red beetle increased enormously , owing to 
the reduction of the staff to one coolie, so that it was imperative to add an Inspector, 
and in May, Ahmat bin Haji Omar was appointed. 

Three hundred and sixty-six notices were served on persons who had dead or 
dying trees or rubbish, likely to serve as breeding grounds for beetles. One thousand 
two hundred and sixty trees, and two thousand two hundred and ninety stumps, 
and twenty-five piles of rubbish and cow dung destroyed. There were thirty -two. 
prosecutions for non-compliance with the notices, and fines amounting to $95 were 
inflicted. 


The vote for the year was, 
Expenditure : — 

... $350.00 

Salaries, . . 

... $189.29 

Transport, 

... 71.23 

Removing trees, 

Miscellaneous — Uniform etc., 

••• 39-55 

9.20 

Balance, 

• 40-73 

$350.00 


Government House Domain. 

During the year, twenty-six coolies and the mandore James were employed on 
the Domain. One of the lawns was dug up and entirely re-turfed with Doub-grass 
(Cynodon). The plant-houses Were entirely re-roofed and brick pillars built to sup- 
port the s.taging. One hundred and fifty new tubs and pots were purchased, and most 
of the plants re-potted. An additional piece of ground was prepared and planted 
with vegetables. The great extent of grass which constantly requires cutting takes 
up most of the coolies’ time, sixteen men being usually employed on this work. 


7 


Vote, ’ ... ... ... |2,36 o 

Expenditure r- -! 

Mandore’s Salary, ... 180 00 

Coolies, ... ...1,896 66 

Re-making Tennis Lawn,,. 63 90 
Materials and Tools, ... 147 75 

Manure, ... ... 60 1 1 

Miscellaneous, ... 3 20 


$2,351 62 

Balance,... ... 8 38 


$2,360 00 


Revenue : — 

Sale of grass, ... $ 50 00 


H. N. RIDLEY, 
Director . 


Botanic Gardens Department, Penang. 


The only change -of Officers during the year was the promotion of Mr. d’ Silva, 
•Inspector of Coco-nut Trees, to the post of Forest Ranger in the Dindings. Mr. K. 
BALHETCHET succeeded Mr. D.’SlLVA in the month of August. 

Waterfall Garden . 

2. The most important work of the year has been the erection of a new iron plani- 
shed, 84 feet long by 60 feet broad and 16 feet 6 inches high in the centre, on the site 
of the old No. 2 shed. A portion of the material for this work was purchased in 1895, as 
mentioned in my Report for that year, and the remainder has been paid in 1896 ; the 

„ work of erection being done entirely by the Garden Carpenter and Coolies. The 
supports are steel rails set in 3 feet of concrete, and the roof of bent angle iron in 2 
spans of 30 feet each, covered with bertam chicks. The interior is entirely of rock- 
work planted up largely with local plants, tree ferns being an important feature. 
Much interest is shown in this shed, and the question as to the cost often asked by 
residents in the Colony with a view to copying it on a smaller scale. Altogether the 
material cost $910, and I calculate that, to erect a similar shed and construct the rock- 
work, in or near town, the cost would be almost equal to that of the material. All 
the stone required here was obtained in the Garden, and cartage cost very little. This 
attraction and permanent addition to the Garden has been made without any increase 
to the grant for maintenance, but necessarily some other* works have had to remain 
in abeyance. 

3. The fernery, which was in a bad state of repair, having originally been con- 
structed of material that was used .for the Agricultural Show, had to be temporarily 
renewed, partly with wood, as funds would not admit of it being done in iron this year. 
In doing this, however, we used old, but substantial iron water pipes for the supports 
and set them firmly in concrete so that on the next occasion light iron can easily 

be substituted for the present wood-work without interfering with the beds, and with- 
out involving much labour or expense. 

4. Minor repairs were done to the other plant-sheds; and this must continue to 
be an annually recurrent item of expenditure, involving a good deal of labour and 
damage to plants so long as wood structures are used in this climate. 

5. In the palm shed, the front stage, 129 feet long, has been built of rough stone- 
work in lieu of the old wooden one, and this about terminates the use of wood stages 
for pot plants in this Garden. 

6. The longest bridge across the main stream at the top of the grounds, 48 feet 
long, built in 1888, is in need of renewal. Some new timbers have been put in so as 
to keep it open to traffic for* another year, if possible, but it is important that provision 
be made for this work in the Estimates for 1898, as it is a matter that cannot be done 
out of the ordinary maintenance vote. I hope that, as in the case of the two smaller 
bridges, already done, lower down the stream, it will be re-constructed of iron this 
time. 



8 


7- A great deal of work has been done at odd times, as labour could be spared, 
towards filling in and raising the ground in the pot plant nursery, and thus increas- 
ing the area which is much too restricted for the increased work, as there is no other 
suitable site available. 

8. A further portion of the river bank has been sloped and turfed, roads repair- 
ed, trees and shrubs planted, lawns mowed, &c. as found necessary. 

9. Plants and seeds in considerable numbers have been exchanged with various 
Botanical and Horticultural establishments, and with private individuals. Plants to 
the value of $792.75 were sold and the amount paid into revenue account. 

10. A matter of some interest to the planting community is the raising of a 
pretty large batch of Borneo sugar canes from seed. The seeds were sown early in 
November and germinated in five days. They were pricked off when from a month 
to six weeks old in a mixture of leaf-mould and sand in equal parts, and many of 
them are now (January 14th) over 6 inches high. There are in all over 3,000 plants. 
Subsequent sowings of other varieties under, exactly the same conditions proved a 
failure, probably because the seeds had not been collected at the right stage, but I 
do hot despair of succeeding with the others as well. Cane seeds would appear to 
retain their vitality only a very short time, for a second sowing of Borneo cane from 
the same lot of seeds as the first which came up so well, after an interval of only a 
fortnight, did not produce a single plant. 

n. Ramie, to which considerable attention is being directed at present, has been* 
distributed in small numbers, and a stock is being worked up with a view to meeting 
the demand which is almost certain to spring up within the next few months. Unfor- 
tunately thq area of land at my disposal, suitable for this w r ork, is very limited, being 
confined to the small Nursery at the Chitty Temple. In the Waterfall Garden there 
is hardly a square yard of level land and the soil is besides unsuitable for nursery 
work. 

12. At the request of the Director, and to meet the growing demand for infor- 
mation by amateurs in the Settlement, a paper on the cultivation of plants in pots 
has been prepared which will be published in the Agricultural Bulletin of the Malay 
Peninsula. 

13. Two short botanical excursions for the purpose of collecting both living 
plants and herbarium specimens were undertaken during the year, one to the Lang- 
kawi Islands in the month of April, and the other to the Siamese Malay State of 
Kasum in November. During these trips, I was enabled to add considerably to the 
number of plants cultivated in the Garden, and to the- botanical knowledge of the re- 
gions visited. 

A short account of the latter trip was furnished to the Hon’ble Resident Councillor 
on my return, a copy of which is annexed . (Appendix B). 

14. The total expenditure in connection with the Waterfall Garden amount to 
$4,485.87, and the revenue collected from sale of plants, &c. to $839.95, as shown in 
Appendix A annexed. 

Government Hill Gardens. 

15. 1896 proved an exceptionally wet year, the rainfall on Government Hill 
being a little over 150 inches, consequently a large amount of labour was expended 
in repairs to paths in the grounds of Government’ Bungalow. A number of roses, 
crafted in the Waterfall Garden, were planted out to replace the old ones that were 
M'orn out, arid are growing vigorously. 

A pretty regular supply of vegetables has been kept up, but it is a matter of 
some difficulty to grow much during the wet weather. From November to March is 
the best season for growing vegetables, but the cost of transport of manure, and the 
limited area of ground available, prevents cultivation on any considerable scale. 
Potatoes planted in October ripened a fair crop in seventy days, but several were 
diseased. 

Table maize, which is deserving of much more attention than it gets in this coun- 
try, as’ it grows in the plain just as well as on the hill, was ready for use in 60 days. 
Indian save.d seed proved better than American. 

16. Levelling and turfing the site for the tennis court at the new Convalescent 
Bungalow has been completed, but much requires to-be done to these grounds in the 
way of planting, &c. when there is money available for carrying up manure. 

17. The experimental nursery has been kept clean and some of the more im- 
portant fruit trees manured, but beyond this, little could be 'done on the money avail- 
able. 


Preservation of Coco-nut Trees. 

1 8. The Inspector of Coco-nut Trees was employed half the year in Penang 
and the other half in Province Wellesley under the direction of the District Officers. 
Two thousand and twenty-one (2,021) notices were served on persons having on their 
premises dead trees or heaps of rubbish likely to prove suitable breeding places for 
beetles, calling on them to destroy the same within a specified time. Sixty- four (64) of 
these persons were summoned for failing to comply, and of this number, 57 were fined 
in small amounts aggregating $99. 

General. 

19. I must again refer to the need of more office space, or a separate building 
for herbarium specimens. The present two rooms are too small for both purposes. 


C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Botanic Gardens . 


IO 


Appendix A. 

Revenue and Expenditure — Botanic Gardens Department , Penang , 1896. 



Grant — Maintenance pf Wa- 
terfall Garden, ... $4,500.00 


Grant — Maintenance of Ex- 
perimental Nursery, ... $200.00 


Grant— Expenses of carrying 
out Provisions of Coco-nut 
Trees Preservation O r d i - 
nance, ... $700.00 


'Salaries of Gardeners and Coolies,... 
Purchase of Plants and Seeds, 

Do, Pots and Tubs, 

Do. Tools and Materials, 

Do. Lime and Bricks, 

Do. Planks for Cases &c., ... 
Do. Material to complete Iron 
Plant Shed, 

Do. Material to renew I 
nery, ... 

Do. Material to repair Brie 
Do. Periodicals, 

Cartage and Manure, 

Miscellaneous Petty Expenses, 
Freight on Plant Cases, 


Balance, 


("Salaries, 

Purchase of Seeds and Manure, 


^ Balance, ... 


Grant — Travelling and Per- 
sonal Allowances, ... $330.00 


Plant Sales, 

Bath Receipts, 

Total Revenue, 


f> 79 2 '75 

47.20 


$839.95 


) Salaries, 
Balance, ... 




" Pony Allowance, 

Expenses in connection with Botani- 
cal Tours, 


Balance, 


Total Expenditure, 


420 

*3 

66 

14 

96 

79 

9 

25 

58 

19 

88 

79 

42 

43 

4.485 

s? 

14 

43 

$ 4 > 5 00 

00 

165 

37 

3 i 

68 

197 

t >5 

2 

95 

$200 

00 

647 

29 

52 

7 i 

$700 

00 

216 

00 

1 12 

40 

328 

40 

. 1 

60 

$330 

00 

$5*658 i 

61 


C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Botanic Gardens . 




1 1 


Appendix B . 


Botanic Gardens, 
Penang, *jth December, i8g6. 


To 


The Hon'ble the Resident Councillor. 


Sir Regarding the botanical tour recently made in the Siamese Malay States, 

on which I promised to report ks soon as I had potted up the plants and attended ta 
other matters requiring immediate attention, I have the honour to submit the follow- 

mS I left Penang in the S.S. Petrel, which is at present the only steamer trading 
between this port and Tongkah, on the afternoon of the 9th November, and arrived 
there the following day, the voyage occupying about 23 hours. I here was very heavy 
rain during the night on the way up, and I began to fear that I had undertaken the 
trip too early in the season, but fortunately my fears proved to be groundless for 1 had 
fairly dry weather all the fortnight I was away. On arrival in 1 ongkah, 1 called on 
Prah NANISON, the Acting Chief Commissioner, expecting to get the use of the steam- 
launch to go to Kasum, but unfortunately the launch, like pretty well everything 
else in all the places I visited, is sadly out of repair and cannot be used He, 
however, kindly offered me the loan of a boat, and promised to have it ready the follow- 
ing morning, and also furnished me with letters to the Governors of Kasum and 
Pongah. At this season the wind is unfavourable for getting from I ongkah to the 
places I wished to visit, and unfortunately the mast of the Commissioner s best boat 
snapped at the foot before we had been an hour und^r sail, so that we had a long row 
into Pulau Sirih for repairs, where we remained all night. 

On the second day we tacked about without making much progress until 5 P.M. 
when we landed on Pulau Panjang to do some cooking, and while this was being 
done I collected a few plants. Cirrhopetalum medusae appeared to be abundant 
on rocks in this island. At 6.30 P.M. started again with a fresh breeze standing 
straight across for the picturesque islands near the entrance to the Kasum River 
under shelter of one of which, Pulau Prabat, we anchored until 5 A.M when we got 
under way again. At 7 A.M. landed on a small island to cook and collect plants , the 
most interesting kinds found here being two species of begonia and two of pogoma, 
the native name of one of the latter being “ elephant ear.” From this place we proceed- 
ed slowly against wind and tide to Kasum which was reached between 3 and 4 PM., 
so that I had actually been about 49 hours from Tongkah. 

The scenery among the islands before entering the Kasum River is magnifi- 
cent Scores of islands of the most fantastic forms rising abruptly from the sea to a 
height of several hundred feet. Similar scenery may be seen in Langkawu, but on a 
much reduced scale. On arrival in Kasum I sent my letters o introduction to the 
Governor with a request for an empty house if possible In a short time I received a 
message that the Governor was suffering from fever and would not be able to see me 
for two or three days, but a house was being prepared for me This was the one de- 
cent looking house in the village originally intended, I was told for a Post Office, but 
as soon as the men commenced cleaning it out- it was found to be unsafe, so I had to 

go into a Chinese attap house in the main and only street. For a place of its size, 

and it is a village of about 100 houses, and perhaps 700-800 inhabitants, Kasum is 
the most miserable looking place I ever set eyes on. The main street is overgrown 
with weeds and in places knee deep in mud. On either side are tall bamboo 
at all angles with the remnants of banners dangling in the breeze, the remains ot the 
decorations of some religious festival long past. The houses are of plank and attaps 
with verv sharply pitched roof and a sort of covered five-foot way in front, but it is 
only in places that one can cross from one side of the street to the other without 
sticking in the mud. A few days’ residence in this place has a most depressing effect 
The morning after arrival, I collected orchids, &*c. along a road that was commenced 
a or 4 years ago and cut for a distance of about 4 miles to a place called Wattam 
where there is a Bhuddist Temple in a cave in the limestone rock with numerous 

figures rapidly going to decay. One of the figures in a reclining position is about 45 
feet long 1 spent some time in botanizing on this hill and collected several interest- 
ing plant*. One of the priests showed me a plant of Dendrobium Farmeru fastened 
on a bloc k of wood which he assured me was very rare, and, so far as my experience 
goes it is so. for I only collected two plants of it during the time I was there. 

When the road to this place was commenced it was intended to carry it on to 
Pongah and fine hard-wood beams were brought in for bridging the streams and posts 
for telegraph wires. The wires were never put up and the beams are lying alongside 
the streams rotting 


V 

/» 


12 


On the second day, the Governor sent me a man who spoke Malay to accompany 
me anywhere I wished to go and to assist me generally. Two days I went down the 
river to the limestone hills, and on another day walked across to Pongah and slept 
there, returning by another route the following day. The distance I estimate to be 
about io or 12 miles. Pongah is not so nice a place as it was in the old Raja’s tirpe, 
things are fast going to decay. The road from the landing which he planted up with 
shade trees and kept in good order is now almost impassable in places, and the build- 
ing in which l stayed on a previous visit and was most' hospitably entertained leaks 
like a sieve, and as it rained the night I was there it was difficult to find a dry spot. 
It is interesting to note that several natives have a few orchids growing around their 
houses and one has quite an interesting little collection and this, they told me, was the 
result of my previous visit. Dendrobium Farmeruxs evidently the kind they prize 
most, and shows good taste on their part, but it is scarce, and they set a value on them 
that prevented me from buying. This is abundant in Mergui, and Pongah is appa- 
rently about its southern limit. One very interesting dendrobium I saw in a garden 
which I was most anxious to get, but the owner would not part; he, however, crave 
some flowers to dry which will. I hope, be sufficient for determination, but I have little 
doubt it is an undescribed species. On the limestone islands I collected a great num- 
ber of interesting and some, I believe, perfectly new plants, among the latter being a 
ginger, balsam, and arum. 

Many plants were observed that it was quite impossible to get at, but, on the 
whole, I made a very satisfactory collection. The ginger which I believe to be new 
and of which I only saw a single flower, although it had been flowering freely not 
long previously grows in the chinks of the hardest rocks where it is impossible to get 
at the roots without blasting them out. I saw hundreds but only succeeded in getting 
about half-a-dozen, three of which I have sent to Kew. Of the balsam I dried a good 
series of specimens, and collected a nice lot of seeds, and of the arum tubers. 

In one place I saw enormous clumps of cypripedium, but quite out of reach, and 
also a small growing derides {/Frides affine). For miles round Kasum the virgin for- 
est have all been destroyed by the paddy planters, and the present vegetation is com- 
posed largely of bamboos, of which, three or four species are so abundant that they 
may be said to be the prevailing feature of the vegetation on all the low hills. In 
spite of this great destruction of forest, only sufficient rice for local consumption is 
produced, and the present price is about the same as in Penang. Fowls are abundant 
and cheap costing only 6 or 7 cents each ; but then these do not require much labour 
to raise. 

A lazier lot of men it would be difficult to find, and the only thing that really 
livens them up is a cock-fight, then the village turns up like one man. , Before going 
across to Pongah, I asked the Governor of Kasum to lend me a boat to return to 
Tongkah, but he said he had no suitable boat and that he always went in one of the 
Chinese tongkangs that come for fire-wood. He promised to arrange for me to go 
back in the same way, but when the time for starting came, the Chinaman said he had 
not enough wood yet, but perhaps he might go to-morrow or next day. To remain 
another day meant probably missing the Petrel and having to remain a week in Tong- 
kah. so I begged them to find me- a prauh of soiiii sort, which they eventually did, 
and we got away on the ebb tide about 2 P.M. At about 7 P.M, we stopped at one of 
the islan ls for the men to eat, and they were inclined to stay there all night, but we 
got them on board and hoisted sail to a fair wind’; one of the two men 1 took from 
Penang steering, and the other looking after the sail. None of the three men I got 
from Kasum were boatmen, and they did not understand sailing a boat. By 3 A.M, 
we had rounded Pulau Sirih, and were in sight of the Tongkah light, so that in re- 
turning with a fair wind, we did in 13 hours what it took 49 to do in going. 

It was fortunate it did not rain either in going or returning, for we had no cover, 
not even a kajang. I had a whole day to spare in Tongkah, but there is not much 
to collect there unless one had time to go back to. the wooded hills. There is no 
more sign of advancement here than in any of the other places. Everyone says that 
the population is diminishing rapidly. For every Chinaman that goes into Tongkah 
three or faur come away. 

I have, &c., 

C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Botanic Gardens _ 


f 



for the year 


1897 

4 - • ' ' ■ 

BY 

H . N , RIDLEY, Esq' 

Director 





PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY 


SINGAPORE : 

Printed at thk Government Printing Office 


189# 


ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOTANICAL GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 

The only changes in the staff during the year ^ were the ^P^^n^ofthe 
** £* e J C Z°Z Satio/of the" Plant-coUector Mat, who had been 

successful, being very suitable for egon^ ,^ wh ; ch a „ reat deal of the wood- 

raising ferns from spores. I he g P ’ ( t ) ie aisles the wood-work has 

work is rotten, has been partly renewed. In two ^ g _ The 

been replaced by iron rods and arc > h vhole building in a proper state 
remaining aisles will be done J° ^which the Garden funds are not suffi- 

:!em P so t'hl't The cove.d with 

AeTdesof a Ae wariiled wfth'rock work, which was planted with various ornamental 

V laots ‘ Flower-show. 

. A flower-show was held at the Town Hall in May, which was well attended, 
and the plants exhibited were on the whole up to the standar . 

Bulletins. 

«, *™v h ’c7;;.T% 

s « t g^a r. sg& , 4 

Derns sinuata , Eugenia ^ new S f P eC1 \ Saintpaulia ionantha, Strophanthus hispi- 
tranum, Didymocarpus cyaneus (n .*?•).' ercha) , BalanoltreUus ilicifo- 
dus, kaculata, Alpinia cpmosa, 

hus, Coccoloba uvifera, l g Selangor’) PhryniumJ.agonanum,Tainia 

produced fruit, which was previously until own introduced this year include a 

P The most noteworthy and other orna- 

n^n ta" s pecieT f ro m ifuite nao rg , Kvnipferia calophylla, a new species from Selangor, 
and Colocasia gigantea (Selangor.) 

Aviaries. 

T1 were entirely reconstructed, the old wood-work wherever pos- 

s'.b* e ^^ n S °^y ^Jr. a FERNA^D t Ezt;h^in < e > 'brush-t S aned e porcupine 

presented by Mr V G ,°^ H ^ r „; ll . c ne bear (Helarctos malayanus), from Borneo, 
phalanger presented by .JI , kanchi ) \pragulus kanchil ) presented by Mr. 
presented by ^Jj^PZon.utdcus ) presented ; four Chinese coots (. Porphyria 
Morton; one pear ock , if, ( Borneo Argus pheasants presented 

sp. ) r 2 hornbills ( Buceros s p. ) p ^ ^ ■ (wo , pyl hoL ( Python reticulatus ), 
jy Mr. Bruderer*; one black sw P g|a f j 0 hore; two black and yellow snakes 
about 20 feet long, presented ^/ococodiiespurchased ; one terrapin (Cycle*,* 
( Dipsadomorphus ; c nP u P ( ed - 1 p i ow E R One hybrid monkey between M. nemes- 

mnntjl) were born in the 

Gardens. 


2 


Exchanges. # 

8. The following were the exchanges of plants and seeds during the year. Five 
hundred plants and one hundred and nineteen packets of seeds were sent to various 
cultivators and Botanic Gardens, and eight hundred and sixfy-six plants and three 
hundred and eight packets of seeds were received. 

The following contributed to the Gardens 


Mr. Burckhardt 
„ Micholitz. 

„ R. Little. 

„ Grossmann. 

„ Goedhardt. 

,, E. M, Holmes. 

„ A. D. Machado. 
,, Damman & Co. 
Dr. Smit. 

,, Dohrn. 

Mr. Pereira. 

Bishop Hose. 

Lieut Kelsall. 

Mr. R. Schlechter. 

,, J.*H. Osmond. 

Mrs. Pennefather. 
Mr. Choa Kim Keat. 


Dr. Ellis. 

Mr. St. V. B. Down. 

Messrs. Sanders & Co; 

Botanic Gardens, Kew, 

Do., Calcutta. 

Do., Buitenzorg. 
Do., Saigon. 

Do., Tokio. 

Do., Nagpur. 

Do., British Guiana. 

Do., Sydney. 

Do., Brisbane. 

Do., Durban. 

Do., Jamaica. 

Do., Trinidad. 

Do., Barbadoes. 


Herbarium. 


9. A small collection of plants was obtained in the Langkawi Islands in the dry 
season, and while on leave I obtained a number of plants in Selangor near the Batu 
Caves and along the Pahang track, and also in Sumatra on the Mandau River near 
Siak, and in Borneo at Labuan, Kudat, Sandakan and Labuk Bay. One hundred and 
ten plants from the Malay Peninsula were sent by Dr. King. Forty-seven specimens 
of Scitamineae of the Malay Islands were presented by Dr. KOORDERS. A number of 
specimens from Borneo were sent by Dr. Dennys. Specimens of plants and timbers 
from Christmas Island were presented by Mr. Leach ; and specimens of dried plants 
from Java by Lieut. Harvey, r. e. A collection of European plants w r as received in 
exchange from M. Richter. 

Five hundred' and thirty-three specimens of Malay plants were sent to Dr. King 
and a small collection of orchid specimens to Mr. SCHLECHTER of Cape Town. 
Specimens were also sent to the Pharmaceutical Society and the Natural History 
Museum and to the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

A number of wood specimens, chiefly from Singapore, were added to the wood 
collection, and a new cabinet made for their reception. 


Library. 

10? During the, year, a catalogue of the library was printed, and a new book- 
case was pux-chased. 

The following are the additions to the library < — 

Catalogue of Welwitsch’s Angolan Plants, presented by Director, Natural History 
Museum. 

Jenman.— Minor Agricultural Industries of British Guiana, presented by the 
Author. 

Dyer. — Notes' on Mycorhiza, presented by the Author. 

Mathieu. — Estimate of the Cost, etc. of a Ramie Plantation, presented by the 
Author. 

* . 

Wildeman. — Prodrome de la Flore Algologique, presented by the Author. 
Mercklin. — Beobachtung an den Prothallium, presented by the Author. 

Harms. — t)ie Nomenclatur bewegung, presented by the Autlior. 

Coville. — Notes on the Plants used by the Klamath Indians, presented by U, S. A. 
Department of Agriculture. 

Webber. — The Water Hyacinth, presented by U. S. A. Department of Agriculture. 
Dodge. — Descriptive List of Fibre Plants, presented by U. S. A. Department o£ 
Agriculture. 


3 


Dodge. — Report on the Culture of Jute and Hemp, presented by the Author. 
King. — Materials for the Flora of the Malay Peninsula, Parts 8 and 9, presented 
by the Author. 

„ New Indian Trees, presented by the Author. 

„ Indian Species of Vitis, presented by the Author. 

King and Pantling. — New Orchids from Sikkim, presented by the Authors. 

New Hand-liat of Tender Monocotyledons, presented by the Director, Kew. 
Massee. — Monograph of Geoglosseae, presented by the Author. 

Christy. — New Commercial Drugs, presented by the Author. 

Boorsma — Mededeeling, Part XVIII, presented by the Author. 

Bijlert. — Onderzoek eenige Groondsorten van Deli, presented by the Author. 

Also the Reports of the United States Department of Agriculture, India Museum’ 
Reports, Record of the Botanical Survey of India, India Museum Notes, 
Agricultural Ledger, Annals of the Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg ; and 
Bulletins and Annual Reports from the Botanic Gardens of Kew, Ceylon, 
Lagos, Trinidad, Jamaica, Cape of Good Hope, Natal, Brisbane, Guiana, 
Sierra Leone, West Australia, Mysore, Madras, Queensland, Barbadoes, 
St. Lucia ; and the Koloniaal Museum, Haarlem. 

The following works were purchased : — 

Currey. — Fungi of Pegu. 

Mitten. — -MuSti Indise Orientalis. 

Clarke. — Indian Begonias. 

Hanbury. — Cassia moschata. 

Hooker. — Balanophoreae_ 

Miers. — Rarringtoniaceae. 

Eeden. — Hoot-sorten. 

Stapf. — Flora of Mount Kinabalu. 

Hart. — Cacao. 

Collins. — On the Collection of India-rubber. 

Seeligmann. — Le Caoutchouc. 

Notaris. — Epatiche de Borneo (2 papers). 

La Coste. — Musci Archipelagi Indici. 

,, Synopsis Hepaticarum Javanicarum. 

Hampe. — Musci Frondosi of Ceylon and Borneo. 

Dozy and Molkenboer. — Musci Archipelagi Indici. • 

Baker. — : Handbook of Amaryllidese. 

Sawer. — Odorographia. 

Ward, H. M. — Timber and some of its Diseases. 

Warburg. — Die Muskat Nuss. 

Tubeuf. — Diseases of Plants. 







4 


BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 


Statement of Receipts and Expenditure } for the year r8gj. 


Receipts. 

Expenditure. 


$ C. 

Salaries. 

.?. e. 

$ c - 

By Balance in Bank, .. 
„ Government Grant, 
n Sale of Plants, Seeds 
and Flowers, 

>, Interest, 

r - > i ; ’ n / ' i T | 

i ,374 96 
8 a 5oo 00 

2,901 95 
27 29 

• 

H erbari um -keeper, 

Mandore, 

Carpenters (two), 

Mason, 

Plant-collector, 

Printer (Label), 

Peon, 

Aviary-keeper, 

Police, 

Coolies, 

187 5c 
229 oc 
3 1 ! 5 C 
140 82 
no oc 

120 oc 
96 00 

94 34 
346 99 

3f 34 01 

5,270 16 



Bills. 


• 


Tools and Stores, 

Laterite, Sand, etc., 

Timber, Lime, Bricks, etc., 
Pots and Tubs, 

Birds' and Animals’ Food,,.. 
Manure and Cartage, 
Buildings (Aviary and Plant- 
house), 

Freight on Plants, 

Books, Papers, etc., 

Garden Seats, .. . 

Plants and Seeds, 
Subscription to Telephone, 
Wardian Cases, -etc., 

Petty Expenses, 
Miscellaneous, 

Rice Allowance, 

557 93 
200 00 

925 58 
2 5 i 73 
L236 53 
157 12 

1,221 71 
155 26 
578 92 

150 00 
270 49 

97 50 
163 60 
308 47 

437 7 i 

1 16 50 






6,829 05. 

• 



. 



Balance, 

• • * 

12,099 21 
704 99 

- 

$12,804 20 


- 

$12,804 20 

' 1 


• 


* 


% 


# 


m 


* 


5 


Economic Garden. 

* A considerable part of the hill in this Garden was cleared, dug and planted with 
grass, and some fresh land was opened in the swampy portion near the ramie beds, 
but the greatest amount of labour was expended in clearing the scrub around the 

• ParaTubber trees. This had grown up so high as to make it impossible to find the 

seeds of the trees, which fell among it. - 

The demand for plants and seeds of Para rubber was greatly in excess of 
the supply,, but 21,035 plants and 10,875 seeds were supplied to'planters in 
Singapore, Selangor, Malacca, Pahang, British Borneo and elsewhere. Various 
experiments were made as to methods of propagation, tappipg and yield of rubber* 
the results of which have been published in a Bulletin on the subject. A large num- 
ber of planters and others interested in the cultivation of this plant from different 
parts of the Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo visited the Garden to see the rubber 
trees and the various methods of cultivation and preparation of the rubber. 

The demand for ramie, which was very large last year and at the beginning of this, 
fell off considerably, as rubber came into favour. This js partly at least due to the 
low price offered by manufacturers for the ribbons. Nearly four thousand plants and 
a few boxes of seed were disposed of. 

Experiments were made -also with Curculigo recurvata , the " Lurnbah ” of the 
Malays. It is a well known ornamental plant belonging to' the order Hypoxidew , and 
supplies from its- leaves a fibre of considerable value used by the Dyaks. The 
plant grows easily, but it remains to be seen whether the yield of fibre per acre 
will be enough to recommend its cultivation. 

Over a hundred plants oh gutta-percha from Sumatra were planted o*ut for experi- 
ment. Among the economic" plants of importance, introduced this year, Kickxia 
Africana , the African tree rubber, occupies the first place. It had been received on 
one or two previous occasions, but always dead : the plants received this time were in 

* grand condition. From the same establishment came also Landolphia senega lensis , 
one of the African rubber vines. It appears that the. Landolphias are stouter growing 
plants than our Willughbeias and Melodmus , and will probably be more satisfactory 
to cultivate, so that an additional species is welcome. 

* Pentadesma butyracea ( Gut tif eras ), the butter and tallow tree of Sierra Leone, 
was also obtained from Kew. It produces a valuable oil. 

The new green aloe, Furcroya macrophylla, a good fibre plant, was received 
from Barbados, a'nd Lahia kutejensis , the Borneo durian, which is stated to possess 
the full flavour oi,Ditrio zibethinus without its odour, was received from the Botanic 
Gardens, Buitenzorg. 

Upkeep of Economic Garden. 


Vote, ... ... ■ $1,500.00 

Salaries of Mandore and Coolies, $1,330.83 
Attaps, Baskets, &c., 43-74 

Tools, &c., ... 67.96 

Flower-pots, ... 35 -°° 

Manure, ... ... J 7 - 5 ° 

Balance'in Treasury, . 4.97 


Total, . $1,500.00 


Inspection of Coco-nut Trees. 

Three hundred notices were served on persons who had dead or dying trees or 
piles of rubbish. One thousand five hundred and seventy-five dead trees and two 
hundred and sixty-nine stumps and .thirty heaps of rubbish and cow-dung were des- 
troyed. There were only nine prosecutions, and fines amounting to $2j were inflicted. 


The vote for the year was 
Expenditure 
Salaries, 

Transport, 

Uniforms, &c., 
Balance, ... 


$350.00 


$240.00 

92.74 

5*05 

12.21 


Total, ... $350.00 


Government House Domain. 


The Mandore James left in the early part of the year, and Aniff, Mandore of the - 
Botanic Gardens, took his place till a man named SAMUEL was employed. The Java- 
nese coolies behaved very ill in the first part of the year, and finally ran away. Jwo 
were summoned and fined, the others could not be found. After this, Klings were 
employed for grass-cutting, and Javanese for pots and house work. A lawn in front 
of the house was re-made entirely, being raised and re-turfed. Some beds for Vandas 
and Renantheras were made, and the whole of the East side and part of the West 
side of the park was fenced in. 


Vote; 

Expenditure : — 

•- * 

.. $2,360.00 

Salaries, 

$2, 005.19 

i ■ 

Tools, 

182.85 

Attaps, Rollers, "etc., 

32.63 


Planks, etc., 

24.62 


Manure, 

4748 


Flower-pots, 

25.82 


Tubs, ... 

24.00 

. 

Balance, 

■ i 74 i 

m 

Total* 

$2,360.00 




H. N. RIDLEY, 

. 


Director. 

Singapore , 25th January, 1898. 




Botanic Gardens Department, Penang, 1897. 

Visitors to the Waterfall Garden have been more numerous than in any previous 
year, particularly those with an especial interest in matters 'horticultural and botani- 
cal. Among the number was His Majesty the King of Siam, who was very pleased 
with the Garden, and selected a number of plants for cultivation in Bangkok. The 
Director and Curator of the Buitenzorg Gardens, the Superintendent t>f the Hongkong 
Gardens, and the Curator of the Calcutta Gardens were also among the strangers 
that visited us, and made selections of plants, 

Personal visits and letters from gentlemen inte rested! n planting matters, request- 
ing information, mainly respecting rubbers .and ramie, have been numerous, and much 
time has been taken up with purchasers of plants. ^ # 

2.. An interesting addition to the Garden is a glass case at the West end of the 
Fernery, with soft granite boulders inside, on which are planted a collection of filmy 
ferns { Trichomanes and Hymenophyllum). During the Jubilee holidays, which I spent 
on the Perak hills, several species which do not occur in Penang were collected and 
brought back in good condition, and, although coming from an altitude of 3,000-4,000 
feet, they are all, with the exception of Trichomanes maxima , making satisfactory 
growth. Among the rocks on which these are growing are planted Bertoloniasz 
S'onerilas , and other small-growing Melastomaceee , which can only be grown to per- 
fection in the moist atmosphere of a glass case. 

3. The octagonal plant-shed, in which there is a good collection of specimen 
foliage plants in pots and tubs, has been re-covered with nihong laths instead of chicks ; 
and the potting-shed, which was in a bad state of repairs has been roofed with corru- 
gated iron. Minor repairs were also done to the wood-work and coverings of the other 
plant-sheds. 

4. One thousand and eight lineal feet of carriage road have been re-metalled 
with stones obtained in the course of cutting down a bank to raise the ground in the 
pot-plant nursery. 

5. Considerable improvements in the grounds have been effected by continuing 
the sloping and turfing the banks of the stream near the entrance gate, and also just 
below the second bridge. Eight new beds have also been formed, and planted with 
cannas, roses, and flowering shrubs ; and a number of large palms and other things 
that had outgrown the space available in the plant-sheds have been planted in various 
parts of the Garden. 


7 


6. Owing to the unusually heavy rainfall (175 inches), the maintenance of roads 
and paths has been an important labour item, and for the same reason it has also been 
an unfavourable season for a great number of flowering plants. Cannas, which are 
grown in large masses, have, however, been very finq during the whole year. Their 
principal requirements being an abundance of water and manure, the past season has 

suited them admirably. . 

7 The area of land in connection with this Garden available for experimental 
agricultural work is too limited to admit of work being done on a sufficiently large scale. 

8. The seedling sugar-canes mentioned in my last annual report have • made 
satisfactory progress, but, ©wing to want of suitable ground in which ^to plant them, 
the greater number, when about a foot high, were handed over to the Managers of the 
Caledonia and Prye Sugar Estates. Unfortunately the weatlfer set in dry soon after 
those at Prye were planted, and a great many died. 

Of those planted out in the Nursery here — about 600 plants in all— there were very 
few losses, and the growth has been rapid. 

The first lot of. 300 ‘plants were planted out on the 15th February, that is, when 
just three months and ten days old. 

In August, 2,000 canes, from ten to fourteen feet high, were cut from this lot for 
further trial on the estates to which the seedlings were sent. About fifty stools of 
those judged to be the most promising and showing the greatest amount of variation 
were allowed to remain for the purpose of obtaining seed, but up to the present, and 
they are now almost .& year planted, there- are no signs of flowers. Ihe seeds were 
all from a purple can^, known here as_the “ Borneo,’' but the progeny are of various 
colours, a good number being green ones. Scarcely one is exactly typical t( Borneo,” 
although, as regards foliage, all bear more or less evidence of their parentage, fuller 
details are given in a paper which ^ill appear in the next 4 g r i cul t ura -l Bulletin. 

9. In order to test practically the time required to grow' a crop of ramie from 
seed, a sowing was made on the 12th February, on a carefully prepared bed of light 
soil with protection from sun and rain. The seeds were covered very lightly, and, 
considering the quantity sown did not germinate freely. On the 2nd March the 
young plants were from four to six inches high, and at the end of that month they 
were planted out in beds* two feet apart. The first cutting was made in the middle 
of August, or just exactly six months*from the time the seeds w'ere sown. Two 
months later they were ready' to be cut again, and with an adequate supply of manure 
and water this may be taken as the average time ( L e., every two months ) -at which 
cuttings may be made. 

We have in cultivation three very distinct varieties, but none of them produce in 
our soil clean long stems, unless liberally manured. The conclusion I have come -to 
is that ramie will have to be Gultivated as highly as sugar-cane, and that the idea 
that it can be grown as a paying crop on poor land- unsuited for anything else is 
entirely wrong. Selection of the right variety is also a point to which intending 
planters should pay particular attention. 

10. The soil of this Garden is by no means the kind that I should choose for 
planting Para rubber, as it is dry and. gravelly, but there are a few trees here that 
were planted in >886. The largest of these has a girth of about thirty-six inches 
at three feet from the ground, and as many inquiries w r ere received respecting the 
quantity of rubber to be obtained from a tree, &c., this one was tapped as an 
experiment in June. The first day’s collection yielded only half an ounce, but 
by renewing the cuts on seven subsequent occasions, one pound of dry rubber 
was obtained, being an average of two ounces for each time. This is very poor, 
compared with the results obtained in Singapore and in Perak, but, as I have 
already mentioned, the tfee is growing in unsuitable soil, and the w'eather was at the 
time very wet. The climate appears to suit this tree, and the only importaat item of 
expenditure after a plantation is once established is the cost of collecting. 

Many applications for seeds were received, but our whole crop consisted of 
about six hundred seeds only. 

Seeds should* be planted as soon as ripe, as they retain their vitality for only 
about a fortnight. If planted as soon as ripe, they germinate in about 12-14 days. 
An attempt to propagate this tree from cutting was not a success. 

11. Plants and seeds in about the same proportion and numbers as in previous 
years have been exchanged with the various Botanic Gardens and Societies with 
which we are in correspondence, but the number of pot-plants sold is greater than in 
any previous year, the total receipts from this source being $916.96, which has been 
paid into Revenue ^account. 


8 




12. Provision having been made in the Estimates 1898 for an additional room for 
keeping herbarium specimens, a large number, that had been accumulating for years, 
have been mounted, and as soon as the room is ready will be systematically arranged 
so as to be readily available for^ reference. 

13. A sliort botanical tour of three days’ duration for the purpose of collecting 
living plants was made in the company of the Director to the Langkawi Islands in 
February; and in May I attended the Singapore Flower Show and obtained ^ good 
many desirable additions to the collection already in cultivation. 

14. The total expenditure in connection with the maintenance of the Waterfall 
Garden, as shown in statement annexed, is $4,498.1 1, and the receipts from sale of 
plants and use of swimming bath to $974.76, showing an actual cost of $3,523.35. 

Hill Experimental Nursery. 

15. Nothing of importance has been done in the Experimental Nursery, and it 
is not intended in future to spend much on it beyond keeping the fruit trees, &c. 
dean. None of the European fruits introduced are likely to be of any commercial 
value in this country, unless the olive should do so, which is still doubtful. Peaches, 
apples, and ligs have been produced, but not in sufficient numbers to warrant any 
further expenditures this direction. The terracing of every foot of land required, 
and the cost of carrying up manure renders it undesirable to plant anything here 
that can be grown equally well elsewhere. 

Two men are employed here during four days in the week, the remainder of their 
time being employed in keeping in order the grounds of Convalescent Bungalow. ^ 


Government Hill Bungalow. m 

*16. The unusually heavy rairtfall on the hill of 175.85 inches, which is, I believe, 
an unique record for Penang, was, during a great portion of the year, unfavourable for 
the cultivation of both vegetables and flowering plants. Some difficulty was also ex- 
perienced in the matter of labour, four out of six men accustomed to garden work 
having left at one time to take up employment on the railway in the Native States, 

on higher pay. 

17. A small but fairly constant supply of vegetables was kept up during the 
whole year, a few native kinds being grown during the heavier rains. The European 
kinds planted were Beet, lettuce, cabbage, carrot, turnip, Khol rabi, leek, 
parsley,, endive, cucumber, onion, peas, beans and celery. Some of these were 
of little account from July to October, but cabbage grown from cuttings did well in 
all weathers. A paper on the cultivation of vegetables in Penang has been written 
for the next Agricultural Bulletin. 

18. Annuals and other flowering plants have bsfen grown in variety in both 
pots and beds, but the show of flowers has not been so good as in drier seasons. 
Dahlias, salvias, begonias and coreopsis made a bright' show in beds, and both 
Lilium longiflorum, and carnation marguerite promise to make a good show later on. 

iq. A number of young roses have been put in as the old stock was getting 
worn out. Tea and China roses are the only ones that are really satisfactory in this 

C ^ m 20 Orchids, of which considerable numbers do not grow satisfactorily in 
the Waterfall Garden, have been sent up and planted on the Dacrydium trees border* 
ino- the paths in the bungalow gardens at an altitude of 2,500 feet. Several species 
that cannot be got to exist for more than a few months on the plains have taken a 
Arm hold of -the trees and in some cases have already flowered. 

About a dozen plants of Vanda caerulea flowered in August and September, and 
one plant of Vanda kimballiana, a specfes that does not grow well on the plains. 
Vanda tricolor is growing well, and as the climatic conditions are very similar to 
those under which they are found growing in Java, I have hopes that they will even- 
tually spread themselves over the hills. - , 

Dendrobuim aureum , D. Jamesianum, and D. Cambndgeanufn have been most 
floriferous, all from growths made since they were fastened to the trees. Others, 
such as D. nobile, and D. densiflorum , of which there are several dozens of p ants, 
will probably flower later on if we get a spell of dry weather. This season I shall add 
a trood number of D. Devomanum , D. Wardianum D. crassinode and ^others obtained 
during a recent trip to Burma, -and which are now flowering in the Waterfall Garden, 
to the collection on the hill. 



' 9 

Through the kindness of correspondents in Burma, I have obtained a consider- 
able number of Shan States and other orchids, and although most of them are small 
plants, not quite good enough for sending to Europe, they do very well for the pur- 
pose of finding ouftheir suitability to the climate. 

21. The plant-shed in which palms, ferns and foliage plants generally have for 
some time been grown for decorating the corridor, &c., has been removed to a spot 
alongside the Overseer’s Quarters, where it will be more constantly under his eye, 
and also nearer a water supply in dry weather. 

. Preservation of Coco-nut Trees. 

22. The Inspector of Coco-nut Trees has been employed during alternate 
months in Penang and Province Wellesley. Two thousand six hundred and forty- 
eight notices were served on persons having on their premises dead trees, manure, 
or other material in which beetles breed, calling on them to destroy the same within 
a specified time. For non-compliance, fifty-two were summoned and fined in small 
amounts, aggregating $134. 

When in Province Wellesley, this Officer works under the direction of the Senior 
District Officer, who directs hLe'attention to the localities most needing attention, and 
signs the notices. 

» C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Botanic Gardens. 



m 






I o * 


Appendix A. 


Revenue and Expenditure of the Botanic Gardens Department , Penang , 189J. 



Grant-Maintenance of Wa- 
terfall Garden, ... $4,500.00 


Grant — Maintenance of Ex- 
perimental Nursery, ... $200.00 


Grant — Expenses of' carrying 
out Provisions of Coco-nut 
Trees Preservation O r d i - 
nance, ... $700.00 


Grant — Travelling and Per- 
sonal Allowances, $33 0 - 00 


Plant Sales, 

Bath Receipts, 

Total Revenue, 


m $916.96 
57.80 


$974.76 


Salaries of Gardeners and Coolies,... 
Purchase of Plants and Seeds, 

Do. Pots and Tubs, 

Do. Tools and Materials for 

current repairs, 

Do. Materials for re-roofing 

Potting Shed, 

Do. Material for Herbarium, 

* Do. New Hand Cart, 

Do. Manure and Cartage, ... 

Freight on Plant Cases, - 
Subscriptions and Periodicals, ... 
Miscellaneous and Petty Expenses,... 
Road Metal, 


Balance, 


494 03 

>37 67 
53 00 
16 50 
100 39 
10 00 
14 79 

79 92 
19 80 


Salaries, 

Manure, 

Miscellaneous, 


Balance, ... 


4,498 11 
r 89 


$4,500 00 


159 16 
15 16 
24 30 

198 62 

1 38 


| Salaries, 

U Balance, 


r Pony Allowance, 
Personal Allowances, 
Passage Money, 


Balance, 


$200 00 


662 00 
38 00 


$700 00 


222 00 
64 46 
30 00 


316 46 
!3 54 


$33*0 00 


Total Expenditure, 


$5^75 19 


C.. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Botanic Gardens • 


REPORTS 


# 


. ON 

FOREST RESERVES 


SINGAPORE, PENANG AND MALACCA 

\ 

FOR THE YEAR 


1898 



SINGAPORE ; 

Printed at the Government Printing Office 


REFORT ON THE FOREST RESERVES, SINGAPORE, 
FOR THE YEAR 1898. 


1. There is little or no material for a report on the condition of the Forest 
Reserves in Singapore in 1S98. 

2. In former years there has been a certain amount of Revenue derived directly 
from them, chiefly from Bakau passes and permits for wood of other kinds, but the 
issue of these having, for the better protection of the Reserves, been stopped, there is 
now no revenue obtained from them. 

3. Since these Reseves passed from the control of the Gardens Department into 
that of the Land Office, no money has been voted for their improvement, with I believe 
the natural result that any improvement which may have taken place in them has 
been simply due to natural growth and time. When under the Garden^ Department, 
various experiments were. tried in them, such as the planting of Para rubber in Sem- 
bawang, and of jambu hutan and other similar trees along some of the Reserve paths. 
Comprising as they now do large areas of la’ang and small valueless brushwood, it is 
a matter for regret that it is not thought advisable to try whether good could not be 
done by a small expenditure on planting of frees of some value as timber and on 
thinning the brushwood where there is a natural growth of some of the less worthless 
.trees. There would, however, for many years be no perceptible difference in the Re- 
serves and for many more years no return at all for the expenditure, while the con- 
sensus of opinion as to the extreme poorness ot Singapore soil leaves it open to sug- 
gest that timber of commercial value might never be produced on it. 

4. The total expenditure on the Reserves has amounted during the year in ques- 
tion to $1,158.50 incurred merely in payment of the salaries, etc. of the Corporals and 
Forest Guards detailed to protect them as far as possible from encroachment and fire. 
Item by item* this amount was spent on 1 Corporal at $9 a month, 2 Lance Corporals 
at $8 each a month, and 7 Forest Guards at $7 each a month. The salaries of these 
men are small and their chance of increases of pay no larger, while the temptation to 
look with a blind eye on illicit wood-cutting must be great, if any substantial (to 
them) douceur is offered by the offenders. I am of opinion that these men should at 
least be put with regard to periodic increments on the same footing as various other 
members of the subordinate staff, (peons, etc.) who have neither the same opportunities 
for, nor temptations to, dishonesty. I do not suggest that there has been a custom 
of yielding to temptation, but I am certain that only through very great vigilance on 
the part of the Collector and Forest Rangers and a combination of bad luck and reck- 
lessness on the part of the Guards could there be detection of connivance in illicit 
cutting on Coast reserves such as part of Kranji, Morai, and Tuas, etc. 

5. The acreage reserved in the three Divisions of the island amounted to 1,241 
acres, 1 rood, 24 poles, but this is not an exact figure, the area of part of the Seletar 
Reserve not being accurately known as.yet. More than two-thirds of this were under 
the direct supervision of Forest Ranger NoNIS, while the remaining third was divided 
between Forest Rangers Rappa and Rodrigues. The Forest Guards'-, as before, 
made report to them and they passed on their reports to the Collector — a somewhat 
round about system which has now been changed for the Malacca one of monthly writ- 
ten reports presented to the Collector of Land Revenue by the Guards themselves, but 
the same supervision by the Forest Rangers continues. I append the tabulated state- 
ments of the Forest Rangers named, showing in detail the condition of the Reserves 
in their charge (ABC). 

6. Fires took place in the Jurong and Chan Chu Kang Reserves, but no convic- 
tions could be obtained. It will always (except in cases where incendiaries are caught 

* Salaries ... ... §888.00 

Rice Allowance ... 120.00 

Uniforms, &c. ... 75-50 

New Boat ... 75.00 


I1.158.50 


2 . 


in the act) be hard to ascertain the origin of these Fires, but they are variously attri- 
buted to the negligence of road coolies or ordinary foot passengers (who smoke and 
drop matches, etc. about), to the desire of local shikaries and cattle-owners to provide 
food (fresh lalang sprouts and young grass) for the animals in which they are inter- 
ested, and to the carelessness of coolies engaged in burning jungle or refuse with 
the wind blowing (and taking sparks with it) direct towards the Reserves. 

7. The Collector himself paid 21 visits to the reserves during the year. The 
paths were in good order and no traces of illicit cutting were observed. 

8. In the earlier paragraphs 1 of this report I wrote somewhat disparagingly of 
the value of these Reserves. They will however eventually — when the Singapore- 
Kranji Railway is built — save Government from expending in the purchase of wood 
fuel very considerable sums. The large expanses of Bakau at Kranji, Morai, Tuas, 
Pandan and Seletar should, if the unreserved Bakau fails, prove with judicious manage- 
ment practically inexhaustible. 

9. I did not take charge of the Land Office, Singapore, till the last day of 1898, 
and it is therefore with some diffidence that I sign this report dealing with the condi- 
tion of the Reserves in a year when I had so little official connection with them; 


Land Office, 

Singapore, 22nd August, 1&99. 


W. L. CARTER, 

Acting Collector of Land Revenue . 


A . — Western Divison. 


No. 

Reserve. 

Area. 

1 t 

Bukit Timah Forest 

a. r. p. j 


Reserve ... 

847 0 OO 

2* * 

Jurong Forest Reserve 

412 0 16, 

3 

Pandan do. 

2,140 3 '06 

4 

UIu Pandan do. 

4 3 09" 

' 5 

Bukit Panjang forest 

•• 


Reserve 

1 17 2 16! 

6 

10th mile post Bukit 



Timah Road (do). 

13 0 28 

7 

Chan Chu Kang Forest 

r 


Reserve ... 

49 0 00 ! 

8 

Toas Forest Reserve 

1,601 3 32! 

9 

S. Morai do. 

. 3H 1 05 

10 

S. Buloh do. ... 

770 2 l6j 

1 1 

Kranji do. 

756 0 32 

12 

Sembawang do. 

1,046 3 38 

13 

Mandai do. 

407 0 32 

14 

13th mile post Kranji 



Road (do). 

9 2 16 

l 


8,491 I 06 I 


Nature of Jungle. 


mostly swamp & 
lalang 
Do. 


All lalang and 
swamp with very 
little jungle 


and lalang 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Jungle & lalang 
Do. 

Do. 


nil 

c "O « 4) 

“ i*-s 

O m ^ . 
. 2 .5 00 

m sz ta ■o w 


Total, ... 


10 inspections 


22 

20 

4 


■5 

11 

8 

4 

1 

20 

8 

8 

20 


Total area: 3,5840. ir.35/. 
Three men in charge — Quar- 
ters behind Bukit Timah 
Police Station. One Sam- 
pan in order and sails com- * 
: plete. Kept at Kampong 
Ayer Terjun. 


u 

j 1 

| Total area ; 4906a 3?. 1 ip. 
j Three men in charge. Quar- 
| ters at 14th M. P. Kranji 
J*Road. One Sampan in order 
| and sails complete. Kept 
behind Forest quarters Kranji 
( river). 


145 inspections 


f Three arrests were made during this year for wood-cutting at Bukit Timah Forest Reserve. Total 
fines $24. 

* There was only one case of fire during the year 1898 and this was at jurong Forest Reserve where 5 
acres of lalang land were destroyed. 


3 

B. — Eastern Division. 


No. 

• Reserve. 

Nature of Jungle. 

Area. 

No. of Inspec- 

tions made by 
Forest Ranger 

during the year 

1898. 

No. of Bakau 

licences issued 

during the year 

1898 

No. of licences 

issued for other 

wood during the 

year 1898. 

No. of Arrests 

made during 

the year 1898. 

1 

Changi Reserve 

Big jungle, Bakau, 
Brushwood, and 
Lalang 

a. r. p. 

1,393 0 00 

27 


• 

... 




Remarks . — Forest Station on the 12th mile Changi Road. 
Two men in charge. 

One boat for inspection of rivers and mangrove swamps. 
There was no case of fire during the year. 



C. — Northern Division. 


No. 

Reserve. 

1 

Nature of Jungle, j 

Area. 

No. of Inspec- 
tions made 
during the year 
1898. 

No. of Arrests 
made during 
the year 1898. 

| 

f 

Remarks. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

Seletar Reserve 

Chan Chu Kang Re- 
serve 

Ang Mo Kio Reserve 

Sempang Reserve 

Jungle, lalang and 
bakau 

Jungle and lalang 
Jungle and la- 
lang 

Jungle 

a . r. p. 

1,492 1 08 

f 813 3 08 

296 0 02 
5 0 00 

XI 

7 

' 8 

5 

, 

: n 

Two men in charge. 

1 Quarters at 8* 
mile post, Thomp- 
son Road. A boat 
\ is kept at Sungei 
Seletar. 



Total ... 

1 2,607 0 18 

31 





There was a fire in August in the Chan Chu Kang Reserve where 30 acres of 
lalang and brushwood were burnt. The cause of this fire was discovered and one 
SohKah was summoned for mischief by fire. Case was dismissed owing to in- 
sufficient evidence from witness. The extension of Selctar Reserve was surveyed 
but not calculated. Acreage not known. 


* ***• 




0 


Reports on the Forest Reserves in the Settlement of 
Penang, for the year 1898. 


North-East District, Penang. 

STATEMENT OF AREAS. 







a. 

r. 

P • 

D. 

Government Hill, 

»> 

Lot 34' 
m J 34 

Mukim 

*s\ 

17J 

- 5,185 

0 

32 

E. 

Highlands, 

W 1 

' J) 

16 

252 

2 

3^> 

F. 

Penara Bukit, 

,, 3 2 

ff 

14 

233 

2 

3 1 

I. 

Part of Relau Hills, 

6o‘ and 6o" 

}) 

13 

18 

3 

32 


[Relau Reserve was proclaimed by Government Notification No. 249 of 1899.] 


1. Two Forest Guards, and two coolies have been employed throughout the year 
in clearing the boundaries and looking out for illicit timber cutting and encroachments. 

2. The boundary of. the whole of the Penara Bukit block was re-opened early in 
the year. This was, in parts, a work of considerable difficulty, as some pieces of 
the line had totally disappeared. 

3. The boundary from Penara Bukit down to Batu Feringgi has also been 
re-opened. This line had also disappeared in parts, and had to be re-opened by a 
Surveyor. Much of this work was very slow and laborious, the boundary being often 
lost in a dense growth of fern which it was no easy matter to remove. I am told that 
the boundary which runs up the valley under the Western Hill, below the coffee 
plantation, had never been cleared since it was originally laid. 

4. The boundary from Batu Feringgi to Tanjong Bunga is not yet altogether 
cleared, but wall be finished during the month. From Tanjong Bunga to the Hill 
Road, below the Half-Way House, the line required ^ery little clearing. From the 
Half-Way House to Penara Bukit, the boundary has been cleared when necessary 
during the year, and is now completely op*en. 

5. The boundary of the highlands reserve required no clearing. 

6. During some months of the year very little work could be done, owing t >* 4 
bad weather, and to the coolies suffering from fever. The men were also r, h 
hampered by the distance of their quarters at Penara Bukit from their work ; but 1 
have now obtained permission to build a hut near Batu Feringgi where the men can 

in future sleep while working in the neighbourhood. Another small house should be 
bulit near the road below the Half-Way House for the same purpose. There used to 
be a Forest Guard's house near the coolie-lines at the Half-Way House, but the 
proximity of the coolies rendered the place uninhabitable, and it has long been 
abandoned. 

7. There were 15 cases, mostly trifling, of. wood-cutting in the Reserves, in 13. 
of which the offenders were convicted and fined. There were no encroachments. 


5 


8. The attached Table will show the expenditure on the Reserves in the North- 
East District. 

9. The Revenue is of course nil, as all cutting is now absolutely prohibited, and 
there have been no planting operations. 

10. I inspected the different parts of the boundaries on the following dates, 
besides paying numerous visits to other parts of the Reserves : — • 

Penara Bukit Reserve. 

Upper Half, March 19th, June 18th and 24th. 

Lower Half, October 25th. 

Government Hill Reserve. 

From Penara Bukit to Half-Way House. November 3rd and 15th. 

Half-Way House to Tanjong Bunga. December 6th. 

Tanjong Bunga to Batu Feringgi. December 2nd and 16th. 

Batu Feringgi to Western Hill. November 20th. 

Western Hill to Batu Itam. November 19th. 

Batu Itam to Penara Bukit. December 30th. 

Highlands Reserve boundary. May 13th. 

n. A new Reserve on the tops of the Relau Hills has been created during the 
year. The boundaries of this block have not been opened yet, as the vote would not 
have stood the extra expense last year, but they will be taken in hand as soon as 
possible. 

G. A. HALL, 

Acting Collector of Land Revenue. 


Expenditure on Forest Reserves, during 1898. 

Salaries of Forest Guards, . ... $192.00 

Maintenance of Forest Reserves, (includes wages of 2 coolies, 

. purchase of tools &c.), ... ... 19^-54 

Total, ... $388.54 


South-West District, Penang. 


STATEMENT OF AREAS. 


A. 

Pantai Acheh, Lot 132 


a. 

3,208 

r. 

0 

00 P 

B. 

Telok Bahang, 174 


465 

2 

30 

C. 

„ _ 181 


380 

I 

36 

G. 

Genting Hill, ,, 247, 


21 

2 

14 

H. 

f Passer Panjang Hill, 27^ 
t Bukit Gemuruh, 190 j 

... 

201 

2 

04 


£ % 

Sir, — I have the honour to Feport as follows on the Forest Reserves of this 
District, and the “Forest operations” carried on in 1898. 

2. During the year under review, the number of Reserves has been increased 
by the establishment of a new one on Balik Pulau Hills, as recommended in Land 
As directed in that paper, Mr. Ridley, the Director of Botanical Gardens, 
visited this tract of jungle with me on 29th June, 1898, and, his report being favour- 
able, steps have since been taken to reserve the land in question. It will, however, 
I think, require re-survey and re-demarcation, as my Forest Staff are unable to find 
the correct boundary between this District and Mukim Paya Terubong in North- 
West District. I think also that it would be as well to publish a notice in the Gov- 


eminent Gazette proclaiming this area reserved. The path round this new Reserve 
has not yet been cleared, partly because the Forest Staff have been too busily 
engaged in clearing the other paths, and partly owing to the fact that the correct 
boundary is not yet clearly defined. I have visited the Reserve at various points on 
29th June, 1898, ( with Mr. Ridley, ) and again on 17th September, 1898, 23rd Septem- 
ber, 1898, and 17th November, 1898. I have found no recent traces of timber-cutting 
therein. The Hill in question is, in fact; so close to the village of Balik Pulau that 
I do not anticipate that there will be any great difficulty in guarding against trespass 
in this Reserve, since wood-stealers will hardly dare to carry on their operations practi- 
cally within sound of the District Office, and in momentary danger of being discovered. 

3. The other Reserves have been patrolled regularly by the Staff during the 
year and, by myself, on the dates given below : — 

Forest Reserve A, Pantai Acheh. — On 26th June, 1898, 8th July, 1898, and 
10th December, 1898. 

Forest Reserve B, Bukit Laksamana. — On 23rd January, 1898, with the Hon’ble 
Resident Councillor, and on 17th February, 1898, 7th October, 1898, and 
19th November, 1898. 

Forest Reserve C , Telok Bahang. — On 25th June, 1898. 

Forest Reserve G, Ginting Hills. — On nth February, 1898, 3rd November, 1898, 
and 3rd December, 1898. 

Forest Reserve H, Pasir Panjang and Bukit Gemuruh. — On 8th May, 1898, 10th 
June, 1898, 26th July, 1898, nth September, 1898, 3rd November, *898, 
and 3rd December, 1898. 

4. 1 he work of clearing the paths has been going on continuously throughout 
the year, but I have been unable to get right round the Pantai Acheh Reserve, about 
1 ^ miles of path on the South-East being unpassable until late in December, when 
I had no time to visit the Reserve. This was not in any way the fault of the Forest 
Guards. They cleared the whole path during the year, but as they began on the 
South, that portion grew up again during the year and had to be re-opened. I have, 
however, visited the Reserve in question at various points in the neighbourhood of 
Pantai Acheh Village Site, when there is the greatest risk of trespass, and am glad 
to say that there are far fewer traces of wood-stealing than in former years. The 
apparently regularly used paths leading into this Reserve which I mentioned in my 
report for 1897 have been blocked, and none of the fences put up have been removed. 
It would seem therefore that the Chinamen of this village site are beginning to realize 
the fact that the Reserve in question is to be kept inviolate and that any trespass 
upon it will be severely punished. They have in consequence confined their atten- 
tions to the Crowm Land in the neighbourhood. As this Reserve is the most impor- 
tant one in the District, I have had it more closely watched than the others whose 
comparatively inaccessible positions preclude any extensive wood-stealing from them, 
and the result has been on the whole satisfactory. 

5 I attach a list of the number of cases of illicit timber cutting in the Reserves 
brought before me during the year. There were only six cases, and though I would 
not say that no other theft of wood has taken place in the Reserves, I think that this 
list accounts for the majority of the cases of trespass during the year. At any rate, 
in my visits to each Reserve, I have been able to discover no further traces of the 
removal of timber, and I have been round all the boundaries with the exception of a 
small strip of path on the boundary of Forest Reserve A. 

6. The remarkable increase also in the number of passes taken out for cutting 
wood in Crown Land goes far, I think, to shew, that less timber has been removed 
illegitimately. I he sum recovered under this head in 1898 was $906.03, as compared 
with $563.62 in 1896, and $59445 in 1897. I know of no reason for the use of mo 
wood during 1898 by the people of this District, and I think, therefore, that some u . 
the increase represents the value of wood which would have been stolen under other 
circumstances. The Forest Ranger and his Staff have worked very well rliroughout 
the year and as they have been continually visiting the various Reserves, they have 
made extensive w'ood-stealing unsafe if not impossible. 

7. The work of clearing the boundaries has been an arduous one for the Staff, 
the rapid overgrowth having necessitated a second clearing of the majority of the 
paths at the end of the year, and it is unfortunate that their other work renders it 
impossible for the Forest Guards to do more actual guarding. There are in this 
District two Forest Guards, and two coolies engaged in clearing. They are all per- 
manently stationed as before in Telok Bahang, the more important Reserves in this 
District being situated in the North-West of the island. They pay occasional sur- 


7 


prise visits to the Reserves in the South of the island, but are engaged most of their 
time in the neighbourhood of Telok Bahang. The greater part of the remaining 
Crown Land lies in this direction, and the time of one of the Forest Guards is almost 
entirely occupied in inspecting passes for wood-cutting on Crown Land and in ex- 
amining the wood cut, to make sure that it is not in excess of that provided /or in 
the pass. I fear that the new Reserve on Balik Pulau Hills will still further occupy 
their time in clearing, and that they will thus have less leisure than before for what 
is their proper duty, i.e. } patrolling and guarding the Reserves. If more coolies could 
be engaged for the necessary work of clearing the paths, the Forest Guards would 
be able to devote themselves exclusively to patrolling the Reserves. Unfortunately, 
however, there is no money available for the engagement of other coolies, and the 
Forest Guards have to do both duties as best they can. I think that at least one 
extra coolie should be employed for clearing the Forest Reserve boundaries in 1899. 

m. s. h. mcarthur, 

Acting District Officer. 


Cases of Illicit Timber-cutting in Forest Reserves. 


Case No. 

Name. 

Forest 

Reserve. 

Conviction. 

Remarks. 

D. C. 38/98. 

C 1 . Secunder 

L 2. Jamsah 

h 

\ c 

1 

Imprisonment. 

f 1. 4 months’ R. I. 
h 2. 3 weeks’ R. I. 

„ 40/98. 

f 1. Peechay 

C2. Towshy 

|j 

i A - 

... 

Cautioned & discharg- 
ed. 

Fined $5 each. 

» 1 73 / 98 . 

f 1. Tin Ah Ngi ... 

L 2. Leong Ah Ham 

i 

r H - 

Fine. 

„ 187/98. 

Loh Ah Ngim 

H. 

Fine. 

$50 fined. 

S. C. 72. 

Lim Aw Foon 

H. 

Fine. 

§25 and cost. 

S. C. 104. 

Low Ah Yin 

H. 

Fine. 

$50 and cost. 


Northern District, P. W. 

1. There are two Forest Reserves in this District, one at Tassek Glugor and the 
other at Ara. Kuda, the former is 3,055 acres in extent, and the latter 562 acres. 

2. I took over the duties of Senior District Officer only at the end of November, 
so that 1 have not had time except just to visit them, but the Forest Ranger has visited 
them on an average about once a week, and there is one Forest Guard who lives close 
at hand and looks after both of them. 

v- — 3. Two lalang fires took place in Tassek Glugor Reserve during the year but no 
f ytaiber was burnt. The fires are supposed to have originated by passers along the 
' road by the Reserve carelessly throwing away matches, but no one was caught. No 
fire took place in the Ara Kuda Reserve. 

4. There are very few valuable timber trees in the Reserves and no planting 

has been attempted. 

* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


# 


* 


* 


-* 


* 


* 


* 


6. There were no prosecutions during the year for illicit timber cutting or other 
offences in the Reserves. 


W. C. M 1 CHELL, 
Senior District Officer . 


8 


led in 

the 

Government 

a. 

r. 

A 

1 12 

0 

04 

162 

2 

01 

525 

0 

10 

6 

1 

16 

5 

1 

00 

70 

2 

37 

3 

2 

03 

34 i 

0 

02 

Assistant 

Forest Ran- 


Central District, P. W. 

1. The Forest Reserves in the Central District as no 
Gazette of 5th June, 1896, are five in number, viz. : — 

1. Bukit Seraya, Lots 679 and 680, Mukim XVII 

2. Bukit Mertajam, Lot 815, Mukim XVII 

3. Juru Hill, Lots 542 and 454,, Mukim XII 

4. Bukit Gajah Mati, Lot 637, Mukim XVI 

» >> 638 >„ 

}> 654 ,, 

• 5. Kubang Ulu Experimental Gardens, Lot 394 
‘ Mukim XX 

To these has since been added — 

6. Bukit Goa Ipoh, Lot 410, Mukim XX 

2. The Reserves were visited the Forest Ranger am 
ger, forty times during the year. I visited the Bukit Mertajam, Juru, and Bukit Seraya 
Reserves three times each, and Gajah Mati once. The Experimental Gardens at 
Kubang Ulu (a small plot of land by the road side) and the Goa Ipoh Reserve were 
visited at frequent intervals both by myself and the Forest Rangers. 

3. In six cases, prosecutions were instituted for unlawful cutting of timber, 
chiefly in the Juru Reserve. Only two of these cases were of any importance. In 
one of them a Chinese Towkay of Bukit Tambun had taken out a timber pass to cut 
wood on unreserved land and had begun operations in an out of the way part of the 
Juru Reserve. He was convicted and fined the maximum penalty of ^roo. 

4. Juru Reserve is the only one in which there is any danger of illicit timber 
cutting. It is much larger than the others and there is more valuable timber in it. 
It is, moreover, possible to cut and remove timber from it without much difficulty. 
The other Reserves being for the most part merely the crowns of steep hills whose 
lower slopes are fully cultivated, it is impossible to cut timber in them without im- 
mediate detection, or to remove the timber when cut without great difficulty. 

5. In the early part of the year, before the minute of His Honour the Officer 
Administering the Government forbidding all timber passes in the Forest Reserves 
was received, three passes for timber in the Juru Reserve were issued to the Public 
Works Department in connection with the building of the Bukit Minyak Bridge. No 
other passes have been issued since. 

6. The boundaries of the Reserve have been fairly kept clean by the owners of 
the adjacent lands. 

7. The Experimental Gardens at Kubang Ulu were visited also by Mr. Curtis 
of the Penang Gardens. There are many trees of mahogany growing there, with 
some teak, rubber and eucalyptus trees. The planting is much too close and the 
trees, which have now attained a fair size, are likely to be choked for want of breath- 
ing space. As it stands, and unless some use is to be made of the young trees, the 
Reserve is merely ornamental. 

8. Bukit Goa Ipoh Reserve includes a large extent of waste land at the foot of 
the hill, at present covered with lalang. Frequent fires during the dry season help 
the growth of the lalang by preventing forest trees from taking root and growing. 

I received many applications for land in this Reserve, all of which had to be refused. 
The utility of reserving this land is rather doubtful. 

F, J. HALLIFAX, 

District Officer. 


Southern District, P. W, 

STATEMENT OF AREAS. 

• a, 

Bukit Panchor ... ... • L 5 00 


S IR I have the honour to report on the Forest Reserve in the Southern Dis- 
trict in 1898. 


9 


r. The Forest Reserve has remained untouched during 1898. No cases of 
timber cutting have been discovered. ^ * * 

3. The Reserve has been watched throughout the year by a Forest Guard. It 
has been visited regularly by the Forest Ranger. 

4. The District Officer paid two visits to the Reserve during the year. 

5. No fires occurred during 1898. 

6. No planting operations were undertaken. 

7. No applications for timber were received. 

R. J. FARRER, 


The Dindings. 

STATEMENT OF AREAS. 

1. Lumut 

2. Pangkor 

3. Tanjong Hantu ... 

4. Gunong Tunggal 

f Bukit Segari ... ... ••• 1 

^'t.Telok Sera . .. 

6. Tanjong Burong 


District Officer. 


a. 

900 

1,250 

400 

700 

1,600 

450 


The Reserves have been regularly patrolled and the boundaries periodically 

cleared during the year. . . ' , 

No fires occurred and no cases of timber cutting or theft of jungle produce in 

the reserved areas were reported. . _ . , 

The head-quarters of the Forest Guards have remained as in 1697, viz., at Lumut 

(2), for watching the Lumut, Pangkor and Tanjong Hantu Reserves; at Bruas (3). 
Tanjong Burong, Telok Sera and Segari; and at Beting Luas (2), for Gunong 

Tunggal- sen( . staff of G uarc ] s may be considered adequate for supervising the 
actual Reserves and preventing the felling of tinnber and the theft-except on a very 
petty scale— of Jungle produce ; but it is certainly insufficient to check effectually the 
constant pilfering of small timber, rotans, getah, etc., which goes 011 in Crown Jungles- 
other than the Reserves in all parts of the. Territory, The care of the Reserves alone 
more than occupies the whole time of the Forest Guards, and the net result of their 
efforts during the past 12 months was 47 arrests, a figure which probably does not 
represent more than 5% of the actual number of offences committed In my opinion 
the present strength of the Forest Staff should be doubled, and Stations established 
at Pangkor, Tanjong Hantu, Segari and Sungei Rotan A Station at Sunge. Rotan 
is absolutely necessary if that district is to be properly looked after; to reach it, the 
Guards must, under existing conditions, walk 74 miles from their nearest head-quar- 
ters at Pangkalan Bharu, and must cover the same distance again on their return in 
the evening; they can hardlv be expected to execute any very energetic patrol under 
the circumstances. The place, which is traversed by the trunk-road from Roping to 
‘ Chcndrono- Klubi, offers perhaps greater facilities than any other portion of the 1 erri- 
> '’"Xtorv for the illicit removal of timber, etc., into Perak. The small sum, however, 

S, /which it was requested should be inserted for this purpose in the current estimates 

was disallowed, as was also the suggestion that a small vote ($50 was named) should 
be allotted annually for the maintenance of Forest Reserves At present there is not 
a single dollar available with which to meet any incidental expenditure connected 
with Forest work here, e. g., the salving of timber which has been felled, but aban- 
doned in the Jungle, and which, if brought to Lumut or Bruas and sold by auction, 
would more than repay the expense involved in its transport. It should also be men- 
tioned that the Guards, although one of their chief duties is to keep the Reserve boun- 
daries clear of undergrowth, are not even provided with “ parangs for the purpose 
Another point to which I would call attention is the necessity of providing the 
Guards with uniforms, as is done in Perak ; hitherto they have not been supplied even 
with a badge to denote their authority, and small blame could be attached to any 


i 


IO 


individual who, under the circumstances, might decline to recognize it. In view of 
the fact that nearly 70 per cent, of the total revenue of the Dindings (apart from 
licences) is derived from its forests, it seems neither politic nor reasonable to stint 
the Department in such matters as these which, though they call for a most moderate 
outlay, are yet indispensable to the proper organization of forest conservancy. 

The timber revenue here has more than trebled during the last four years, the 
figures being as follows :■ — 


1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 


$3,990.26 

7 > 1 79 - 5 ° 

9,824.67 

15^75-83 


The Tanjong Burong Firewood Farm, which had been closed in 1897 in conse- 
quence of the Farmer persisting in cutting down trees of a diameter less than that 
permitted by his Agreement, was re-let early in the year to a new holder under much 
stricter conditions than before. Under the previous contract, the rent was $60 pei 
month and the Farmer might employ 100 coolies; the present contract fixes the 
monthly rent at $80 and reduces the number of coolies to 60, the minimum diameter, 
of the trees which it is now permitted to cut is 8 inches. 

The contract expires at the end of 1899, and I understand that it is not the in- 
tention of Government to renew it. 

In accordance with instructions issued last year, the dates on which the several 
Reserves were personally inspected by me are attached, vis . : 


Lumut. 

June 25th. 

J uly 1 6th > 
October 10th. 


Pangkor. 

May 2 1 st. 

June 23rd. 
September 16th. 
October 15th. 
December 13th. 


Tanjong Hantu. 

January 14th. 
January 19th. 
January 20th. 
September 23rd. 
December 21st. 


Telok Sera. 

June 2nd. 

July 13th. 

July 27th. 
August 17th. 
September 28th. 
October 13th. 
November 16th. 
November 23rd. 
December 7th. 


Bukit Sega ri. Gu nong T u ngga I . 

May 22nd. July 9th. 

July 27th. October 1st. 

August 17th. 

Sept. 28th and 29th. 

November 16th. 

November 23rd. 

December 7th. 


Tanjong Burong. 
July 22nd. 
December 12th, 
(and brief inspec 
tions weekly). 


In addition to the above, numerous casual visits were paid to every Reserve, 
except Gunong Tunggal, the isolated position of which makes it very difficult of 

access* 

A shelter-hut was built for the Guards at Sungei Panchor in September, and a 
sampan has also been provided for use in the same locality. 


R. P. GIBBES, 

Acting District Officer. Dindings. 


Lumut, 6th March, 1899. 


Report on the Forest Reserves in the Seltlement 
of Malacca, for the year 1898, 


Resident Councillor’s Office, 
Malacca , 26th June , i8gg. 


SIR, — I have the honour to forward herewith the reports of the Collector of Land 
Revenue and the District Officers at Alor Gajah and Jasin, on the Forest Reserves of 
their District during 1898. 

2. The two chief events of the year as affecting the Reserves were : — 

(i) The closing of the Reserves by direction of His Honour the Officer Adminis- 

tering the Government on 8th August. 

(ii) 1'he enlargement of the Bukit Bruang Reserve by 2,715 acres. 

3. Prior to the closing order permits to cut timber were issued to the Public 
Works Department, Government Contractors and others. The permits issued to the 
Public Works Department were for timber required for Government buildings, repair 
of bridges, etc., and were granted free. Other recipients of passes paid tenths of the 
value of the timber. The trees were cut under the supervision of the District Offi- 
cers. The system was initiated and carried on by the Forest Department until its 
abolition in 1894. 

4. The enlargement of the Bukit Bruang Reserve is a very good thing. The 

additional land consists of small scrub and lalang but' will soon be covered with trees 
if carefully guarded from fires. The whole of this reserve is within easy reach of the 
town and any good descriptions of timber in it will therefore always be of consider- 
able value. * 

An increase in the staff of Forest Guards was asked for during the year in 
order to more efficiently preserve the reserves from illicit cutting. It was decided 
that the present establishment was adequate for the purpose. 

6. A small vote was however granted, for the present year, for the establish- 
ment of a nursery of forest trees. This is to be situated in the Bukit Bruang Reserve 
under the control of the Collector of Land Revenue and the special supervision of the 
Resident Councillor. It should be possible in a few years to plant up a large area of 
this reserve with valuable timber for the use of future generations. The reserve now 
contains a number of trees fit for felling and it would, in my opinion, be well if in this 
and the other reserves, a certain amount of timber were allowed to be felled for the 
use of Government and others. 

7. My annual administration report, paragraphs 253 to 264, a copy of which is 
attached, deals with Forest Reserve matters. 

8. I enclose a map of the Settlement showing the reserves as they existed prior 
to the appointment of Mr. CantleY as Superintendent, as they were then reformed 
in 1883-1888 and as they are now. 

The areas at the three periods are : — 


• 

Before 1883, 

t888. 

1899. 

Bukit Bruang 

... , ...- Nil. 

L734 

6,174 

Brisu and S. Siput 

3,89c. 

2,247 

5,268 

Bukit Panchor 

2,880 

3,640 

3.356 

Sungei Udang 

1,980 

4,800 

4.392 

Ayer Panas 

1,950 

3.9°° 

3.242 

Merlimau 

•.. 2,000 

6,000 

6,217 

Bukit Senggeh 

25,000# 

12,000 

9,429 

Bukit Sedanan 

... 


1 L353 


Total ... 37,700 

34.321^ 

49.431 

9. Since the reserves 

were surveyed in 1885, 

probably quite fifty 


acres. 


acres of large unreserved forest have been felled for tapioca and other cultivation. 
On the other hand land then worked out and abandoned has again become covered 


* D . — Paragraphs 253 to 264 of Malacca Administration Report for 1898. 
E . — Not printed. 

(a) A very incorrect estimate. 

(b) See Administration Report, 1888. Paragraphs 213 and 2x4, 


. B. and C. 


D. 

E. 


12 

with young trees and if the present system of reserve belts round large holdings is 
strictly maintained, all abandoned lands should quickly revert to forest. This rewood- 
ing by nature of abandoned lands may be seen going on all over the Settlement 
except in those localities where long stretches of lalang, unbroken by any belts of 
timber, have been allowed to become established. These are perpetuated, and only 
perpetuated, by the continual recurrence of fires, some caused by the careless light- 
ing of roadside fires, by cart-men cooking their meals but too often by deliberate firing 
in order that the young lalang springing up afterwards may form a grazing ground 
for cattle. Such wanton mischief almost always escapes unpunished, it being ap- 
parently beyond the powers of Police or Forest Officers to detect the offenders in the 
sparsely populated districts where they occur. 

* p t j an d 2 io. Attached to this report will be found extracts from previous reports giving 

and 4 to i2. information concerning the various reserves, the trees they contain, planting done in 
them and other matters which I have thought it may be convenient to collect and 
re-publish. I propose during the present year to endeavour to locate the plantations 
made prior to the abolition of the Forest Department and where the trees are found 
to have survived to have the plantations surveyed and a register compiled of them. 

ii. I hope that in the near future the Forest Department, abolished on the re- 
commendations of the Retrenchment Committee of 1893, may be re-established and 
placed under a responsible Officer. The Officer required however is a Forest Officer 
pure and simple for the conservation and improvement of the Forest Reserves * * * 


* F 1. —Paragraph 66 of Report on the Forests of the Straits Settlements for 1882. 
p 2 . — Paragraph 112 of Report on the Forests of the Straits Settlements for 1882. 

/.' 4,. — Paragraph 32 of Malacca Administration Report, 1881. 

Paragraphs 44, 45 and 46 of Malacca Administration Report, 1882. 

Paragraph 39 of Malacca Administration Report, 1883. 

Paragraph 80 of Malacca Administration Report, 1884. 

Paragraphs 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, too, 101, 106 of Malacca Administration Report, 1885. 

Paragraph 53 of Malacca Administration Report, 1886. 

Paragraphs 212 and 215 of Malacca Administration Report, 1888. 

Paragraphs 131'and 134 of Malacca Administration Report, 1889. 

Paragraphs 121 and 126 of Malacca Administration Report, 1891. 

Paragraphs 94 and 97 of Malacca Administration Report, 1892. 

Paragraph 73 of Malacca Administration Report, 1893. 

Paragraphs 66, 67, 68 and 71 of Malacca Administration Report, 1894. 

Paragraph 81 of Malacca Administration Report, 1895. 

Paragraph 106 of Malacca Administration Report, 1896. 

Paragraph 143 of Malacca Administration Report, 1897. 

p ^ Paragraphs 51 and 52 of Malacca Administration Report 1886. 

Par 'graph 224 of Malacca Administration Report, 1888. 

Paragraph 126 of Malacca Administration Report, 1889. 

Paragraphs 119 and 121 of Malacca Administration Report, 1890. 

Paragraph 7 of Mr. Ridley’s Report, 1890. 

F6 - Paragraphs 68, 69, 71 and 72 of Malacca Administration Report, 1884. 

Paragraphs 98 and 103 of Malacca Administration Report, 1885. 

Paragraph 50 of Mr. CANTLEY’s Report, 1886. 

Paragraphs 46, 54 and 55 of Malacca Administration Report, 1886. 

Paragraph 216 of Malacca Administration Report, 1888. 

Paragraph 132 of Malacca Administration Report, 1889. 

Paragraph 130 of Malacca Administration Report, 1890. 

Paragraphs 27 and 29 of Mr. Derry’s Report, 1890. 

Paragraph 95 of Malacca Administration Report, 1892. 

Paragraphs 80 and 82 of Malacca Administration Report, 1895. 

Mr. Ridley's Report in Malacca 5196/96. 

F 7. Paragraph 93 of Malacca Administration Report 1885. 

Paragraphs 43 and 47 of Mr. Cantlky's Report, 1886. 

Pa agraph 48 of Malacca Administration Report, 1886, -s 

Paragraphs 221 and 222 of Malacca Administration Report, _ / 

F 8. * Paragraph 93 of Malacca Administration Report, l88 5- 

Paragraphs 43, 47 and 51 of Mr. Cantley’s Report, 1886. , 

Paragraph 49 of Malacca Administration Report, 1886. 

Paragraphs 217 and 218 of Malacca Administration Report, 188S. 
p g . — Paragraphs 73 and 79 of Malacca Administration Report, 1884. 

Paragraph 43 of Mr. Cantley’s Report, 1886. 

Paragraph 47 of Malacca Administration Report, 188D. 

Paragraph 220 of Malacca Administration Report, i8b» 
p 10— Paragraph 79 of Malacca Administration Report, 1884. 

Paragraph 43 of Mr. Cantley’s Report, 1886. 

Paragraph 223 of Malacca Administration Report, 1000, 

F 11. — Paragraph 93 of Malacca Administration Report, 1885. 

Paragraph 43 of Mr. Cantley’s Report, 1886. 

Paragraph 50 of Mrlacca Administration Report, i8»0. 

Paragraph 219 of Malacca Administration Report, 1800. 

Paragraph 35 of Mr. Derry’s Report, 1890. 
p 12 . — Paragraph 214 of Malacca Administration Report, 1888. 

Paragraph 129 of Malacca Administration Report, 1890. 


i3 


* * * * * * 

12. I thoroughly agree with the remarks 

istration Report for 1894 ' 

“ There is much 'to be said in favour of a nursery in connection with a Forest 
u Department but the attempt to keep up . a Botanical Garden was a failure. Half 
;f the money voted for forests was spent in the Garden and the time of the Superin- 
“ tendent taken up in trying to grow plants in a sterile soil.” 

13. From my own experience and the perusal of the reports on my predeces- 
sors and of Forest Officers, I place the uses of the Forest Reserves in this Settlement 
in the following order : — 

! st. — By far the most valuable. The preservation of the sources of the numerous 
small streams which flow from the hill ranges over which the greater part of the 

Reserves stretch. . , . 

2nd. — The maintenance of the average rainfall. I do not think the area 01 the 
Settlement and the addition to the Forest Land of the Reserves in it are large enough 
to materially affect this. 

^rd. — Provision of timber for local use in the Districts adjacent to the Reserves. 

4th. — Supply of valuable timber for export. 

14. In concluding this report I would call attention to the advisability of pass- 

ing a Forest Ordinance similar to the Ceylon (( Forest Ordinance 1885 ■ I attach a 
rough draft of such an ordinance drawn up by the Honourable C. W. S. KyNNERSLEY, 
C.m g, Resident Councillor of Penang, who was in charge of this Settlement for the 
first two months of this year during my absence on leave, to whom I am also indebt- 
ed for the collection of much of the information, culled from old reports, con- 
tained in Appendix “ F” _ ^ 

15. Appendix “ //” * gives the Expenditure on and Revenue from the Reserves 

in each District during 1898. The totals for the Settlement are : 

Expenditure, ... >•« ••• ^ i j4^5*48 

Revenue, ... ... ••• 37 [, 86 

Net Expenditure, ... • $1,113.63 

I have, &c., 

WALTER EGERTON, 

Acting Resident Councillor. 


A. 

Land Office, 
Malacca , 3rd March, i8gg. 

Sir —I have the honour to report as follows on the working of the Forest 
Department in the Central District during the year 1898. 

2. The only Reserve under the Laud Office— Bukit Bruang was largely added 
to during the year. The original area was 3,459 acres and the additional land taken 
in, in two lots, 2,715 acres. The land round the Water Works which some years 
ago consisted largely of lalang appears now to be better covered with scrub and the 
lalang should soon disappear altogether. 

3. There have been from time to time Nurseries of rubber and other trees started 
in the Reserve, two of these are doing well and are looked after by the Mandor at 
the Reservoir, a third had been somewhat neglected but is now being taken in hand 
again. 

4. The Reserve is looked after by a Corporal and one Guard. One unsuccess- 
ful prosecution took place of a Chinaman who was supposed to have set fire to some 
scrub on the edge of the Reserve when clearing round a grave on adjacent land. 

5. No cutting is allowed in the Reserve and there is no Revenue. 

The Expenditure was : — 

Salaries ... • ■- $192.00 

Rice Allowance ... ■ 36.00 

Other Charges (Maintenance of Forest Reserves) 94.15 

$ 3 22 -*5 


* * * * * 
of Mr. KyNNERSLEY in his Admin- 


G. — Not printed. 

H , — Not printed. 


[ 4 


6. The Reserve at Bukit Bruang was visited on the 3rd February, 22nd July, 
and 26th August, and the Reserve at Sungei Udang on the 13th March, (with the 
District Officer, Alor Gajah). There were several other visits to the Bukit Bruang 
Reserve and Bukit Sebukor gardens, of the dates of which no record has been kept. 

I have, &c., 

L. A. M. JOHNSTON, 
Acting Collector of Land Revenue. 


B 

District Office, 
Alor Gajah. 

, 1. Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report on the Forest opera- 
tion during the year 1898. 

Bukit P anchor. 


2. A Corporal and a Constable are in charge. The lines are kept clear. I in- 
spected this reserve on 3rd January, 2nd March, roth June and 28th July, besides visit- 
ing it incidentally on several other occasions. 

3. The crop of the durian orchards in the reserve were sold for $137.50 and 
that of the duku orchards for $70. 

In addition to this $25.08 was collected on account of jungle produce. 

4. No illicit timber cutting was discovered in the Reserve during the year. 

Sungei Udang , 

5. There are a Corporal and a Constable in charge. The lines have all been re- 
opened and staked out. At the back of the reserve where there is a large quantity 
of Ialang, one encroachment was. discovered which has been reported on to Govern- 
ment. 

6. I inspected this reserve, on 20th January, 13th March, 17th May, 21st Sep- 
tember and 7th November. 

7. A considerable amount of wood was discovered to have been cut on the edge 
of the reserve near the road in the earlier part of the year, and the Forest Guards who 
had been evidently conniving at it, were dismissed. It was decided not to prosecute 
in this case. 

8. A road contractor was prosecuted and fined for cutting timber in the reserve 

9. There was collected $6.05. 

Brisu -Su ngei Siput. 

10. There are no Guards in charge of this reserve. The lines are entirely over- 
grown and it is impossible to inspect it except where it skirts the road. There were 
no prosecutions for timber cutting in this reserve during the year. 

General . 

11. The total revenue of the Forest Reserves was $238.63 made up as follows:— 

Bukit Panchor-Jungle produce, . ... ... $25.08 

Sungei Udang do., ... ... ... 6.05 * 

Fruits at Bukit Panchor auctioned, ... ... 207.50 


$238.62 


12. Total expenditure was $461, of which salaries accounted for $432, $26 for 
uniform and $3 for implements. 

I have, &c., 

H. MARRIOTT, 
Acting District Officer . 

10th January , i 8 gg. 


i5 

c 


District Office, 

Jasin , 4th January , 1899 . 

1 have the honour to submit the Annual Report on the Administration 

and Maintenance of the Forest Reserves in the Jasin District during 1898. 

1 The expenditure on the Vote for Maintenance amounted to $02.04, the vote 

being $100, and was distributed as follows: — 

Wages of two' coolies clearing lines of Merlimau Forest Reserve at 
^$7 per month from the 5th September ■ • • $ 5 2 -97 

Tools... ... 9.07 

The Forest Guard is now paid from the Vote for Personal Emoluments. 

2. It is impossible to say what amount of Revenue . was derived from the 
Forests before instructions were received that no further timber felling or jungle 
produce collection was to be allowed, as the receipts are mixed up with those ol the 
various penghulus for tenths on jungle produce. In future there will be no revenue 

derived from this source. , . . r 

3 Batang Malaka : — This Reserve which was formerly under the charge of 

the Corporal at Bukit Senggeh has been guarded this year by a Lance Corporal who 
was added to the establishment and one Guard transferred from Bukit Senggeh. 
They have under their charge the Batang Malaka Reserve and the Northern boundary 
line of the Bukit Sedanan Reserve. I visited this reserve in September, and found 
that good progress had been made in clearing the boundary paths which were rather 
overgrown with “ semak” and “resam," as the Reserve had been much too tar from 
the Corporal’s quarters to permit of efficient supervision. The boundary line to the 
North has never been opened up as the Reserve abuts on the unsettled boundary 
with the Negri Sembilan. From the Negri Sembilan side of the range which consti- 
tutes this Reserve, the timber in the distance has every appearance of being good. 
The nature of the ground is a protection in itself against illicit timber cutting and the 
timber as far as I could judge is good. At “ Gapis " there is a “ Mentra” settlement 
on a hill top inside the Reserve ; these people were allowed to remain on their old 
squatting oroun'd when the forest was reserved and have^ made no further extension 
of the ground cleared. There are a large number of pisangs and other fruit trees 

planted. £ en gg eh — This Reserve has been as hitherto under the charge of 

Corpora! AsaN, but there is now only one Guard instead of two, one man being 
transferred to Batang Malaka. The forest to be preserved is of very large extent, 
comprising the Bukit Senggeh Reserve and nearly the whole of the Bukit Sedanan 
Reserve I visited this reserve also in September, devoting a day to each part ot 
it. The boundary paths of the Bukit Sedanan Reserve are all fairly clear and there 
is some good timber, but in places it is very inferior. On the Bukit Senggeh side, 
the boundary path to the South requires re-opening as it has got overgrown ; in 
places it runs through “ lalang ” which adds to the difficulty of picking up the line. 
During the small-pox outbreak at Bukit Senggeh three of the sick people were • con- 
vey ed°so me way into this Reserve and hidden there for some days before they could 

be traced. . . T 

5. Ayer Panas.— The same men as last year were 111 charge here, ?. e., a Lance 

Corporal and one Guard. I visited the Western portion in January ar.d again m 
October. On the latter occasion 1 also went through the Eastern half. I he paths are 
clear and much more numerous than in the other Reserves, the ground being level 
and paths having been. cut intersecting the forest. The timber, as has been remarked 
in former years, is poor. 

6. Merlimau. — A Lance Corporal and one Guard were allotted to this Reserve, 
beino- an addition to the strength. Owing to the Forest Station being occupied by 
Public Works Department’s coolies, the men did not take charge until the beginning 
of June when ne.w coolie lines had been built. The first work to be done was to 
clear the boundary paths which had been almost completely overgrown. In August 
I v’ sited the Reserve to see what progress had been made in the work. I found that 
on the Southern side most of the path runs through deep swamp and is almost impassable 
as the tree trunks which were laid down by the old Forest Department were all 
submerged and rotted. In consequence of this two coolies were engaged in Septem- 
ber to assist in getting the lines cleared, and when I again visited the Reserve m 
October fair progress had been made on the Northern and Western sides. It will 
however be necessary to obtain extra help again next year. The Chohong River is 


1 / 

bo 





the Eastern boundary and is much choked; this river is, I understand, to be cleared 
next year in connection with the revision of the Muar boundary. I attempted to get 
a “ jalor” for the use of the Guard, but could not obtain a suitable one for the amount 
authorised ; another attempt will be made next year. 

7. Below will be found a tabulated statement of prosecutions for trespass and 
illicit cutting in the Reserves, none of the cases were serious, the object generally 
being to cut Umbai, rattan, etc. ; in most cases more than one man was involved ; — 



No. of Cases Convictions. 

Number 

involved. 

Remarks. 

Batang Malaka 

1 1 

3 

“ Ejok Cutting.'’ 

Bukit Senggeh 

3 ; 2 

4 


Ayer Panas 

2 | 1 

2 


Merlimau 

3 ! 3 

9 

< 


The total fines paid were' $30.70. 

Before the closing of the Reserves to cutting, the contractor building the New 
Office and Police Station obtained $ 196.50 worth of timber for those buildings from 
the Ayer Panas and Merlimau Reserves and paid $49.13 as royalty. 

8. The timber in places is good, notably at Batang Malaka and Merlimau, 
but in the latter there are numerous traces of illicit cutting which took place during 
the withdrawal of the Guard ; it appears indeed to me that if the Forest Department 
was re-established on its old basis and timber was properly thinned, the cost of the 
establishment could be at all events partly defrayed by the revenue which would be 
obtained.* At present the Forest Ranger has no time to inspect the Reserves 
and the District Officer can only make very occasional, somewhat cursory and lay 
inspections, this has been frequently brought to notice in former reports. 


1 have, &c., 


R. SCOTT, 
District Officer, 


* By such a system as this the Government could obtain good timber, stock it until seasoned and hand 
it over to its contractors. In this way the use of green timber in new buildings would be avoided and the 
durability of the work increased. 






APPENDIX F III. 

Tabular statement showing area of Forest Reserves in 1882, Mr. Cantley’s recommendations, the action taken on them, the resulting Forest 

Reserves, subsequent modifications and the Forest Reserves as they uow exist. 


Reserve. 

Area prior to 1882 and 
Mr. Cantley’s report. 

Mr. Cantley’s recommend- 
ations. 

. 1 

Action taken on recommend- 
ations. 

Area in 1883-1888. 

Subsequent Alterations. 

Existing Area. 

Jus and Bukit Senggeh 
(includes reserve now 1 
known As Batang Ma- ! 
laka.) 

25,000a squatters and villa- 
ges within the reserve. 

Re-adjust so as to exclude 
villages and squatters' 
holdings. 

Carried out in 1887-1888. 

Uncertain. From Admin- 
istration Report 1888 
para. 213-214 about 
12,000 acres. 

Part alienated for tapioca 
planting and pother land 
kdded. 

20,782 

Kesang or Ayer Panas, ... 


Add 2,000 acres at M. on 
map. 

Acres added. Name altered 
to Ayer Panas. 

I 

3,900 

500 acres alienated for tapi- 
oca in 1894 and some 
for tin Mining later. 

3-242 

Merlimau (or Payah Ge- 
mok.) 

2,000 

Double area by adding at 
N or 0. 

Carried out. About 600 of 
old reserve cut out and 
1,500 acres added at N, 
and 2,500 acres at 0. 

6,000 

Much larger than proposed 
by Mr. Cantley. 

. 

6,217 

Gading or Bukit Panchor. 
(Also called lyialaka 
Pindah by Mr. Cant- 
ley). 

1 

ta 

bo 

Worthless. Should take in 
Panchor Hill range. 

Carried out. Most of old 
reserve abandoned and 
new one formed. Name 
altered to Bukit Panchor. 

3,640 

Not traced. 

3,356 

Sungei Siput, 

3,890 

Only requires protection. 
Add land at V, and J. 
on East. 

Portion of old reserve aban- 
doned and land added 
at East and North. 

2,247 

Not traced. 

5-268 

Bukit Bruang, 

* ) 

Nil. 

Make a reserve of 2,000 acres 
at Bukit Bruang. 

* Carried out. 1,920 acres 

reserved at Bukit Bru- 
ang. 

1,920 

(also given as 1 ,734.) 

2,715 acres added in 1898. 
An addition was also 
made in 1890. 

6,174 

Sungei Udang, 

• 

1,980 

Not mentioned in Mr. Cant- 
1 ley’s report but map 

shows recommendation 
! of an addition of about 

2,000 acres in West. 

2,000 acres added on South 
of old Reserve. 

! 

1 

1 

1 

4,800 

Area given in 1888 probably 
an estimate. 

1 

4.392 


n. A rough estimate. 


STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 


* k 


ANNUAL REPORT 

. ON THE 


BOTANIC GARDENS 


FOR THE YEAR 


1898 

4 


i 


BY 


H . N . RIDLEY, Esc. 

Director 


0 


P 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY 




SINGAPORE : 


Printed at the Government Printing Office 





1 8 9 9 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOTANICAL GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 


A 

W 

' • t' 

6 


Staff. 

1. The only changes in the staff were the employment of a new Plant-collector 
named Talka, in place of Mat resigned. The coco-nut trees inspection coolie was at 
first tried for this post, but proved unsatisfactory. A young Tamil lad Sahib was taken 
on as apprentice to learn gardening work, and has proved very useful, and a boy, 
Simon, was also employed as apprentice in the office. The coolies worked well, but 
there were some cases of mild beri-beri in the lines, and it will be advisable now T to 
rebuild their quarters in another spot. 

Visitors. 

2. The nunflber of visitors was as large as in past years. Many planters and 
others interested in cultivation visited the Economic gardens to inspect the various 
officinal plants. A considerable number of scientific botanists, passing through to Java, 
Ceylon or Japan, also visited the gardens. The Regimental band performed regularly 
once a month on moonlight nights, and was much appreciated. 

Prosecutions. 

3. There were a number of cases of petty theft, chiefly by mail passengers, but 
few of any importance. Three Chinese and one Malay boy were charged with taking 
flowers. One was discharged, and one escaped, the others were fined or imprisoned. 
One Chinaman was fined three dollars for cutting sago palms,* and one Indian was 
fined for injuring a python by striking it with a stick. 

Flower show. 

4. A very successsful exhibition of flowers and flowering shrubs was held in the 
Town Hall in March. It was remarkable for the exceptionally good show of orchids. 
Large foliage plants and fruits and vegetables were excluded, and the exhibition was 
especially one of flowers. 

Bulletin : 

5. A bulletin dealing with vegetables, shade trees, poisonous plants, Sugar 
cane, seedlings, and other subjects was published. 

Aviaries. 

6. The following animals were added to the collection : — One Semnopithecus sp. 
purchased ; one other (Aonyx leptonyx) caught in Singapore, purchased ; two Kijangs 
{Cervulus muntjac) were born, one in April, the other in September ; the latter, however, 
died next day. One hybrid ape was born. Three Thalaugers ( Trichosurus Vulpe- 
cula) one of which produced a young one, presented by Mr. Hall; one kangaroo rat 
presented ; four black swans presented by Mr. Le Souef. Two whistling teal pre- 
sented by Mr. Dare ; one A 7 eops malayanus presented by Capt. H.TalboY; one 
seagull presented by Capt. H. TalbOY; one Australian parrot presented by Mrs. 
Hunter ; two black storks Xenorhyncus asiaticus from Pahang purchased ; one 
horsfield’s eagle purchased ; six flamingos, 8 ducks and 2 gulls presented by Mr. Dixon 
of Cairo. The flamingos did not thrive and three were killed by large water tortoises, 
(Trionyx). The other water-fowl hardly survived the journey except one gull. Two 
pelicans, deposited ; one cobra and some green vipers ( Lachesis waglen ) were cap- 
tured and one of the latter produced nine living young. A rare tortoise Daimonia 
subtrijuga from Siam presented by Mr. Flower ; two large water tortoises (Trionyx 
cartilagineus ) were caught in the lake in a trap. 


Wl 
/! ofe 


2 


Upkeep. 


7. The borders and beds in the garden were all gone over, thoroughly trenched 
and renewed, and planted with fresh shrubs and plants. The flowerbeds round the 
band stand have been exceptionally bright this year owing to the introduction of a 
large number of novelties received chiefly from Mr. DAMMANN of Naples, who sent a 
very large collection of various seeds, in exchange for those of palms ; among these 
new-bedding plants, were several kinds of Salvia of different colors, Solanums, Ri- 
vihas, the sweet scented Basils (ocimum), Nicotianas, Cacalia, and a good series of the 
Orchid flowered Cannas. Among the more interesting new introductions were, the 
following, Lepinia taitensis, (Southsea islands) Ceropegia perforatum (New Gui- 
nea) Lonchocarpus cyaneus , two new species of Coffee from Africa, Tupistra new- 
species, Typhonium new species from Perak. Cinnamomum sp, a wild clove bark from 
Ulu Lipis, Begonia decora, Didymocarpus n. sp. and Renanthera angustifolia (Perak), 
and a fine series of araucarias was received from Brisbane. 

8. The following plants flowered for the first time, Baphia nitida, the camwood. 
Carapa Guianensis , (craboil tree) Commelina Sellowiana, Streptocarpus hybrids, Caca- 
lia coccinea , C.aurea, Mucuna pruriens varutilis Sarcochilus bisserratui n.sp. (Perak) 
Bromheadia schoenoides n. sp. AmomutH micranthum, Hornstedtia Maingayi. Phry- 
nium n. sp. Neyrandia Madagascariensis, Heptapleurum Hullettii, and H. Ridleyi 
Dendrobium anceps (Burmah) Buttneria sp. (Pahang), Garcinia Morelia (Ceylon.) 

Nepenthes House. 


9. A new glass-roofed house was built chiefly for pitcher plants, (Nepenthes) 
but it has also been used with great success for newly imported orchids and other 
delicate plants. Among the nepenthes are, N. ampullacea, N. Rafflesiana and several 
varieties, N. gracilis N. Reinwardtii , N. sanguined and N. albomarginata. 

The large plant-house has undergone large and expensive alterations. .The whole 
of the central portion has been removed, the wood work being completely rotten. 
The walls are covered with bertam-chicks^ made specially in Penang, supported on 
an arched-iron frame work carried on iron tubing pillars, and the central staging was 
covered with a circular roof of chicks carried on iron tubing and bars, from a brick 
pillar in the centre. 

10. The following were the Exchanges of plants during the year, two hundred 
and thirty nine plants, and one hundred and ninety five packets were sent out to 
kindred institutions and Botanic Gardens and eight hundred and twenty four plants 
and four hundred and fourteen packets of seeds were received. 

The following contributed to the Gardens : — 


Mr. Micholitz. 

„ Pereira. 

„ W. Nanson. 

„ St. V. B. Down. 

,, J. Goodenough. 

A. Loher. 

„ Lease. 

,, W. W. Bailey. 

„ E. V. Carey. 

„ Williams. 

,, Owen. 

,, Gerald Watson. 

Messers Dammann & Co., Italy. 
,, Behn Meyer & Co. 

,, Sander & Co. 

Mrs. Pennefather. 


Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 


Do., 

Calcutta. 

Do., 

Ceylon. 

Do., 

Buitenzorg. 

Do., 

Hongkong. 

Do., 

Sydney. 

Do., 

Trinidad. 

Do., * 

British Guiana. 

Do., 

Brisbane. 

Do., „ 

Tokio, Japan. 

Do., 

Lagos. 


Herbarium. 


11. During the year no departmental botanical excursions could be made, but 
while on leave in July I visited the Kinta valley in Perak, ascending the hills of 
Bujong Malacca, and Gunong Keledang, and taking the plant collector, made large 
collections in the district. Although several botanists have visited this valley, a 
considerable number of novelties of interest were found, including a remarkable new 
species of Tupistra, the first of this Indo-Chinese genus discovered In the peninsula 
and a very fine Bulbophyllum with probably the largest flowers in the genus, a new 


3 


* 


Tvphomum. several new Didymocarpi, .a Zippelia, and other striking plants. Later 
in the year I visited, on leave, the Negri Sembilan, botanically an almost unknown 
district, where among other plants a new Shorea, and a curious nMv Phrymum 
were obtained, and thence I visited Mount Ophir where many plants were co lected. 
Durincr my annual visit to Penang, Province Wellesley and the Dindings, I also col- 
lected^ number of specimens. Plants from Singapore and Johore were also obtained 

during the year. , , • . . . v , r , 

A continuation of the series of dried plants collected by Scortechini, Wray, and 
Kunstler, was contributed to the herbarium by Dr. PR AIN of the Calcutta ^Gardens, 
and specimens from the Papuan region, including the new palm Livistona Woodprdi 
Ridl; were presented by Mr. MiCHOLlTZ, Mr. CURTIS sent 104 specimens from Irenang 

and Perak. 

Forestry. 

12. I visited Penang in June and inspected the forests on Government Hill, 
especially along the track of the proposed railway to the top from Ayex Hitam, 
found that it would not in any way injure the forest. And also visited Bahk Pulau 
to report on the proposed new reserve at Pondok Upik, a hill slope of about 300 acres, 
containing a quantity of good ordinary timber, but for reservation purposes of more 
value climatically to check denudation into the valleys at the base of the hills. A lew 
days were also spent in the Dindings inspecting the forest conservation at Lumut, 
and the new boundary paths and timber factory at Gunong Tungul. All seemed in 
a satisfactory state and reports were sent in to Government on the state ot affairs^ 
India rubber [Ficus elastica) was noticed growing remarkably well in Lumut, and 
might well be propagated and planted out. And para rubber was sent to Lumut an 

Balik Pulau for planting in the forest reserves. 

13. Duplicate specimens for naming or exchange were sent to the gardens at 
Culcutta and Kew, and ferns were sent to Dr Christ oE Basle ; Mosses to Mr. Mitten, 
Algae to Mr. West, and Fungi to Mr MASSEE of Kew, who reports that several of the 
latter were new to science. A number of specimens of timber were added to the 
wood-collection, including the Katinga wood of Siam, a very ornamental wood resem- 
bling Calamander wood, but produced by a wild citron apparently a variety o[ Citrus 
Medica. This was presented with a specimen of the leaves and fruits, by Hon ble 
F. G. PeNney. A small drying and preparing room was built on to the office for the 
work of the plant collector. 


Library . 

14. Thg following books have. been added to the Library : — 

Ferguson. — All about coco-nut planting (new edition) presented by the Author. 
Obach E. — Gutta percha (Cantor Lectures) presented by the Author. 

Raciborski. — Flora von Buitenzorg presented by the Author. 

Penzig. — Die Myxomyceten der flora von Buitenzorg. 

J. G. Kramers. — Een Reis in de Koffie, 

Ianse Dr. J. M. — Noot-Muskaat Culteuer in Minahassa. 

Bijlert Dr. A. V. — Onderzoek van eenige groud soorten in Deli (cont.) 

Greshoff M. — Onderzoek naar de Plantstoffen (part ii). 

Konigsberger, — Schadelijke en Nuttige Insecten van Java. 

Zimmerman Dr. A. — Die Nematoden der Koffie Wortels. 

)} Enchytraeden in die Koffie Wortels. 

De Haan. — Regen val en Reboisatie in Deli. 

Coville F. V.— Notes on Mushroom poisoning, presented by U. S. A. Depart- 
ment ofAgriculture. 

Nash V.‘ — American Ginseng. 

Farlow. — Edible and Poisonous Fungi. 

Chesnut V. K. — Principal poisonous plants of North America. 

Jeffrey E. C.— Gametophytes of Botrychium Virginianum. 

Swingle and Webber. — Hybrids and their utilization. 

Smith E. F. — Black Rot of Cabbage. 

Dodge C. R. — Report on Flax culture. 

Swingle W. — Grain smuts. 

Walpers. — Repertorium 6 vols. presented, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

,, Annals 6 vols presented, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Pierre Flore Forestiere de Cochin Chine, 2 parts, presented by Rbyal Gardens, 
Kew. 



4 


Morris D.— Commercial Fibres. 

„ Commercial India rubber. 

Dyer,— Flora of Tropical Africa, vol. vii, part 2. 

Hiern.— Catalogue of Welwitsch’s plants presented by Trustees of British Museum. 
Eqgler.— Systematik Pflauzengeschichte. 

Soltwedel F.—*-Forms of Sugar cane, presented by Hon’ble J. B. Vermont. 

Medley Wood J. — Natal Indigenous plants. 

Koorders F.~ Flora van Celebes. 

Maiden.— *Flora of Mt. Kosciusko, presented by Author. 

Port Jackson plants, presented by Author. 

Stefculia lurida, presented by Author. 

Vegetation of Lord Howes Island. 

Hallier H.— Monographic des Convoloulacees, presented by Author. 

Neue Pflauzen au^dem Malaischarchipel. 

Zwei COnvolvulaceen. 

Indonesischen ZEschynanthus arten. 

Birdwood, Sir J. — Memorandum on purchase of Carrot seed. 

King and Pantling Orchids of Sikkhim Himalaya, presented Calcutta. 

Christ Filices Sarrasinianae presented by Author. 

Filices Novae 

Ridley H. N. — New species of Entada, presented by Author. 

New Malayan Orchids. 

Sanders F.-*-Reichenbachia, Vol. II, presented by Author. 

Rhea Fibre Company. — Rhea Treatment by Gomess process. 

Niederlein. — Republic of Guatemala. 

Some copies of Boxburgh’s drawings of Indian Alpinias were presented by Dr. 

Prain of Calcutta. 

And the following periodical publications : — 

Kew Bulletin. leones Plantarum (Royal Gardens Kew) Agricultural Ledger, 

Botanical Survey of India Reports, Forest Administration of India by Ribbentrop, 
(Government of India) Journal of Agriculture ( Queensland ) Berlin Notizblatt 
Haarlem Kolonial Museum reports and extracted bulletins by Greshoff ; St. Peters- 
burg Acta Horta petropolitani, Madras Forest Reports, and Agrihorticultural Society 
report, Garden Reports of Mysore, and Saharunpore, Queensland, British Guiana, 

Trinidad, Barbadoes, Jamaica, Lagos, Old Calabar, New South Wales, Trinidad, and 
Jamaica bulletins, Ceylojn circulars, Buitenzorg Annual Report, Annales, and leones 
Bogorienses, Zanzibar Annual Report, Cape of Good Hope, Agricultural Journal, 
Smithsonian Annual Report ; Year book U. S. A. Experimental Station records, 

Missouri Annual Report, Merck’s Annual Report, (Darmstadt) Planting opinion of 
Madras, Perak Museum Notes, Warburg’s Tropenpflauzen Chemist and Druggist. 

The following works were purchased : — 

Betzins. — Observationes. 

Somerwell, W. — Timbers and how to know them. 

Tschirch, A. — Indische Heil and Nutzpflauzen. 

Kurz. — Burmese Palms. 

„ Indian Plants. 

„ Burmese Plants. p 

Schneider. — Book of Choice Ferns. 

Schiffuer, V. — Conspectus Hepaticarum ArchipelagiTndici. 

Warburg. — Papuanische Flora. 

Coguiaux and Goossens. — Dictionnaire Iconographique des Orchidees, Gardeners 
Chronicle, Botanical Magazine, Tropical Agriculturist. 




* 


■ BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 
Statement of Receipts and Expenditure, for the year ' i 8 gS . 


By 


Receipts. 


Expenditure. 




Balance in Bank, ... 
Government Grant, 
Sale of Plants, Seeds 
and Flowers, 

In* >rc3t, 


n 


1 C. 

Salaries. 

$ £-• 

$ c. 

704 99 

Clerk, 

207 19 


8,500 00 

Mandore, 

229 99 



Carpenters (two), 

310 91 


2,867 60 

Mason, 

139 81 


26 37 

Plant-collector, 

10 1 03 



Printer (Label), 

120 00 



Peon, 

107 00 



Aviary-keeper, 

94 86 



Police, 

338 75 



Coolies, 

3 G 93 67 



Rice Allowance, 

663 56 





5-706 77 


Bills. 




Tools and Stores, 

688 56 



Laterite, Gravel, Sand, etc., 

225 80 



Timber, Bricks, Lime, etc., 

890 41 



Pots and Tubs, 

148 00 



Birds' and Animals’ Food,.., 

L 355 67 


Manure and Cartage, 

122 27 


Buildings and Repairs, 

470 92 



Freight on Plants, 

1 17 04 



Books, Papers, etc., 

377 so 



Plants and Seeds, 

86 00 

* 

j 


Subscription to Telephone, 

82 50 



Wardian Cases, etc. k 

85 00 



Petty Expenses, 

335 H 


Miscellaneous, . . 

152 29 





5> 1 3 7 5° 




10,844 27 


Balance, 

... 

1,254 6 9 

$12,098 96 



$12,098 96 




I 


6 


Economic Gardens. 

15. A large block of land some acres in extent on the East side of the gardens, 
and running to the boundary stream was opened up, cleared of fern and bushes, and 
planted up with Ramie for which there was a large demand, Citronella, Lemon grass, 
and Cuscus, Earthnuts, Bananas and other plants! Para-rubber trees were planted in 
a row on each side, and plants of Balata gum. Mimusops globosa } Kickxia africana 
and Castilloa elastica were planted in various spots. The soil at this spot is very 
good and though the ground is very wet, water being met with at a depth of from a 
foot to two feet, it seems to suit certain plants very well. 

Another patch of ground above the Dalvey Road entrance by the order Urticaceae 
was cleared of weeds and useless trees dug and levelled. There are a number of 
Para-rubber trees at this point. A good number of additions were made to the 
Arboretum. 

Para-rubber is still in great demand, and fortunately this year’s crop of seed was 
a very fair one as compared with that of the previous year, 98,650 seeds being 00- 
tained as against 83,000 in 1897. 

These seeds w r ere distributed to planters and to Government plantations, together 
with 10,650 plants, in the following proportions : — 

Selangor 76,700 plants and seeds. Johore 21,300,# Borneo 5,500, Pahang 3,550, 
Penang 1,400, Bindings 400, Negri Sembilan 600, Madras 500. 

Still this by no means covers the demand for this plant, which is enormous. The 
greater number as will be seen are required for Selangor where the plant appears to 
thrive remarkably well. Complaints have however been received thence as to destruc- 
tion of seedlings by rats, which bite the tops off, as well as by mouse deer, and other 
animals. At the suggestion of Mr. Bailey the dried bark and leaves of a small tree 
were* sent to England for Analysis to see if much rubber was lost in drying ; no report 
of the results has yet been received. Samples ofjbark and soil from the ground on 
which the plants are cultivated were also sent to Mr. PARKIN, at present investiga- 
ting the physiology of the Para-rubber tree in Ceylon, and some experiments and 
calculations were made for him. 

Measurements of average and large trees growing in the gardens were made. Of 
the oldest trees planted in 1884, the girth at 5 feet from the ground was 4 foot 2 
inches in the smallest and 6 feet in the largest. Of the trees planted in 1888 a number 
were measured and gave an average of 4 foot 3 inches, the biggest being 5 feet the 
smallest3 foot 8 inches. Mr# WICKHAM, a gentleman, who has spent many years in the 
Amazonas district and was the first to introduce the plant to the East, visited the 
gardens, and explained an improved form of tapping the tree by punctures, obviating 
the necessity of making the usual V shaped incisions. The advan ge of this is 
that the bark is less injured and heals sooner and remains smooth instead of becom- 
ing rough as it does under the grooving system. 

Of Ramie. 

16. Fifty-one thousand (51,000) cuttings and four boxes of seed were sent to 
planters. Chiefly in Muar, Sumatra and Borneo. It is found very easy to raise this 
plant from seed, and in \yet weather the seeds often germinate on the plant. Of the 
different strains grown in the gardens, one is very superior in its tall growth before 
flowering, this is being more extensively propagated than the other varieties. 

Coca seed, ( Erythroxylon Coca) was also in some demand, and 12,000 seeds 
and some plants w r ere supplied to the Native States. The recent rise in the price 
of the drug has called planters attention to it. 

Other plants in request w 7 ere Vanilla (700 plants), Patchouli ( 550 ), fruit trees 
(550), Coffea stenophylla, Willughbeia firrna, Chocolate, Rattans, Cola, and Citronella 
grass. 

Plant Diseases. 

17. A number of insect and fungus pests were reported from various plantations 
in the Native States and specimens sent for identification. Among these were sam- 
ples of destruction of coffee, fruit-trees, ferns and other plants by the coffee locust, 
specimens of which sent to the Natural History Museum, in London, were identified 
as Cyrtacanthacris nigrovaria walk ; curiously a very rare-insect in Entomological 
collections in Europe. It lays its eggs in slits in the bark of the trees causing the 
death of the branches. Destruction of the adult by children with sticks and clearing 
the adjacent land of grass w-as recommended. Towards the end of the year great 
damage was reported in the coffee by the Beehawk moth ( Cephonodes Hylas) the 


7 


larva of which devours the leaves, and what was apparently the pupa of a sawffy 
was also sent from Selangor with samples of badly injured leaves. 

The borer-caterpillar was still doing considerable damage, and still more harm 
was being produced by the red smut fungus. Indeed the state of some fields was 
very serious. The constant planting of sugar on the same fields was beginning to 
show effects of degeneration of the cane, which was not to be wondered at, consid- 
ering the long period during which the fields had been cultivated without change or 
rest. Specimens of the borer moth sent to the natural history museum were stated 
to be a species of Chilo distinct from the Chilo saccharalis of the West Indies. 

The seedling canes supplied by Mr. Curtis were examined. They were grow- 
ing well and steadily but naturally not as rapidly as from cuttings. 

Enquiries as to the use of the mungoose in destroying the rats which formerly 
were so destructive to the canes elicited the fact, that the rats were practically ex- 
terminated by the mungoose, which bred and appeared to thrive very well. 

Cloves. 

During my stay,, at Balik Pulau I examined the clove plantations and noted that 
the borer which was very bad formerly here had almost disappeared but I observed 
a distinct disease near the same spot which I had never met with before. The 
boughs of the trees, almost always on the side away from the hill slope died and fell 
off, the tree eventually perishing. Investigation showed that the bark at the junction 
of the bough with the trunk was thickened and corky and broken up, especially at the 
spot where during rain the water ran from the branches down the trunk. The dis- 
ease was evidently produced by a fungus between bark and wood and was similar to 
the injury caused by Irpex on Coffee trees. I could find no developed fungus on the 
trees, and though 1 sought on rotten timber lying around, the few fungi I found were 
too rotten to identify. I expect it will prove to be Irpex which apparently does not 
confine its parasitism to Coffee, for I found in Province Wellesley an Orange tree 
entirely broken up by it. The clove disease was very local, occurring in patches, all 
the trees in one spot being attacked. The cause of the disease was explained to the 
Chinese owners and the remedy, destruction by burning of all decayed wood on the 
ground urged on them. 


Sugar. 

1 8. At the request of the planters in Province Wellesley I visited two of the 
larger estates where the Sugar Rhinoceros beetle Xylotrupes Gideon was found to 
be doing mtieh damage, I had previously found this beetle in the cane fields, but it 
seemed to be inflicting but little injury. Lately however it had taken to feeding 
upon the roots of the cane, being attracted by the decaying part of the cutting after 
planting, instead of confining its attention to decaying vegetable matter, its normal 
food. The larvae were very abundant' in some fields, and were being destroyed by 
digging and searching for them. The large jungle crows were also at work, following 
the diggers and seeking the grubs. It was said that the pest had been exterminated 
in some fields by flooding. In other places however they were found living in the 
wet mud of the canal hanks apparently unharmed. It was pointed out that patches 
of wood left in and near the cane fields were of the greatest importance to the 
planters as affording shelter for the crows and other insectivorous birds. A matter 
often overlooked as one wooded hill in the centre of the cane district had been let to 
a Chinaman to grow tapioca, the wood being mostly felled and the birds driven away. 

Camphor oil. 

ig. Samples of Camphor oil from the Dryobolanops of Rawang were forwarded 
from Selangor by the overseer of Forests and transmitted to the Royal Gardens Kew 
and a report from Mr. J. C. Umney was received which stated that ‘ f the oil consists 
in all probability of the more volatile portions only, almost solely by Terpenes.” So 
far as I know therefore it would have no medicinal virtue nor any commercial value 
over ordinary turpentine oil. It differs very considerably from Camphor f Laurus 
Camphora) oil imported into this country containing large quantities of Saffral. 

Specific gravity at 15 0 C.=.856. 

Optical rotation in a tube of 100 mm +29 0 . 

It completely distils between 156° — 160 0 C. 


8 


Upkeep of Economic Garden. 

Vote for the year 1898 was, 

Expenditure : — 


Salaries of Mandore and Coolies, 

$1,346.00 

Tools and Stores, ... 

70.65 

Baskets, &c., 

16.08 

Manure, 

37 - 5 ° 

Flower-pots, 

23.00 

Balance in Treasury, 

6.77 


$1,500.00 


$1,500.00 


Upkeep of Grounds at Government House and Domain. 

Vote for the year 1898, ... ... . .. $2,360.00 

Expenditure : — 

Salaries of Mandore and Coolies, $2,075.32 

136.31 

35 00 

18.00 
2.50 

70.00 
9.06 

13.08 
00.73 


Tools and Stores, ... 

One Iron Label for the tree planted 
by Prince Henry of Prussia, ... 
Cartage and Manure, 

Flower-pots, 

Buildings and Repairs (Plant 
house re-constructed), 

Timber and Planks, 

Shovel and Rubbish baskets, ... 
Balance in Treasury, 


$2,360 00 


Government House Grounds. 

20. The Mandor SAMUEL having been dismissed a man of the name of ROGERS 
was employed and gave great satisfaction. The coolies worked well, and the grounds 
were kept in an excellent condition. The plant-houses were put in thorough repair, 
and a number of small trees were planted in spots where it was considered advisable 
to block out houses, or unsightly spots. During his visit to Singapore, PRINCE-HENRY 
of Prussia planted a palm ( Oreodoxa oleracea) on the lawn in front of the house. 

H. N. RIDLEY, 

Director. 

Singaporey 10th Februaryy 1899. 


Botanic Gardens Department, Penang, 1888. 

Waterfall Garden. 

In addition to the usual routine work of maintaining a public Garden in good 
order, considerable progress has been made in extending the area and developing 
the natural features of the grounds. 

2. Outside the plant nursery a steep bank has been sloped, turfed, and the 
upper portion planted with ornamental flowering shrubs; and a further portion of the 
banks of the stream which intersects the garden has also been sloped and turfed. 

3. Above the Office a new clearing has been made, one hundred and eighty feet 
broad, and extending up the hillside for a distance of two hundred and fifty feet, the 
whole sloped and turfed. On this land the best of the original trees have been left 
and where necessary others of an ornamental nature planted. 

4. A carriage road seventeen feet wide has been made, and metalled, around 
the Band Stand where there was previously only a five foot path. It is not often the 
band plays in this garden as it is considered to be too far from town, but wdienever 
it has done so some inconvenience has been experienced for want of room in which 
to draw up carriages. This has now been remedied. 


9 


5. In the vicinity of the Band Stand, nine new circular beds, twelve feet in 
diameter, have been made and planted with new orchid-flowering Cannas, one variety 
in each bed. The result of this massing of colour is very effective. Cannas do well 
here and an important feature is made of them. Planted out in heavily manured soil 
and liberally watered they are in full flower in two months and go on flowering for 
an indefinite period, but to grow them to perfection they require lifting and replant- 
ing after six or eight months. 

6. Under the Diospyros discolor tree, opposite the Fernery and Orchid houses, 
rockwork has been constructed and the pockets filled with various kinds of ornamen- 
tal plants in pots so that they can be changed or renewed at will. Permanent 
planting of rockeries under trees is never satisfactory, as the roots ' of the trees 
impoverish the soil. to such an extent as to render impossible the cultivation, for any 
length of time, any but the most robust species of plants. 

& n. Outside the entrance to the garden, at the spot where building material for 
the hill Bungalows was formerly landed, and chair coolies congregated, a number of 
Crotons have been planted and fenced which when they grow up will be a decided 


improvement. 

8. From this poiijt 
feet, the main entrance 


to the Office, a distance of five hundred and twenty-five 
road has been remetalled and consolidated with the steam 


g. Three hundred and eighty-three lineal feet of side drains have been built 
with stones and Cement, and two cross drains on the main road bridged with Granite 
Slabs in place of wood which was becoming unsafe. 

10. At the top of the grounds the old wooden bridge that spanned the main 
stream has been replaced by a substantial granite arch that is in keeping with the 
surroundings and will last for ever. 

11. An additional room for herbarium specimens has been added to the office 
and the soil from the hillside that had to be cut away to make.room for this building 
utilised in raising the ground in front. Sufficient material had been accumulated 
during previous years to fill this room at once. The arrangement is not yet complete 
but \s sufficiently so to be useful for reference. 

12. With the exception of the construction of stone bridge and herbarium 
which were budget items and carried out by the Public Works. Department, all other 
expenses were paid out of the Vote for Maintenance of Waterfall Garden, and 
executed by the Garden Staff, the total expenditure being 14,498.50 as shown in 
statement annexed (Appendix A.) Ironwork costing $249. 62 for re-roofing the Fernery 
was purchased and the work will be carried out this year. The Revenue from sale 
of plants and receipts from Swimming Bath amount to $745.50 which has been paid 
in to Treasury account. 

1, As great interest is being taken in Para Rubber and considerable capital 
invested in its cultivation, l have again tapped the best tree in the garden from which 
ilb. of rubber was taken during the rainy season in June, 1897. A sample of this 
was subsequently sent to Kew and through the kindness of the Director, submitted 
to Messrs Hecht Lewis and Khan for valuation who reported it as (f beautiful 
rubber very well cured worth to-day (31. 8. 98) 3/3 per lb”. This had simply been 
dried in the sun and kept in the office for about a year. 

Being planted on dry gravelly soil this tree grows less rapidly here than those 
that are planted in moister and more suitable soil in Perak and elsewhere. At two- 
and-a-half feet from the ground it forks and the main stem measured at three feet 
from the ground in June, 1897, had a girth of 36 inches. Measured again in Decem- 
ber, 1898, after an interval of eighteen months, it had increased five inches in girt 
and the cuts had quite healed up. 

This tree is thirteen years old. 

This time the tapping was commenced on the 16th November which is generally 
about the end of the heavy rains, but there is here no season that can be counted on 
as absolutely dry as in Burmah and India, and in fact rain fell frequently while the 
operation was carried on which was spread over a period of thirty-four days. Oblique 
cuts leading to perpendicular channels, was made in six places (subsequently increas- 
ed to seven) at -the bases of which were affixed by means of a lump of clay and a nail 
small tins to receive the latex. An ordinary carpenter’s chisel was used for making 
and renewing the cuts, but both this and the tins can be improved on when the work 
has to be taken in hand by the practical planter. Earthenware- glazed cups with a 
hole near the bottom so that the latex can be drawn off without removing them will 
effect a great saving in labour as much time is taken up in fixing the tins securely 
when removed every day, and some rubber is also lost in doing this. A better 


IO 


cutting tool than an ordinary Chisel can also be devised for the work. At the begin- 
ning the milk comes slowly and at no time continues running for long. With two 
exceptions the cuts were renewed between 7 and 8 A. M. and the tins brought in at 
1 1 A M ; but the flow had always ceased before that time. The two exceptions were 
when the operation was performed in the evening, but as there is always a danger of 
rain during the night, and a very slight shower causes water to flow into the tins as 
nearly all the water trickling down the stem of the tree falls into the oblique cuts 
and is thence led directly to the tins the work is best done in this climate in the 
morning. Generally the latex had coagulated by the following morning, that is after 
standing about twenty hours, but on two occasions only partially so. In these cases, 
and also when rain water had got in the tins, a pinch of powdered alum was added 
which caused perfect coagulation in a short time. If the addition of alum does not 
affect the value of the rubber (and on this point I hope to be able to report later as 
samples have been sent to the Director of the Royal Gardens Kevv with a view to 
ascertaining this) it facilitates working operations in wet weather, for a little water 
getting mixed with the latex does not matter provided the vessels do not overflow. 
All the rubber can be recovered by the addition of alum. 

On the morning the incisions were first made only £ oz : of wet rubber was 
obtained, but by taking a thin shaving off the lower surface of the oblique cuts on 
fourteen subsequent occasions the following quantities was obtained at each opera- 
tion in ounces:— I, if, 3^ 3*. 6, 9, 6i 8|, 6, 6$, 10, 8$, 8. Total 5 tfe i£ oz of 

wet rubber which weighed when dry exactly 3th. As will be seen from this the last 
three tappings gave a better result than any previous three and operations were only 
suspended as it was not advisable to make the cuts any wider. The time occupied 
in affixing the tins and renewing the cuts averaged half-an-hour on each occasion, 
or seven-and-a-half hours in all. It may therefore be taken that a man at say 30 cts. 
per day could attend to at least fifteen trees per day and that the cost of collecting 
will not exceed 10 cents, per tb. With larger trees and better appliances it will be 
probably much less. I have lately visited Bertam Estate in Province Wellesley 
where Mr. D. Logan planted about 2,000 young trees nine months ago and the 
growth is very satisfactory. From planters in Selangor I hear that the prospect is 
most encouraging the trees making very rapid growth. It is evident however that 
the land selected should be sufficiently drained to prevent the young plants being 
submerged for in one spot where this has happened at Bertam many have died, and 
those that are alive do not look nearly so well as others on slightly higher land. 

14. Six plants of Castilloa elastica, kindly contributed by Mr. Gerald Watson 
of Selangor, were planted on the 1st October and at the end of December had made 
shoots 1-2 ft. long. Previous to this there was no plant of this in the garden and it 
is too soon to form an opinion as to its suitability for cultivation here. 

15. Seedling sugar canes, raised here, which were distributed last year, do not 
in the opinion of the planters promise to be of exceptional merit. A further dis- 
tribution has been made this year, two cart loads going to Batu Kawan, of which we 
have not as yet received any report. I had hoped that some of the best seedlings 
growing in the Nursery would have flowered this season so that seeds of a second 
generation could be tried but not one has done so. 

16. Of interesting new plants that flowered during the year Boea paniculata, 
Ridl deserves the first place on account of the long time it continues to bloom. 
The flow T ers are of a good size about if x i£ in. of a pleasing mauve-blue colour, borne 
on a panicle 3 ft. high. The first flower opened on the 26th June and it has been in 
continuous flower ever since and has at the present time (7th January' 99) twenty 
open flowers and about forty buds. Individual flowers last 5-6 days and for three 
months the daily number of fully expanded flowers was from forty to fifty. On the 
19th October before commencing to gather seed 1,160 capsules, open flowers, and buds 
were counted, but no account was kept after. This plant, the only one that has yet 
flowered out of a dozen, I found growing abundantly on the face of a limestone cliff, 
but in places difficult of access, in the Kinta District of Perak in 1894. I think it 
does not flower until at least four or five years old and that after doing so it dies. 

17. Didymocarpus cyanea, Ridl ; mss- of which a large batch from seeds have 
been flowering freely and attracting the attention of visitors is a new species from 
iKasoom, a place in Siamese territory about two hundred miles North of Penang. It 
s one of the most easily grown and striking of the genus. Several other new species 
of this order have flowered during the year, of which drawings have been made, among 
them two new Didissandras from Perak. 

18. Among Orchids some novelties have been flowered as well as a great num- 
ber of better known kinds from various tropical countries. Of those collected locally 


I think the most interesting was a plant of Tainia Maingayii, H. K. F. which though 
previously described from dried specimens had not been, so far as I am aware, in 
cultivation. It has a scape 2-3 ft. high with 10-14 flowers 5-6 inches across, of a 
reddish brown colour, and lasts in flower five weeks. This is said to have been 
collected by Maingay in Penang but I have got it only in Perak and there in only 
one locality. Liparis venosa Ridl. is another charming little plant that flowered in 
the garden. 

19. During a short trip to Perak in August a great number of living plants and 
seeds were collected, as well as specimens for the herbarium and distribution, A 
report on this trip was furnished the Hon'ble Resident Councillor on my return, a 
copy of which is annexed (Appendix B), 

20. A successful Flower Show was held in the Town Hall in February, the 
gardens being considered too far off for the convenience of exhibitors, followed by a 
Promenade Concert on the evening of the second day. 

2-1. Plants and seeds have been exchanged to about the same extent as in pre- 
vious years and there has been the usual amount of correspondence on horticultural, 
botanical, and planting matters. Rubber is the subject in which a good number are 
interested and to as many as I have had an opportunity I have recommended the 
Kew Bulletin of October last containing information up to date on Para Rubber. 
All interested in the subject sh g Id get it. Seeds of this tree are in great demand 
and any quantity could be disposed of h^re at a good price. 

Government Hill Gardens. 

22. The Governor’s Hill Bungalow garden has been maintained in fairly good 
order but Mr. O’Keefe, the Overseer in charge, reports that frequent changes among 
the Tamil Coolies and the irregular attendance, especially immediately after pay day, 
causes much trouble and inconvenience. 

23. From January to June the Garden was at its best both as regards flowering 
plants and vegetables, of which a pretty regular supply has been kept up. From July 
to the end of November but little can be done with flowering annuals and only a 
very limited number of kinds of Vegetables can be grown, on account of the heavy 

rains. 

24. At the Flower Show held in the Town Hall in February, a nice collection of 
Vegetables from this garden was exhibited, the Leeks and Beet being specially noticeable 
and somewhat of a surprise to most of the visitors. 

25. Burmese and other Orchids planted on the trees have flowered freely. 
Vanda Ccerula, which flowers during the rains, had on one of my visits in August 
over thirty flower spikes. Plants of Azalea indica obtained from Japan flowered 
well and deserve to be more extensively cultivated in the hill gardens. 

26. Repairs to paths, rendered necessary by the heavy wash, is a constantly 
recurring demand on labour, and the slipping of banks during rains is by no means 
infrequent. Carrying water a long distance whenever there is a spell of dry weather 
is also a matter of great importance as regards labour. Taking these and other 
matters into consideration a larger staff is required, in proportion to the area of the 
grounds than in the Waterfall Garden. 

Experimental Nursery. 

27. During the past two years little has been done to the Experimental Nursery 
beyond keeping it clean. Two men only have been kept here and a portion of their 
time has been devoted to keeping clean the paths round the Convalescent Bungalow 
so that the actual expense is not much, but small as it is, it is scarcely worth 
keeping up. 

28. It is conclusively proved, I think, that fruits &c. from temperate climes for 
which this Nursery was originally intended require greater elevation than is obtainable 
in Penang and the steepness of the site and nature of the soil render it unsuitable for 
the experimental cultivation of most kinds of plants. 

29. A piece of level, or moderately level, land within easy distance of the 
Waterfall Garden for the introduction and trial of plants likely to be of commercial 
value would be a useful acquisition, but I know of no Crown Land available and the 
cost of purchase would be a considerable item. There is plenty of land within the 
limits of the present garden but it is all too steep for this purpose. 

C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superinte?ident of Botanic Gardens , 


Appendix A . 

Revenue and Expenditure of the Botanic Gardens Department , Penang , i8g8. 


* Revenue. 


Government Grant — 
Maintenance of Water 
fall Garden, 


Government Grant- 
Upkeep of Grounds of 


Government Grant — 
Expenses of carrying out 
Provisions of Coco-nut 
Trees Preservation Or- 
dinance, 


Maintenance of Ex peri 
mental Nursery, 


Travelling and Per- 
sonal Allowances, 


Plant Sales, 
Bath Receipts, 



Expenditure. 


$ c . 


$ c. 



f Wages of Gardeners and Coolies, 

3>3°4 24 



Tools and Material, 

1 7 1 63 



Plant Tubs and Pots, 

i7 1 l 3 



Planks for Plant Cases &c., 

89 98 



Attaps and Chicks, 

40 98 



Plants, ... • ■ ■ 

34 73 



Manure and Cartage, 

75 70 

4,500 00 

< 

Freight on Plants, ... 

1 1 20 



Road Metal, 

77 30 



Furniture for Office, 

37 00 



Do. Herbarium, 

77 3o 



Iron for re-roofing Fernery , 

249 62 



Periodicals and Book Binding, 

48 00 



^Miscellaneous Petty Expenses, 

109 69 



4,498 50 


Balance, 

1 50 



4,500 00 



("Wages of Gardeners and Coolies, 

696 60 



Manure, 

150 30 



Plants and Seeds, ... 

49 2 9 

, 1,000 00 

1 

Pots and Tubs', 

34 30 



Tools, ... 

61 *74 



^Attaps,... 

7 40 



999 63 


Balance, 

37 



1,000 00 


["Salaries, 

552 00 

700 00 

<j Inspectors Transport" Allowance, 

120 00 


^Petty Expenses, 

2 12 


T" 

674 12 


Balance, 

25 88 



700 -00 


( 

Wages, 

161 50 

200 OO 


Plants and Seeds, ... 

20 46 


1 

^ Tools, ... 

r 7 3 1 



199 27 


Balance, ... 

73 


• 

. 

200 00 


( 

Pony Allowance, ... 

240 00 

330 OO 

1 

_ Expenses of Botanical Tour, ... 

88 75 



328 75 


Balance, 

1 25 

. 


330 00 

695 40 



50 IO 



7.1H *Q 




Total 


*3 


APPENDIX B. 

Notes on a Botanical 

ing m L o e r g § sra? jKJfiyfi >- i , 2attE 

pr °posed^raaking j r ^; a ^fidTiothiave until 2.S5 * t^Cofee books' 

kins to see the Coffee “^^^^^^irUg drought at^he time of my visit, 
well although there had been an u y p ‘ k ] s assured, but the present 

•« I’ltf.’r ■” “ 

y '"e\r, E .bb„, ..a., .wch . “t; M-i'Vi: 

si *h?** as 

S^Witfa tu w7.ij.ij- -stnrr jaa~ 

are high enough to be out of their reach, o 1 occupies about three hours and 

The journey by train trom Teluk ^"SO" ‘o ‘poh oc , , h { took up 

can hardly be called staged out £ explore the 

my residence in the Kest tt . J* t he ra ii wa y a Singapore Com- 

neighbouring limestone or marb.e Hills. _ Quite close :to tne y t0 ,J We been 

pany have commenced quarrying ™rble and p i a „ ts -were collected 

recently imported from Europe for this .wo*. Many finding of several 

during the morning but t ie mob in g trulv wild state. Every one interest- 

trees of •• W Sallk ' S a ” d brOU§ht f 

ed ill the subject knows that U record | d in botanical books as a native of 

in for sale, and the tree has lo g nor myself had ever collected this 

Perak but curiously enough neither ^ R L had Undoubtedly been planted 

^etchs and had sent their aerial roots 
f leat bot e aTcar P o"nt y ofview, very abundant here, is Lowia, a genus named after 

as 

during the heat ten sufficient to project L trees from the 

made in places but the le g , went to B atu Gajah in hopes of seeing 

ravages of goats ixc By the 9 ■ from him information as to getting men for 

the District Magistrate and & but beino- a public holiday he had gone to 

going up Gunong ? U J°"S of inspecting his plant house and its contents, especially 
I poh. I took the liberty P . jF Malacca The European residences at Batu 

th P e plants brought down from ^Tlgahne view of thS surrounding country. 
Gajah are beauti.ully situated * largest tree of Jacaranda mimosifolia I 

' ,n ll,e . h 0 SP N a i d S o°ubttt is the same age as The oldest of those planted in Penang 

have yet seen. , ai here. All the trees of this kind in this part of the 

but it IS much h 0 _ > . ts d j str ibuted from the Penang Gardens and the 

world are 1 bebeve from se P s planted , There is also in the same grounds 

oldest cannot be ™? d a Kayu Rue (Casuarina) that look somewhat different to 

a fine clump of Pal “® *”S f Well x obtained seeds. On the 2nd August took 
typical Casuarina e ^ u ' s ^°^ unge i Siput and called first to see Mr. FORREST who 
the morning train at 64 t b g oco l f uts &c . not far from the Station. However 

is opening out and ,he boy said would not he back until the evening, so I retraced 
he had gone out an . d ... J a nd proceeded along the Kuala Kangsar road so far as 

my steps through the vdlag d^P t ^ ^ knpw what Estate it was. This 

Kamuning Estate, thou , collecting so i worked around the edge of the 

SSl“J«SrSSJ S&V&*. - -p“ - h " b ”“" 


until it was time to return to Sungei Siput to catch the train for Ipoh. The Coffee 
on this Estate is the finest I have yet seen. Para Rubber planted alongside the 
road through the Estate do not appear to grow so well as they do in damper soil. 

On the 3rd August l went out to some hills about three miles from Ipoh on the 
Gopeng road to the only habitat I know of Habenaria Kingii, an interesting orchid 
with greenish flowers. Of this I succeeded in getting some thirty plants and a 
few other things of interest. It is a difficult spot to work as all the rocks % are 
surrounded by swamp. Since I last went along this road a good deal of Coffee has 
been planted and other smaller cultivations have increased considerably. Before go- 
ing out in the morning I visited Mr. BARNARD who kindly presented two or three 
interesting plants for the gardens. 

At 5.30 on the morning of the 4th I left Ipoh for Melimbau, a village near the 
foot of Gunong Kledang. In a rikisha it took half-an-hour to reach so that I was 
able to start collecting up the hill while it was still cool. There is a good road up 
the Kledang and a Government Bungalow near the top. The distance from the foot 
is four and a half miles. Going slowly and dipping into the jungle here and there it 
was near noon when we got to the top. The lower slopes of this hill have been 
cleared of all big trees for fire-wood or Charcoal and I noticed several wood-cutters 
at work. About half way up there occurs, and more or less from there to near the 
top, a magnificent Palm with a stem six or seven feet high and immense paddle- 
shaped leaves which the Malays call ,f Daun Sang’.' I spent a lot of time in hunting 
for seeds of this but without success. 

We dug up a few young plants, but Palms are always difficult to transplant and 
I do not expect to save more than one or two. " Daun Sang" occurs I am told all 
through this range, I saw some leaves used for the side of a native house at Sungei 
Siput, and if any one in the locality can send ripe seeds it will be a most acceptable 
contribution to the Penang Gardens. Near the top there grows a verv pretty Indian 
Primrose { Didymocarpus ) with orange flowers quite new to me and I believe un- 
described. Palms of many kinds are a marked feature of the vegetation on this hill, 
“ Rotans ” and 1 Bertam " being very abundant. 

On the 5 ; t.h I packed all plants collected during the previous five days and for- 
warded them to Penang, and on the following day left for Kuala Depang. Kuala 
Depang is not the pleasant place it once was. This, the most charmingly situated of 
Rest Houses, has been turned into a Police Station. 

There are, however, two rooms used by Government Officers when on duty, one 
of which I occupied for two nights before going up Bujong Malacca. It is a pity 
that this house should be occupied by the Police, for Government Officers, unless 
they are more fortunate or sounder sleepers than myself, cannot get much rest when 
in this place. 

On Monday at 8 A.M., 1 left Kuala Depang with four Malays engaged on the 
spot, and my own man and boy from Penang, to ascend Gunong Bujong Malacca. 
The Malays were a very poor sample but as my time was limited I took the first that 
offered. We went on climbing slowly until about 11 A M., when we came to a 
Chinese Kongsi-house at a place called “ Kadongdong.” Here the men decided it 
was time to stop and cook their rice and as the spot looked like a promising coTIect- 
ing ground I raised no objection but poked about among the boulders for an hour 
while they got “ makan.” Their style of hill-climbing suited me all right but would 
have been a frightful nuisance to anyone whose object was simply to reach the top. 

After leaving this Kongsi-house, in which there are five men, at only a few 
minutes' walk distant there are two ways up to Ulu Palas, the one to the left being 
longer but not so steep. This we decided to take in going up and to return by the 
other. I was very pleased afterwards that the men told me ol this longer route as it 
proved more interesting botanically than th*e other. 

At about 3.30 (watch stopped) we arrived at another Kongsi-house in a large 
valley which the Chinese call “ Amokong " and the Malays “ Ulu Palas." The Palm 
“ Palas" ( Licuala spinosa) from which the stream takes its name, is very abundant 
along all the ridges of this mountain. In this mining Kongsi-house in which there 
are six men, but had apparently at one time been many more, we decided to spend 
the night and go to the top in the morning. After a brief rest I started out to 
examine and collect plants in the neighbourhood but the Malays were all asleep inside 
of ten minutes, and as they were at the other end of the house I saw nothing more 
of them until the next morning. Washing for tin has been going on in these streams 
for years and it is a bit difficult at this point to make out just exactly where the 
original water-courses came in, but so far as I could see there are at least three 
different streams which join at this spot. 


i5 

Grubbing for tin has capsized trees in all directions so that it is easy to get to 
examine the orchids and various other plants growing on them. There had been 
no rain for some time previous to my visit and many of the smaller things such as 
filmy ferns both on rocks and trees were quite shrivelled up. Many larger plants 
of a succulent nature were hanging limp and languishing for rain. They got it 
before I left. During the night I thought the matter over and came to the conclusion 
that if I took my bedding, provisions, &c. to the top and slept there it would take the 
kind of men 1 had a long time to get up, and I should get but few plants carried. 
Consequently I decided to leave my boy with all the things at the Kongsi-hou.se, 
take all the men out with me to carry plants and return at night. 

From this point none -of the men knew the path to the top, but they knew that 
higher up the stream, there was one more Kongsi which if we could find some inform- 
ation could be obtained so we kept to the stream until we struck it. Here- some 
qf the men spoke Malay and one came with us to show the path until a point was 
reached, after which there could be no mistake. 

't here is a pretty stiff bit before getting on to the last ridge but the whole dis- 
tance from Kuala Depang to the top could be done in a day by one in pretty good 
training and desirous of doing the thing quickly. The height I was told is 4,090 feet 
but judging from the*vegete.tion I. should have thought it more. The hut on the top 
is in excellent order and water is obtainable at a much less distance from the top 
than I expected. We remained on the top for about an hour, admiring the view and 
refreshing the inner man, after which we commenced to retrace our steps and collect 
things spotted on the way up. 

Up to this time 1 had not seen a spot of rain since leaving Penang but during 
the night it came on heavy and as the Kongsi-house leaked like a sieve, things were 
a bit uncomfortable. On the way down we got another thorough soaking so that 
by this time the vegetation will be looking much better than when I was up. Alto- 
gether it is a most interesting mountain. On th£ top there are a great number of 
the fir tree that grows on Government Hill “ Kayu Rue Bulat” (Dacrydium elatum) 
but they are smaller and more stunted. Most of the Orchids have rather insignificant 
or dull coloured flowers but they are very abundant. Some of the ground Orchids 
are of great interest. Two kinds of Rhododendrons, a pitcher plant, and scores of 
other things of great interest were noticed and collected. All the way up Palms 
abound, but the animals, monkeys I think, manage to get all the seeds before they 
are quite ripe. On the rocks are an abundance of Ferns, Begonias, Indian primroses 
and other small-growing plants in great variety. Having a day to spare after coming 
down, f tried Bujong Malacca again from the Kuala Depang Valley side. It is much 
steeper than the usual path to the top and I did not find anything strikingly different 
to what I had already collected the previous days. On the morning of the 12th I 
went out to some’rocks near Kuala Depang to get a Begonia and one or two other 
things noted previously and later in the day went on to Kampar, -where I remained 
the night in the Rest House. 

Arrived in Penang on the morning of the 14th. 

C. CURTIS. 




REPORTS ON THE OPERATIONS UNDER “ THE COCO-NUT TREES 
PRESERVATION ORpINANCE,” DURING 1898. 


Singapore ) 18th January, tSgg. 

The Inspector and Tree-climber made daily visits to the various coco-nut tree 
plantations saw-mills and tanneries. Three hundred and fifty-four (354) notices 
were served on persons owning infected or dead trees, or piles of cow-dung, 
saw-dust, refuse, tan-bark or other vegetable refuse containing beetles, and 1,636 
trees and forty piles of saw-dust and tan-bark, etc. were destroyed. A hundred 
trees for which no owner could be found were destroyed by coolies employed by 
the Department, and more would have been done on abandoned lands near Balestier 
Plain and Gelang had the vote permitted it. There were twehe prosecutions for 
non-compliance with the notices, and fines to the amount of $28 were inflicted. Some 
trouble was caused by the persons prosecuted, who would, on receipt of the summons, 
cut down a single tree and apply for further time as the work was not finished. The 
Magistrate would grant an extension, and no more work would be done till a second 
summons was taken out, when the owner would either ask for a further extension of 
time, or quickly cub down the trees and state in Court that the work was done, when 
the case would be dismissed without any penalty being inflicted. Meanwhile his 
neglected trees were infecting those of his neighbours. The attention of the Magis- 
trate being called to this trick, it was put a stop to. 


Vote for 1898, . , , . . ... $350.00 


Expenditure. 

Salaries of Inspector and Tree-climber, .. $238.45 

Extra coolies employed temporarily, ... 14.00 

Transport 93 .52 

Uniform, 3.50 

Balance, , ... , ... 0.53 


$350.00 

H. N,. RIDLEY, 

Director . 


Resident Councillor s Office, 

Penang , 4th February , i8gg . 

Sir, — l have the honour to forward a return furnished by the Assistant Superin- 
tendent of Forests of the operations of the department u nder ,f The Coco-nut Trees 
Preservation Ordinance.” 

2. Mr. CURTIS thinks that there is enough work in the Province to keep the 
Inspector employed all the time. 

3. No return is kept of the number or kind of beetles destroyed, as this is not 
done by the department, the duties of the staff being confined to inspecting planta- 
tions and warning and prosecuting the owners. 

1 have, &e., 


The Hon'ble 

the Celental Secretary, S. S. 


J.-K. BIRCH, 

Acting Resident Councillor . 


Information furnished by the Inspector under “ The Coco-nut Trees Preservation 
Ordinance,” for the Annual Report of the Assistant Superintendent of Forests, 
Penang, for 1898. 


No. ot dead Coco-nut 
Trees destroyed. 

No, of Coco-nut 
Trunks destroyed. 

No. of Dung-heaps 

destroyed. 

No. of heaps of Padi- 

husk destroyed. 

No. of Notices 

issued. 

No. of SummQnses 

issued. 

Amount of Fines 

recovered. 

« 

• 

Remarks. 

» 







$ c. 


Penang District. 

SSi 

2,824 

233 - 

33 

5*4 

16 

25 00 

4 Summonses caution- 
ed and discharged, 

Balik Pnlau District. 

248 

1,103 

102 

,6 

233 

s 

ix 50 


Province Wellesley, 
Northern District. ■ 

702 

1 ,449 

118 

44 

512 

3 i 

40 00 

2 Summonses with- 
drawn and 4 dis- 

Province Wellesley, Central 
and Southern Districts. 
208 

37 6 

70 

28 

160 

9 

8 50 

i * 

charged. 

3 Summonses more not 
yet come for hearing. 

C 739 

5,752 

523 

121 

! 1,489 

1 

61 

1 85 00 



C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 


Penang , 21st January , 1899. 


Resident Councillor’s Office, 

Malacca , 23rd January , 1899. 

SIR,— in reply to your letter C. S. 477/59 of the 16th instant, I have the honour 
to inform you that no operations have been carried on under The Coco-nut Trees 
Preservation Ordinance ” for several years in this Settlement. 

2. The Settlement is, I am glad to say, practically free from beetles. 


] have, die., 


C. w:s. KYNNERSLEY, 
Acting Resident Councillor 


The Hon‘ble 

the Colonial Secretary, S. S 


ANNUAL REPORT 


ON THE 

BOTANIC GARDENS 

FOR THE YEAR 


1 899 


H. N. RIDLEY, Esq., 

Director, 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY 


SINGAPORE : 

Printed at the Government Printing Office, 



Annual Report of the Botanic Gardens, Singapore. 


Staff. 

i. Mr. Curtis, Assistant Superintendent of the Penang Botanic Gardens, having 
gone home on leave in May ist, it was necessary to send Mr. Fox to Penang to act for 
him during his absence. He left for Penang in April 26th and returned November 6th. 
The plant-collector, TALKA, left early in the year and was replaced by a Malay KASDANI. 
The apprentice Simon left at the same time. The coco-nut trees inspection coolie 
Packay, who had been employed for ten years, died of small-pox, and was replaced by 
a Malay, and an extra coolie was employed for part of the year in cutting down dead 
anjj dying trees on abandoned coco-nut estates. The coolies worked well and there 
was no difficulty in obtaining as many as were required. The beri-beri which had been 
troublesome among them for the past two or three years entirely disappeared on the 
destruction of the old cooly lines and there was hardly any sickness of any kind 
among them after the new lines were built. 

Visitors. 

2. The number of visitors was as large as usual, and a good number of scientific 
botanists, planters and others interested in botany visited the gardens. The Regi- 
mental band played on moonlight nights and was much appreciated. There were 
but few thefts and those of a very petty nature and there were no prosecutions. 

Flower [Show. 

3. A most successful exhibition of flowering plants, ferns and begonias was 
field in the Town Hall in April. The display of flowers and especially orchids was 
much finer than on any previous occasion. 

Aviaries. 

4. The following animals and birds were added to the Zoological collection : — One 
leopard cat (Felis bengalensis) presented by Captain McGill, and one by the Hon'ble 
W, Egerton ; one slow loris {Nycticebus iardigradus) presented by Mr. R. O. H. 
DAWES ; one Chinese fox ( Cams sp.) presented by the Officers of H. M. S. Phoenix \ 
unfortunately it died in an epileptic fit brought on by excitement, to which these 
animals when young are subject ; one Russian fox [Cams vulpes) presented by the 
Russian Consul ; six white rats ( Mns decumanus var) presented by Mr. Yo Cho Pok ; 
one black buck ( Antilope cervicaprd) presented by Captain HARDCASTLE ; one 
Cervus hippelaphns from Java presented by J. Carroll Esq.; one Jabiru presented 
by Mr. Yap Wat; three water hens { Erythra phcenicura ) presented by Mr. St. V. B. 
Down; three black swans presented by the Sultan of Johore ; one owl ( Huhna 
orientalis) purchased; three kangaroos from West Australia presented by Mr. Le 
Sol'EF, but unfortunately they succumbed to the excessive wet of our climate. A 
common python was presented by Mr. Erskine, and two tortoises from Selangor by 
Mr. GOODENOUGH. A common monkey, a hybrid monkey, a deer, a kijang and a 

halanger were born as well as a litter of green vipers, La eke sis Wagleri. 

Plants received. 

5. During the year there were received 325 packets and bags of seeds, 300 
plants and 1,327 bulbs and tubers. Among which may be specially mentioned a large 
number of Lily bulbs from Japan, a new' Ginger from German East Africa, Amorpho- 
phallus Titanum (presented by Mr. Buttikofer), and among plants of special economic 
interest. Willughbeia edulis (from Saigon and Calcutta) Caryocar nuciferum from 
Kew. Dichopsis Krantziana (Saigon Gutta percha from Saigon,) Mascarenhaisia 
elastica from Madagascar, a new rubber, {Botanic Gardens, Berlin) five varieties of 
Ramie (Mr. BLUNTSCHLl); an unusually large variety of Papaya (Mr. Darby), 


2 


The contributors were: — 


Dr. Rabe. 

Mr. Meikle. ^ 

Mr. G. Penney. * 

Prof. Cornu. 

Right Reverend Bishop Hose. 
Mr. T. H. Tressider. 

Mr. E. Buttikofer. 

Mr. Micholitz. 

Mr. Chatter] ee. 


Mr. St. V. B. Down. 
Messrs. Daramann. 
Mr, Pereira. 

Mr. Schalz. 

Mr. F. Pears. 

Mr. C. Baxendale. 
Mr. Robert Little. 
Mr. Bluntschli. 

Mr. Derry. 


Mr. Gooden ough. 


.and the Botanic Gardens of Saharunpur, Nagpur, Calcutta, Tokio, Saigon, Jamaica, 
Trinidad, British Guiana, Brisbane, Adelaide, Sydney, Melbourne, Cape Town, Berlin 
and Kevv. 

Messrs. Carter also supplied as usual the flowering Annuals. 

Of ornamental or interesting plants, 156 packets of seeds and 114 plants were 
sent out to various gardens and private persons in exchange, and a considerable 
number were also purchased by residents, passengers, and others. I he chief demand 
at present is for palms, of which a large stock has to be kept up to supply the demand. 
Plants and seeds were sent to the gardens of Kew, Calcutta, Saigon, Brisbane, 
Ruitenzorg, Peradeniya, Old Calabar," West Australia, Edinburgh, Melbourne, also 
to Messrs. LOHER, ChATTERJEE, DaMMANN and WALTER. 


Plants in Flower. 


6. The following were among the more interesting of the plants which flowered 
for the first time in the Gardens, Bauhinia Vahlii (India) Grias cauliflora, the anchovy 
pear (West Indies) Begonia sinuata (Penang) Begonia sp. tuberous-rooted (Lankawi) 
Plumiera acuminata (South America) Adina ruhescens (Singapore) Taberncemontana 
crassa (West Africa) Ceropegia lucida (Penang) Sarcanthus rostellatus n.sp. (Perak) 
Coelogyne uniflora (Assam) Tainia fuscoviridis' (Assam) Cost us p ictus (South’ 
America), C. globosus (Singapore) Ludovia crenata (South America) Musa violascens 
(Selangor). Tupistra grandis n.sp. (Perak) Raphia rujfia (Madagascar) Anthurium 
strict um (South America) Aglaonema vittatum n.sp. (Sumatra) Amor pho phallus 
Titanum (Sumatra). Bowenia spectabilis (Australia). 


Upkeep and Buildings. 


7. The borders, beds and shrubberies were cleaned and replanted, many addi- 
tional ornamental trees and shrubs planted in various parts of the gardens and dying 
or dangerous trees removed, and a few new small beds and borders were rc*ade. The 
most important building put up was the new Cooly Lines. 1 he old lines were not 
only in a dangerous state of decay, but so infected with ben-ben that they were no 
longer fit for habitation and a large new building measuring 120 feet in length and 
36 feet in breadth, on brick pillars well raised above the ground was built-in another 
spot, at a cost of [,206 dollars and the improvement in health of the coolies was 
immediately noticeable. The watchmen’s quarters were also rebuilt. The fern house 
.and the anthurium house were re-roofed. 


Artist. - 


8. Early in the year CHARLES Alwis from Peradeniya was engaged to make 
drawings ol interesting local plants for the Flora of the Malay^PeninsuIa but did not 
fake up the appointment, and Mr. D. X. CHOUDHURY formerly employed in the 
Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, was engaged. He arrived on July 22nd and has been 
employed for the remainder of the year in making drawings. 


V ote 

Expenditure 
'Salary of Artist 
Materials ... 


$ 700.00 


Balance 


287.09 

38.60 

374-31 


$700 00 


3 


Herbarium. 

9. Owing to the absence of the Assistant Superintendent for a considerable 
part of the year, it was impossible to make any botanical excursions, and compar- 
atively few specimens were added to the herbarium. During my annual visit to 
Penang, the Dindings and Selangor, I obtained a small collection of plants, Mr. CURTIS 
sent 136 specimens from Penang, Mr. Fox collected some plants in Penang and also 
in the Thaiping Hills, including a pretty new Dendrobium; Mr. Derry sent also a 
number from Perak, Mr. Goodenough sent 240 from Selangor, and Mr. MlCHOLlTZ 
presented specimens from Labuan. 

The plant-collector was sent to Selangor but obtained very little. A hundred 
specimens of Australian ferns were received in exchange from the Sydney Botanic 
Gardens. 

Duplicate specimens for naming or exchange were sent to various establishments 
and botanists, vis., 221 specimens to Kew, 439 to Calcutta, 67 to the British Museum, 
1,130 to Dr. Gandoger in exchange for books, 400 to Sydney Museum, 44 ferns to 
Dr. Christ, 30 to the Pharmaceutical Society and 105 mosses to Mr. MiTTEN for 
naming. A number of fungi were sent to Kew, and named by Mr. MASSE E who 
found a large proportion of new species among them, which were described in the 
Kew Bulletin. 

Five pounds of the bark of Roucheria G riffithiana “ Ipoh Akar Putih,” supposed 
to be poisonous and used in the Sakai dart poison were sent to Dr. GRESHOFF for 
•examination. 

A few specimens of woods were obtained and added to the collection, and a 
specimen of the Gutta of Dichopsis Maingayi from Jelebu was presented by Mr, Gunn. 

Library. 

10. The following books were added to the Gardens Library during the year : — - 

Hiern and Rendle.— Catalogue of Wehvitsch’s African plants vol. iii presented 
by the Trustees of the British Museum. 

Trimen, Dr. — Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon, vol. iv. 

Dyer, Sir W. T. Thiselton — Flora of Tropical Africa, presented by Royal Gar- 
dens, Kew. 

Lhotsy, f. P. — Cinchona Calisaya and succirubra, * 

Maiden, J. H. — A preliminary study of Prickly Pears, 

,, Indigenous vegetable drugs, i. ii., * 

„ 'bracts on New South Wales, * 

,, A variety of Panicum decompositura, * 

Notes from the Botanic Gardens, Sydney, * 

,, Observations on Eucalypti of New South Wales, * 

,, The Weeds of New South Wales, * 

Christ, Dr. — Pteridographische Notizen, ^ 

,, Fougeres de Mengtze, Yunnan", * 

„ Monographic de Elaphoglossum, * 

,, Enumeratio de quelques Fougeres, * 

Raciborski, M. — Biologische Mitheilungen aus Java, * 

,, Weitere Mitheilungen, * 

,, * Pseudogardneria, * 

Pflanzen pathologisches aus Java, £. 

„ Einegen Demonstrationeer’s versuche mit Leptomia, -* 

Heine, Dr, — Biologic relations between ants and plants, * 

Medley-Wood, J. — Natal plants. 

Berg, Dr, C. — Communicaciones del Musei Naciqual de Buenos Ayres. 

Riviere, Ch. — Notes on Ramie, presented by Mr. South. 

Galbraith, S. J. — Vanilla culture, f 

Chesnut, R. — Thirty poisonous plants of North America, f 
Merriam, C. H. — Lifezones and cropzones of North America, f 
" North American Fauna, t 

Trelease, W. — Botanical opportunity, t 
Beal, E. L. — Cuckoos and shrikes, f 
Bailey, L. H. — Factors of organic evolution, t 
Plumb, C. S. — Geographic distribution of Cereals, t 



* Presented by the Author. 

t Presented by the Department of Agriculture, U. S .A. 


4 


Carleton, F. A. — Cereal diseases of the United States, * 

Galloway, B. T. — Potato diseases and their treatment, * 
j New Spraying Devices, * 

Loew', O. — Cigar leaf tobacco, * 

Murray, John — General conditions of existence and distribution of Marine 
organisms, t 

Gage. S. H. — Processes cf life revealed by the Microscope, t 

Gill, Theo. — Some questions of Nomenclature, t 

Schweinitz, E. A. — War with the Microbes, f 

Huffaker, E. C. — Soaring Flight, f 

Miall, L. C. — Life History studies of Animals, t 

Hamy, E. T. — Royal Menagerie of France, f 

Thayer, A. T. — The law which underlies protective coloration, t 

De Haan, J. V. B. — Mededeeling — Tabak’s Aaltje, t 

Bijlert, Dr. A. V. — -Oenderzoek van Deli Tabak, + 

Kramers, J. G. — Andere Mededeeling over Koffie, t 
Cameron, J. — Report of a visit to Coorg, X 
Moore, C. — Census of plants of New South Wales, X 

Wilde man, E. de, and Durand, I h. — Illustrations de la Flore de Congo., J 
,, Flore Algologique, X 

,, Annales de Musee de Congo, % 

Gandoger, M. -Flora Europae, 27 vols., § 

Jt Flore Lyonnaise, § 

Rosae novse, § 

v Essai Nouvelle classilication des Roses. § 

,, Decades Plantarum Novarum, § 

Tabulae Rhodologicse, § 

Sebire, R. P. A.— Plantes utiles de Senegal, || 

Clouth, Fr. — Gummi Gutta percha and Ralata, || 

Massee, G. — Text book of Plant diseases, |j 
Dyer, Sir W. T. T.— Dipterocarpese, |[ 

Hegelmaier, F. — Monographische Untersuching der Lemnaceen, || 

Collingwood, L. C. — Nutmeg and other cultivation in Singapore, _ || 

C pgni.au x and Goossens — Dictionnaire Iconographique des Orchidees ( continua- 
tion }. 

Also the following publications were presented to the Library by the Various- 
Gardens and Institutions which publish them. Indian Museum Notes, Tropen- 
pflanzen, Chemist and Druggist Agricultural Ledger, Planting Opinion, Report of the 
Secretary of Agriculture of the United States, Experimental Station Records, Experi- 
mental Farm Reports, Ottawa Transactions of the Botanic Society, Edinburgh, 
Annual Reports of the Botanic Gardens of West Australia, Missouri^ Queensland, 
Old Calabar New South Wales, Queensland Acclimatization Society, Jamaica, South 
Australia, Mysore, Calcutta, Grenada, Trinidad, Hongkong, Forest Reports of Madras, 
British Guiana, Ceylon, Zanzibar, Victoria Zoological Acclimatization Society, Notiz- 
biatt of the Botanic Gardens, Berlin, Bulletin Economique de V Indo-China, Botanic 
Museum Haarlem. Year book of the U. S. A. Department of Agriculture. Reports 
of the Botanic Survey of India, Perak Museum Notes, Calcutta Gardening Circular, 
Forester of U. S. America* leones Bogorienses, Bulletin of Buitenzorg, Journal of 
Agriculture of Zanzibar and Cape of Good Hope, Journal of the Board of Agriculture, 
Kew Bulletin, leones Plantarum . Merck’s Digests, Report of Selangor Forest Depart- 
ment, Perak Museum Notes, Report of Selangor Planters Association. Ceylon, 
Jamaica and Trinidad Bulletins, Annals of the Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg. Journal 
of the Linn can Society. 

While the following journals were purchased as usual : — Botanical Magazine,. 
Tropical Agriculturist, Gardener’s Chronicle. 

Economic Gardens. 

11. A considerable space of ground on the top of the central hill was cleared 
and dug over for planting gutta percha, and it was planted in part with guttapercha, 
a row of Suntai Bassici "sp. fr&m Sumatra which produces an interior Gutta and a 
number of plants of Saigon Gutta. Dichopsi's Krantziana , almost all are growing well. 

It was found advisable to make a cart roacl through the Garden, as the present 
roads are too narrow for carts to go safely through, whe n finish e d it wil l also make 

* Presented by the Department of Agriculture, U. S. A. 
f Presented by the Smithsonian Institute 
X Presented by the Author. 

§ Received in exchange. 

|| Purchased. 


a pleasant drive for carriages. The proposed route starting from J. he Dalvey Road 
entrance passes along the base of the central hill and joins the Cluny Road at the 
main entrance. The first part of the road has been cleared and levelled, the scrub 
between the boundary and the hffing felled, the around levelled and turfed; 

It is hoped to complete the road this year, but the vote will not permit of its being' 
laterited at present. A large number of useless, dead and dying trees were cut down 
and removed, including two large Erythrinas which were killed by lightning. 

Para-rubber . — The demand for this plant shewed no signs of diminution, and 
the crop of seed supplied by the trees was larger than ever, no less than 157,652 
seeds and 4,930 plants being distributed. The larger amount of crop was due in part 
to the adoption of the plan of gathering th'e fruit by hand, without waiting for the seed 
to fall, so that a quantity which was formerly lost by falling upon the roads and into 
the streams was saved. It was found that the coolies soon learnt what fiuifs were 
ripe, and there were no losses from gathering immature fruit. The whole crop 
amounted to 157,652 seeds and 4,930 plants. 

Thev were distributed as follows :• — 


Singapore 

600 

seeds and 30 

plant 

Malacca 

75 . 95 1 

> 900 

» 

Selangor 

70,707 

,, 800 

1 1 

Perak 

Johore 

1,271 

1,850 

1,800 


Borneo 

Pahang 

G 273 

1,400 

f ' 


Seedling plants were less in demand, the planters preferring seed as easier to 
ship and cheaper; stumps however, i. e., plants of one or two years 1 old and ten or 
tifteen feet tall were much in request. Younger plants when planted out are found 
to be attacked by all manner of pests, deer, inouse-deer, crickets, grasshoppers, wild 
pigs, snails and even crabs are reported as doing much damage by biting off the tops. 

Ramie. 


12. Comparatively little was done in Ramie this year, and the cultivation in the 
Peninsula is not increasing to any extent. Plants of various strains from China, Java, 
and Sumatra were presented to the Gardens by Mr. Rankine and Mr. BLUNTSCHLI, 
over six thousand plants and cuttings were distributed. 

Sago. 


13. A large number of seeds and plants were sent to Saigon, where it is pro- 
posed to introduce the cultivation. _ ,. 

Of other economic plants, Coca, Patchouli, Coffea stenophylla, Nutmegs, Gambier- 
seed Pineapples, and fruit trees, were distributed. A large number of seeds of timber 
trees, Tembusu, Eugenia grandis, Pithecolobium bigeminum, Albizzia Moluccana, etc., 
wer e supplied to the Forest Department, Selangor. . 

' Of economic plants new to the Gardens there were received from Saigon, 
plants of Dichopsis Krantziana , an inferior Gutta percha from Cochin-China, Wil- 
luffhbeia edulis, one of the Getah grips from Assam, which produces an edible fruit 
and an inferior rubber, Urceola elastic* , from Penang, one of the best local rubbers. 
Landolphia sp from Trinidad, (sent from Kew). Mascarenhaisia elastica, a rubber 
plant from Madagascar sent from Berlin, Vanilla pompona (Mexico) and seeds of the 
Butternut Caryocar nuciferum from Kew ; seeds of Psoralea corylifoha (a green 
soiling plant) and good strains of Castor-oil were sent from Calcutta. 

Gutta Percha. 


I c The diminishing supply of ihis product has caused some anxiety among the 
consumers, and the cultivation of the plant has been strongly urged by the Colonial 
Officer Steps are now being taken to carry this out on as large a scale as possible. 
It is now very difficult to procure seed owing to the destruction of all the larger wild 
trees by the gutta-coliectors, so that there are few trees of sufficient size to produce 
fruit left in accessible parts of the Peninsula, stumps and cuttings are however still 
procurable from the Peninsula and -from Borneo. Mr. DUNLOP procured a large 
number of cuttings of Dichopsis from Borneo which he brought to Singapore. These 
were dry lookina sticks about 8 inches or a foot long of various thicknesses, some 
being half an inch through, but most were smaller. They had been coated in 
black mud and packed in bundles in gunnies. These were planted in good soil in the 
Botanic Gardens, shaded and tiered and a number produced shoots and roots, and 


6 


hive been since planted out in the Garden, and in the Bukit 1 imah forest reserve, 

\ very lar<*e proportion did not grow, and those that did were very irregular in the 
time of growth, some struck almost at once, others delayed for nearly a year 
Enquiries elicited the fact that a considerable proportion had been cut no less than 
seven months previously, and kept dry all that time. Those that had been cut only 
two or three months previously grew readily. Among those that came up r was 
noticed that there were not only Dichopsis oblongifolia, but also D. cal op hy a n 
as Niatoh Waringin in Borneo, a very handsome plant stated to supply J 

superior gutta. This species seems to grow better and faster than D.oblo g f ■ 
There was also a plant of Getak Sundik, Payena Leeru, the white Gutta percha 
which grew very rapidly. A number of cuttings of D. oblongtfoha were also presented 
to the Gardens by Mr. PEARS of Muar, which seem likely to do well. ^ 
able that owing to the difficulty of procuring seed, the system of gro g 
cuttings will be°the most suitable system for cultivation. It is noticed that the small 
and thin cuttings either do not strike or if they do throw up shoots they soon wither 
off. The shoots often attain considerable growth before any roots appear on the 
cuttings, and frequently quite a bushy little plant has only one or two very 1 
lets. This slow development of roots probably accounts for the damping 
apparently strong plants on their being planted out. 

Plant diseases. 

16. I visited in the spring the districts in Selangor which were affected by the 
plague of the Coffee caterpillar Cc-phonodes Hylas and and trvmg 

for a few days examining into the life history and habrts >"»«** 

exoeriments on it. These investigations with those made by Mr. A. L. BUTLER will b. 
described in a Bulletin now in course of printing A number oOnjunoMmsects wer . 
sent to the British Museum for ident.ficat.on, and were named by ^ WWERHOUSB, 
they included the Banana Weevils, Sphenophorus sordidus, Rose sawfly H. vle.mus 
Victoria; and others of which accounts are being printed in the New Bulletin. 

A very injurious fungus was found attacking the roots of a fig-tree m one of the 
shrubberies. It spreads all through the ground and destroyed almost every plant for 
considerable distance round the tree. Specimens sent to Kew w .« re r ^ d ^ 

a species of Rosellinia , a genus of most deadly root-fungi. The diseased plains v e 
dug up, and all roots, twigs, etc., affected burnt, the ground was dug over and Unhand 
copper sulphate (Bordeaux mixture) freely applied, which arrested the 'growth i of the 
fungus and quite exterminated it. Bordeaux mixture was also used on .Clown trees 
suffering from a leaf-fungus, the trees being syringed with the solution, with excellent 

results. _ , a _ 

Vote for Economic Gardens #2,200.00 

Expenditure : — 

Salaries ... 

Manure ... 

Pots and Tubs 
Ataps, lime and bricks 
Tools 

Balance ... 


|i. 857 - 7 2 

59-65 

69.60 

25.00 

I4I.89 

46.14 


$ 2 , 200.00 


Forestry. 

17. 1 visited Penang and the Dindings in the spring, and inspected the forest 

reserves in part in both places. In December, while in Malacca, 1 inspected the Gar- 
dens at the Ayer Keroh Reservoir, and went over much of the ground which has been 
marked** out for the planting of Gutta percha and India rubber. 1 he various plants 
in the Gardens, mostly sent from the Singapore Gardens are growing with remarkable 
vigour, chiefly noticeable are the Para-rubber, Ficus elastica and Ceara-rubber. the 
soil here is gravelly and dry and seems to suit this latter plant very well. It grew 
absolutely faster than the Para-rubber, and there were one year old trees 10 or 12 
feet tall with a stem three inches through at the base. Its latex seemed rich nv 

rubber, and it may prove an useful cultural plant in dry upland gravelly places 

where little else will grow. Ficus elastica was also very thnving, and this plant *s 

becoming, I am informed, popular with the Chinese. The Hon’ble Resident Coun- 

cillor showed me an excellent sample of rubber taken by Chinese from three year o Id- 
trees. The country round the waterworks formerly covered to a large extent with 


7 


lalang is now nearly covered by secondary jungle, the difference in one year being very 
marked. The most useful tree in expelling lalang is the Leban, Vitex pubescens, 
which not only kills it out but also is useful as supplying a good building timber. 
The Tampinis planted here some years ago have grown into trees of considerable size, 
but for want of pruning hjive as usual branched too much to supply good beams at 
present. 

At Bukit Timah about three acres of land at the base of the hill, were cleared of 
scrub, dug and planted with Gutta percha plants. The Bilian trees formerly planted 
here were freed from the overcrowding jungle, and the Merbau and other trees 
cleaned, and dug round, Para-rubber, Tembusu and other trees were planted round in 
suitable places. 

The Para-rubber trees at Bukit Mandai were inspected and the grass cleared 
round them. ' They have made fair growth but have not yet fruited. A special vote 
of 455 dollars was granted for the Bukit Timah and Bukit Mandai planting. 


Vote 

$455 00 

Expenditure : — 

— 

Salaries of Coolies . . 

218.61 

‘Rikisha for Mandor 

35 - 7 ° 

Cart hire 

7-50 

Plants 

25.00 

Balance . . . 

168.19 


1455 ' 00 


Coco-nut Trees Inspection. 

i8. An additional cooly for cutting down the trees on abandoned and Govern 
ment ground was employed from April t’o the end of the year. He destroyed three 
hundred and eightv-two trees at Teluk Kurau, Gelang Road and Ballestier Road. 
The old tree-climber having died, he was replaced by another named OSMAN in May. 
One thousand and eighty-six diseased coco-nut trees, thirty-eight stumps and ten . piles 
of decaying vegetable matter were destroyed during the year. There were no pro- 


secutions under the ordinance. 

Vote ... ... ..v ... § 45 °-° 0 

Expenditure : — — 

Salaries of Inspector and Coolies ... 299.46 

Transport ... ... 112,78 

Uniforms, etc. ... * 7-45 

Balance ... 20,31 


$450.00 


Government House Grounds. 

19. The Gardens were kept up in a good condition by the JVIandor Rogers. 
and the Coolies worked well and there were no complaints. The beds in front of the 
house were bright with Cannas for most of the year. The hedges were repaired all 
round, but great difficulty was experienced in keeping natives from - breaking them 
down. The plant-houses were re-attapped, and two iron arches were erected to 
carry plants of 1 pomea Horsfallice. 

Vote 

Expenditure : — 

Salaries . . 

Pots and Tubs 
Planks and A taps 
Tools 

Balance 


$2,360.00 

2,052.96 

82.64 

5°33 

149.22 

24.85 


$2,360.00 




/ 


8 


BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 


Statement of Receipts and Expenditure, for the year 1899. 


Receipts . 


Expenditure. 


1 c. 

Salaries. 

* 

$ c. 

S c . 

By Balance in Bank ... 
r Government Grant 
Sale of Plants, Seeds 
and Flowers ...| 

„ Interest 

1,254 69 
8,500 00 

4,605 76 1 
26 55 : 

Clerk 

Mandore 

Carpenters, (three) 

Masons, (two) 

Label Printer 
Plant-collectors, (two) 

Peon 

Aviary-keeper 

Police 

Coolies 

Rice Allowance 

247 00 
251 74 
360 70 

150 85 

120 ooi 
126 79 
97 00 
92 20 
348 00 

3,344 291 
652 5 8j 

5,79i 15 



Bills. 



- 

Tools and Stores 

Laterite, Gravel, Sand, etc. 
Timber, etc. 

Pots and Tubs 

| Birds’ and Animals’ Food . . . 

Manure and Cartage 
| Buildings and Repairs 
| Freight on Plants 
i Books, Papers, etc. 

Plants and Seeds 
! Subscription to Telephone 

1 Wardian Cases, etc. 

1 Petty Expenses 
Miscellaneous 

503 81 
336 26 

433 99 
371 07 
1,466 47 
! 249 10 
1,301 84 

124 8l 

233 66 

125 oc 

! 97 5c 

1 42 oc 

200 3c 
218 52 

1 

1 

> 

» 

) 

5>7°4 43 







Balance 


n,495 58 
2,891 42 

1 


$14,387 oc 



^14,387 00 




1 

i . 


Botanic Gardens, Penang. 

Waterfall Garden. 

There has been no change in the permanent staff, but Mr. W. Fox was in charge 
from the 1st May to the 31st October during my absence on leave. 

2. Mp. Fox says that owing to exceptionally heavy rains during that time, 
which caused much damage to roads and paths, and several land-slips, nearly all the 
available labour was required in repairing and maintaining the roads and grounds in 
decent order and prevented the carrying out of improvements or extension to any 
great extent. 

3. The most important w T ork of improvement during tl^e year is the reconstruc- 
tion of the Fern Shed in iron. Most of the material for this was purchased out of the, 
1898 Vote and the work of erection carried out by the Garden Overseer and coolies. 
It is a great improvement on the old wooden shed and will be easier and less expen- 
sive to maintain in the future. 


gt 


9 


4- The approach to the granite bridge built in 1898 has been raised and metalled. 
Three hundred and nine feet of side drains built in rough masonry, and other minor 
improvements to roads carried out. 

5. The large iron plant shed near the entrance has been re-covered with “Chicks' 
and continues to be one of the most interesting features of the Garden. Many of the 
local tree ferns and other plants have attained a large size and an appearance such as 
is seldom seen when grown in pots. 

6. As in previous years, Cannas have been an important feature among flower- 
ing plants. All the beds were replanted and heavily manured in April and have been 
in continuous flower right through the wet weather when most other flowers are 
scarce. 

7. A large batch of Convolvulus grown in pots were very attractive during the 
early part of the year owing to their great range of colour. The seeds were obtained 
from Japan and said to be seeds of double forms, but the nearest approach were a few 
indifferent semi-doubles of no great merit. The single flowers were however very 
beautiful. 

8. On my way home in May, 1 took advantage of the boat remaining two days 
in Colombo to visit the Peradeniya Gardens and made notes of several things which 
we hope to receive from there later on. 

9. On my return from leave in November, 1 brought out a large collection of 
econpinic and ornamental plants, principally from the Royal Gardens, Kew, Messrs. 
F. Sander & Co., and Messrs. Jas. Veitch & Sons ; to all of whom the thanks of 
this department is due for their great liberality. Nearly all these plants, and also 
two Wards cases of plants handed to my care bv the Director, Kew, for the Singapore 
Gardens, arrived in excellent condition scarcely a plant being dead. Among the 
valuable plants from Kew are six plants of African rubber (Kickxia Africana) all of 
which are growing. Messrs. Sander & Co. contributed a fine lot of Cattleyas, 
Begonia, &c., and Messrs. VEITCH & Sons, Ferns^ Palms, &c. 

10. The usual interchange of plants and seeds has been carried on with 
Botanical and Horticultural Establishments and private individuals to about the same 
extent as in previous years, and plants sold to the value of $883.17 which is an 
increase of $187.77 on the previous year. 

1 1. The total expenditure of this garden amounted to $4,482.86, details of which, 
together with expenditure of other votes, is given in Appendix A annexed. 

Governor’s Hill Bungalow Garden, 

12. During the latter part of the year Air. O’Keefe, Overseer in charge, was on 
leave and his duties were satisfactorily performed by Sergeant WELLS. The usual 
supply of Vegetables and Flowers were maintained and the grounds kept in fairly 
good order. During January and February there was a fine show of Annuals, Phlox, 
and Dianthus having clone remarkably well. Dendrobium Fytehianum planted on 
the trees flowered very freely and was much admired. 

13. As is always the case here a large proportion of the labour was required in 
^repairing damage done by heavy rains. I give below the rainfall registered at this 
^station during the year. 


Month. 

Rainfall. 

Greatest 
fall in 

24 hours. 

Month. 

Rain fall. 

Greatest 
fall in 

24 hours. 


Inches 

P. 

Inches. 

I p. 


Inches. 

P. 

Inches 

p. 

January 

8 

3 ° 

3 

10 

July 

1 1 

36 

2 

16 

February 

1 

80 

1 

10 

August 

27 

99 

7 

55 

March 

4 

1 1 

1 

28 

September 

26 

08 

9 

30 

April 

4 

19 


74 

October 

15 

36 

2 

29 

May 

22 

87 

4 

1 1 

November 

17 

42 

4 

34 

June 

9 

67 

2 

75 

December 

p- 

42 

1 

18 



1 

j 


Total Rainfall 

*54 

57 

. 



Experimental Nursery. 

14. Nothing requiring special mention has been done in this Nursery. Two 
men only are employed to keep the weeds down and a portion of their time is devoted 
to keeping in order the grounds of Belle Vue Bungalow. 


IO 


15. As pointed out in my last year’s report there is no further object in spending 
much on this Nursery as it has been proved that it is not high enough for European 
fruits, and for the purpose of experiment with rubbers and such other economic 
products as is likely to be of commercial value, the land is too steep and limited in 

area. 

Preservation of Coco-nut Trees. 

16. The Inspector and two men have been employe d during alternate months 
in Penang and Province Wellesley in inspecting plantations Cow-sheds, stable yards. 
&c„ and in insisting on the destruction or removal o( dead trees, manure heaps, &c.„ 

in which the Coco-nut Beetle is likely to breed. . 

17. Three thousand eight hundred and sixty- seven notices were served resu 
incr in the destruction or removal of seven thousand three hundred and sixty-seven 
•dead trees or portion of frees, and seven hundred and forty-two heaps of rubbish. 
Forty-four persons who failed to comply with the notices within the specified time 


No. of dead Coco- nut 
Trees destroyed. 

| 

No. of Coco-nut 
Trunks destroyed. 

< 

No. of Dung-heaps 

destroyed. 

No. of heaps of 
Padi-husks des- 
troyed. 

No. of Notices 

issued. 

- 

No. of Summonses 

issued. 

\ 

\ 

, 

Northern District, 






Province Wellesley . 

873 

G3°7 


65 

1,920 

27 

Central District , 


- 

, 



Province Wellesley. 





} 

482 

756 

7 2 

34 

609 

7 

Southern District , 






Province Wellesley. 

114 

208 

70 

26 

1 12 

Nil : 

Penang. 






50' 

i 3>°3* 

■ 

2Q2 

3 2 

1,226 

10 ! 
f 

2,065 

5?3° 2 

585 

157 

3.867 

44 


Cfi 

1 ) 

G 

rC "c 
<u 

'-(-1 

o aj 
, > 
c 0 

5 u 

o i_ 
S 


$ 


49 50 


12 so 


Nil 


17 00 


Agricultural Show. 

,8 A most successful Agricultural Show was held at Butterworth, Province 
Wellesley -in June, an account of which was published ,n ^ Government Gazette 
ol August 25th. Altogether there were nine hundred and eighty exhibits and the 

‘“‘“Irr^^’the'GovernorfHni’Bungalovv Garden was exhibited a collection of European 
V 1 ul /ll for romnetition) which received honourable mention. Samples of Para- 
Ve l' ) Ae Wat^Wl Garden also attracted attention. Mr. R. Derrv. 

Superintendent of Government Plantations, Perak, exhibited a splendid collection of 
tuberous Begonias, Pelargoniums, Fuchsias, &c., grown on Maxwell s Hill at an eleva- 
tion of nearly 4,000 feet I am told that from a horticultural point of view this was 
the most interesting feature of the show. It is also a striking example of what a 
few degrees of temperature will do for plains. None of these things can be satisfac- 
torily grown in the plains no matter what pains are taken. 

Governor’s New Quarter, Sepoy Lines. 

,0 Considerable alteration and improvements have been made in the grounds 
l 9-, Lon~iueiciu , removal of the bamboo fences and planting 

of the Governor s New Q u ^ r ^ J i- f om t } ie Waterfall Garden. Before planting, 

get up, will be satisfac.toi} . 

Para-Rubber. 

In last year’s report, I gave the result of tapping the largest Para-rubber 


20 . 


tree growing in the Garden, planted in 1885. Since then two more tappings of the 
same tree have been made, first in April, and again in November, without, so far as 
can at present be seen any injury to the tree. The result of these tappings, all 
practically within a year, is close on nine pounds of dry rubber, in addition to this, 
one pound was taken in 1897 an< ^ valued at 3/3 per lb. There is said to be a consi- 
derable difference in the yield of trees of the same size and age growing under similar 
conditions, so possibly this is an exceptionally good one and it is desirable that 
several trees should be operated on at the same time in order to arrive at a correct 
estimate of the average return. Unfortunately we have not the means of doing this 
here as there are only a few trees in the Garden and most of them planted in poor 
dry stony soil where they have made very slow growth. On the first occasion tap- 
ping was commenced on the 1 6th November and terminated on the 201I1 December, 
and yielded 3tfcs dry rubber. The second commenced on the 8th of April and con- 
tinued to 14th May, the result being - 2 ^ 1 bs of dry rubber. Third commenced on the 
23rd November and ended on the 231-d December. The first and third tappings took 
place towards the end of the wet season and the second at the end of what may be 
considered our dry season. The same number of collections were made on each 
occasion. A thin shaving was removed from the lower surface of the oblique cuts, 
made on the first morning, thirteen times on alternate mornings unless Sunday inter- 
vened or rain prevented. At 11 A.M. the tins were brought in and the contents 
poured into a soup plate and by the following morning it had coagulated. After 
pressing out the water by hand it was weighed. Unfortunately the record of the 
weights of the April-May tapping has been lost, but as each day’s collection was 
numbered and preserved there is no doubt as to the correctness of the quantity of 
dry rubber obtained. The following table show's the quantity obtained each day at 
the first and third tappings and is interesting as showing the small quantity obtained 
at the beginning and the necessity of renewing the wound on the same surface. 


Weight of Wet Rubber obtained at each collection in ounces. j ]>y 1 


No. of Collection 


April-May, 1S99 
November-December, 
1899 



1 

f 

i 


s 

• j 

! 

j 


; 

: 

oz. 

! ft | oz. 

1 I 

2 , 

3 4 

5 *' 

7 

00 

IO 

1 

1 i | 

12 

13 | r 4 

j 

. . . 1 

! 

... ... 

3 

4 

if 

A. 

041 u ! 

i 9 6 i 


6:V8 h 

6 

: 6.1 

1 O 

00 

isr- 

OO 

si 

iA 

3 T- 

1 j 


1 

; 



| 




1 


2 i 8 

1 r 

i 

ijrl 

2 I 

6| ! 8 1 

ro 

jiof: 6£ 

9 

! i i4 

In i 

[ I ! 8 

6! 4*1 

3 i 4 


Total amount of dry rubber from one tree in one year . . . j 8 ■ 12 


* Among planters here there appears to be no doubt as to the satisfactory growth 
of this tree but some have doubts, based mainly on reports from Ceylon, whether the 
yield will be sufficient to make it a paying crop. From what I saw as the result of 
tappings at Peradeniya Gardens, Ceylon, last May, and what the Director told me, 
nothing like the results obtained in Perak, Singapore, and Penang are obtainable there; 
unless they have not hitherto continued operating long enough on the same cuts. As 
regards the cost of collection the average time for these experiments was half-an- 
hour for each collection, or a total of twenty-two hours for eight and three-quarter 
pounds of rubber. To this must be added the cost of drying, but this is not a serious 
matter. Onthe2ist November last, 1 visited Mr. D. LOGAN’S Estate in Province 
Wellesley and made notes of the progress-of the trees planted there. The first were 
planted in March, 1898, and had therefore been planted at the time of my visit one 
vearand nine months. 

The largest tree measured eighteen feet high with a girth at three feet from the 
ground of 6} inches. Many others are almost as tall and thick and the average of a 
number of measurement gave 15 feet height and 4! inches girth. A plot planted nine 
months later, i. e.,in December, 1898, has grown relatively better, the average being 
12 feet high and t 4 inches in girth. The whole plantation looks well but there have 
been many losses’ among those planted during 1899 owing to their being submerged 
before they bad Jbecome established. 

After* this tree has become well rooted, flooding the land for a time does not 
appear to do much harm but when newly planted it is fatal. Some rows that 1 
advised being manured with cattle manure in the early part of the year as an experi- 
ment show no appreciable benefit from the treatment. 


Gutta Percha. 

21. On my return from leave at the beginning of November, 1 received from 
the Hon’ble the Resident Councillor some correspondence with reference to Gutta 
Taban ” (Dichopsis gutta). I have not yet had time to examine all the forest 
reserves so as to be able to give a definite idea of the number of trees ,n Penang but 
I am certain that there are many more than is generally supposed. 

In one morning, I counted twenty-three trees, some of them sixty feet high, and 
the smallest forty. The largest measured 51 inches m circumference at 6 feet rom 
the ground and the smallest eleven inches. With the exception of a tew young trees 
two g to four feet high, found near two of the largest trees, there appears to be nothing 
intermediate in size’ between those mentioned ( which are probably all about the 
same age) and young seedlings of three or four months old, which show, that some 
of tbetties fruited during the past year. There are several possible ways o 
accounting for the absence of trees of intermediate stages, such as the destruction 
the seeds or young plants by animals, or as is sometimes the case in this county, 
.the trees only fruiting at long intervals, but I believe the correct explanation he. in 
ihe fact that up to 1884 which was the first conception of Forest Conservancy in this 
Settlement every Gutta tree was cut down in the customary native manner as soon 
as it was big enough to pay for working and before it was old enough to Produce 
seeds and this season is the first crop of any importance that has been produced for 
a long time. 1 am confirmed in this opinion by the fact that we have been watching 
for fruit of this tree for many years and only on one occasion succeeded in ge g 
evu sufficient for herbarium specimens.' About eight hundred young plants have 
been collected and planted in pots to be grown on until large enough to be planted 

° Ut ‘propagation 'by buttings again proved a failure. Attempts at tapping one tree 
in the same manner as Para-rubber proved a failure, a little gutta i. obtained when 
the incisions are first made but not enough to pay for collecting in this manner, and 
.a renewal of the cuts as in Para-rubber yield nothing. 

Botanical Tours. 

, , i n February. I obtained the use of the Government Steam Launch for four 
<lavs and visited the'Langkawi Islands. Many of the small Didymocarps and other 
rock plants were however shrivelled up and difficult to find. Most of the trees on 
the smaller rocky Islands were quite leafless and presented a striking contrast to the 

vegetation in Penang at the same season. 

Impatiens Mirahilis (Gouty Balsam) which was one of the objects of my journey, 

I found quite leafless at this season. . f , 

It grows on and between sharp pointed dark coloured rocks within a few yards 
of the sea beach and at a short distance has a striking resemblance to the antlers of 
1 deer Plants five lo six feet high, and with stems more than a foot in diameter 
at the base were seen, but the branches are so brittle that it is almost impossible to 
tel them down from the rocks without damaging them. 1 did not attempt to bring 
awav the largest plants, and those we did get were only obtained in good condition 
by placing several men in a line a few feet apart and passing the plants from hand lo 

hand, then moving on and repeating the process. . . f . 

To move about on these sharp rocks in an upright position is a matter of great 
-difficulty even with strong boots, and' with bare feet almost an impossibility. 

Many other interesting plants were collected and it is desirable that a visit 
should be made to these Islands about the middle of the rains. 1 here are no doubt 
many small rock plants that are not to be seen in the dry weather and that is the 
only season at which any collector has so far as I know been there. 

' The reason for this is that during the South-West Monsoon it is not very safe to 
go out in a* small Launch and there is no other way of doing it except in a sailing 

'’“‘bn mv return from the Island of Terutau to Kwah, I had the good fortune to 
meet there His Highness the Rajah Muda of Kedah, who not only assisted me at the 
time but promised every assistance should it be found possible to get out there this 

year during the wet weather. . 0 . , 

^ 21 In October, Mr. Fox, while acting here, made a short visit to Perak and 

added many specimens to the herbariums both in Penang and Singapore. He also 

collected many living plants for cultivation. 

C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 


ijth January, 1900 


. Revenue and Expenditure of the Botanic Gardens , Penang, 1899. 


Revenue. . 


Government Grant- — 
Maintenance of Water- 
fall Garden 


Government Grant — 
Upkeep of Grounds of 
Governor’s Hill Bungalow 


Government Grant- 
Maintenance of Experi- 
mental Nursery 

m 


Government Grant — 
Expenses of carrying out 
Provisions of Coco-nut 
Trees Preservation Or- 
dinance 


Expenditure. 


| c. 


4,500 00 


1,000 00 


200 00 


836 00 




Wages of Gardeners and Coolies 

$ c. 
3>°54 58 

Tools and Materials for Repairs 

3°4 25 

Material for renewing Plant-shed 

129 43 

Do. 

390 00 

Planks for boxes and labels 

13 1 07 

Pots and Tubs 

126 93 

Chicks for Plant-sheds 

89 14 

J Freight and Cartage 

1 Plants ... 

24 10 

jo 50 

f Periodicals 

16 25 

| Material for Herbarium 

l 7 55 

| Manure and Cartage 

3 l * 95 

j Paint and Oil . . . , 

18 92 

1 j Iron-work for Fernery 

67 

j Lime ... 

8 70 

j /Miscellaneous and Petty Expenses 

1 10 82 

; 

Balance . , 

4,482 86 
17 14 

Total 

4,500 00 

C W 7 ages of Gardeners and Coolies 1 

834 60 

\ Manure * . 

82 45 

i Seeds ... 

36 73 

C Tools and Material 

43 4 i 

Balance 

997 r 9 

2 81 

Total 

1,000 00 

/Wages 

174 86 

/Manure 

21 60 

Balance ... ... 

196 46 

3 54 

Total 

200 00 

Inspector’s Salary and Travelling 


Allowance 

516 00 

Salaries of Notice Server and 


Climber 

192 00 

(' 

Balance 

708 00 
128 00 

Total ... ... 

836 00 


*4 


Append i n A — Concluded. 

Revenue and Expenditure of the Botanic Gardens, Penang, 1899. 


Revenue, 


Expenditure. 


Government Grant- 
Travelling and Personal 
Allowance 


$ c. 


330 00 


Pony Allowance 

Personal Allowance and Expenses 
of Botanical Tours ■ ■ • 1 

Passage of Assistant Superintend- 
ent of Gardens, Singapore, and 1 
family to Penang | 

’ Travelling Expenses in Province 1 
Wellesley 


Total amount of Gov- 1 
erment Grant J 


Revenue from sale of \ 
Plants ... J 

Receipts from Swim- ^ 
ming bath ) 


6,866 00 Balance 


$ c. 

213 00 

73 80 


39 80 

3 oc \ 

329 60 
40 


883 17 
28 50 


Total Expenditure 


330 00 

$6,714 u 




C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent op Botanic Gardens. 



/ 


Annual Report on the Botanic Gardens, Singapore. 


Staff. 

i . There vvere-but few changes in the Staff during the year. The plant-collector 
Kasdani proved very indolent and was discharged, a former peon Idris being ta ~en on 
in his place. The Garden’s peon was discovered to be stealing and suppressing 
letters entrusted to him to post, and was arrested and charged at the Magistrate s 
Court and sentenced to nine months’ imprisonment. The coolies worked well, but 
the supply of good labour is very short, and the price of labour is very high now. 
The watchmen were a very poor lot and had to be constantly changed. In fact, the 
class of labour all round is very inferior to what it formerly was, and it is nearly 
double the price. 

Visitors. 


2 . The number of visitors was unusually large chiefly on account of the large 
number of persons passing through to China, and the Philippines. There were also 
an unusual number of Scientists who visited the Gardens. The Regimental Band 
played as usual on moonlight nights and was highly appreciated. Beyond the theft 
of four small palms and a few flowers there were no thefts and no prosecutions. 

Aviaries. 

No additions were made to the aviary buildings during the year, except a few 
small additional enclosures for special animals. The following animals and birds 
were added to the collection : — An Albino Porcupine with a normal young on C\Hystrix 
Ipncricauda) purchased. A Philippine Deer ( Cervus moluccanus ) presented by 
Madame HlNNEKINDT. One Bornean bear presented by Capt. CUMMING (died shortly 
after). One Kijang {Cervulus Muntjac) female, presented by Ahmat BIN Hadji 
Omar. One Mias {Simla Satyrus) presented by Mr. DiTTiyAR, One Slowloris and 
young {Nycticebus tardigradus ) presented by CuSTAWl. One Indian Mungoose 
male, presented by Yeo Cheow BOCK. One Cuscus {Phalangista sp.) purchased. 
Two hybrid Monkeys, one Kijang, and one common Deer were born. During the year 
two Rhinoceros {R. sumatrensis), were on deposit in the Gardens by Mr. PUSTAU. 
One died from injuries received in trapping, but one was thoroughly healthy and was 
eventually shipped to Vienna. These animals created a great deal of interest in the 
public who came in crowds to see them. Am-ong the birds a black Adjutant was 
presented by GARASAMY Pillai. One Cockateel presented by Mr. W. NANSON. Two 
Egrets from Sumatra presented by Ahmat. Three young Owls presented by Mr. 
Boden Klass. One^agle by Mr. T. Bin Ching. Six whistling Teals, by Mr. A. F. 
BlSCHOFF, Four Christmas Island Pigeons {Carpophaga Whartom) presented by Mr. 
Clayton. One Pergam Carpophaga senea presented by Mr. 1 homas. Four Casso- 
waries, purchased. A short-eared Owl Asio accipitrinus caught in Singapore, the first 
recorded for this region was purchased. 

Reptiles. 

One Python reticulatus presented by Hon. W. FGERTON. One large Python 
curtus captured at Bukit Timah. One large Tortoise ( Testudo emys) was obtained 
at Batu Pahat during an expedition there, and another fine specimen was presented 
by Yeoh Kok Chy, from Telok Anson. 

The mortality among the animals was no greater than in former years, and, as usual, 
chiefly occurred in newly imported animals, which often are sent in in a sick condition ; 
others died apparently from old age among which was a jungle pheasant which had 
been in the Gardens for over 18 years. 

Flower Show. 


An exhibition of flowers and flowering plants was held in the Town Hall on April 
ioth. The plants shown in most classes were not up to the average of past years, 
though some classes, such as ferns and begonias, were very fairly well shown. There 
was however a deficit on the working expenses. 


2 


Upkeep and Buildings. 

The chief building alterations were the reconstruction of the back of the large 
plant-house, the old wooden posts and ataps were removed and the aisles roofed with 
chicks from Penang, supported oil iron pillars. The old Beaumontia, which climbed 
over the roof was lowered when the roof was taken away and supported on an arch 
made of rough coral, in the interstices of which ferns and other plants have been 
planted. A tank for water-plants was made at one end of- the plant-house and has been 
very attractive. The old wooden tables which used to carry smaller plants in pots 
were removed and replaced by permanent brick and cement structures which add 
much to the ornamental appearance of the house. Four additional long coral and 
cement tables were made in the Nursery, with brick pillars and iron arches to carry 
chicks or battens which will form a large addition to the space required for pot- 
plants. 

The beds, borders and shrubberies were renewed as required, and manured and 
cleaned at intervals. About a hundred yards of road running down from the main hill 
towards the lake was remetalled. 


- Plants in flower. 

The following were among the more interesting of the plants which flowered for 
the first time in the Gardens. Camoensia maxima (West Africa), Vatica Waliichiami 
(Malay Peninsula), Ilex nigro-punctata (Brazil), Ravema spectabilis (Cuba), Solandra 
grUndiflora (South America), Ixora barbata (India), Bignonia incarnata (Guiana), 
Gymnos tacky u m Ceylanicum (Ceylon), Bignonia n. sp. (Penang), Dammar a robust a 
(Australia), Aristolochia saceata ClBrodendro n. sp. (Borneo), a most remarkable 
climber with the terminal leaves on the flowering spray of a beautiful red colour 
Cleistanthus parvifolius (Pahang), Triomma mtilaccensis (Singapore). 

Korthalsia Scaphigera Dendrobium refractum D. Foxii n. sp. (Perak), 
CvanastYum cordifolntm (Africa), Hcemanthus Lmdeni (Africa), Arisocnui Roxburghu 
(Penang), Aniomnm n. sp, (New Guinea), Habenama Columbs. ? n. sp. (Siam), Amor- 
phophallus gigantens and A Titanum flowered again. 

Plants received and distributed. 


During the year there were received 337 packets and bags of seeds, 600 plants 
and tubers besides the monthly supplies purchased from Messrs. Carter &Co. Among 
the seeds of importance were 8 bags of mahogany and* 5 lbs. of Pterocarpus Macro- 
carpus from Dr. Prain of Calcutta. Some rare palm seeds from Herr WENDLAND ol 
Hereenhausen and Prof. Cornu of Paris. Of the new plant introductions the most 
valuable from an economic point of view came from the Royal Gardens Kew ; amongst 
them being a new Coffee, and a new variety of Cocoa, a new African rubber Landolphia 
Klainei, some interesting palms and a new pisang, Musa Livingstonei. 

The finest introduction of ornamental plants was a fine series of nymphaeas from 
Messrs. Henry A. Dreer of Philadelphia, U. S A., which have flowered very freely, 
and made our lily ponds a beautiful sight in fhe early morning. 

The contributors were as follows : — 


The Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Botanical Gardens, Buitenzorg. 

,, Melbourne. 

,, Trinidad. 

,, Berlin. 

J( Queensland. 

,, Ootacamund. 

„ Ceylon. 

}} Calcutta. 

,, Old Calabar. 

„ Sydney. 

„ British Guiana. 

Conservator of Forests, Dehra Dun. 

„ Chittagong. 

H. A. Dreer, Philadelphia. 


Messrs. Herb & Wulle. 
Messrs. Dammann. 

T. W. Brown, Esquire. 

1 J. S. Goodenough, Esquire, 
j M. Cornu. 

M. Vernet. 

Messrs. Williams Bros. 
St.V. B. Down, Esquire. 
E. R. Salisbury, Esquire. 
J. Pereira. 

W. D. Barnes, Esquire. 
.H. Wendland, Esquire. 
W. Meikle, Esquire. 

Dr. Braddon. 

C. Curtis, Esquire. 


There were 399 plants and 134 packages of seeds sent out to various gardens 
and contributors besides those sent to planters and others in the Colony and Native 
States. Five Wardian Cases of fruit trees and economic plants were sent to His 


3 

Excellency the Governor of British New Guinea, and seven cases of various economic 
plants to the Congo Free State. A Collection of 69 packages of Carpological specimens 
was sent to Messrs. Herb & WULLE in exchange for living seeds of cultural plants. 

Artist. 

The Artist Choudhury was employed in making drawings of interesting plants 
till July when he was attacked by brain disease and became insane, He was sent to 
the Asylum and eventually returned to Calcutta, Charles d Alwis was trans- 
ferred from the Public Works Department where he had been employed as photographer 
and commenced work here on November 1st, 

Vote ... ... - $ 700.00 


Expenditure. 

Salary of Artist ... • $ 450.00 

Purchase of Colours, Brushes, Pencils, Rubbers, &c. $ 33-35 

Balance .. $ 216.65 


$ 700.00 


Herbarium. 

A small number oi plants were collected in Malacca and Province Welles- 
* ley during my visit in the spring, and an extensive series were obtained during 
an expedition to Batu Pahat, and also at Panchur on the Johore River. Thirty-three 
specimens were received from Mr. Curtis from Penang, and a very interesting 
collection of 122 specimens was presented by Mr. VV. D. BARNES, from Kluang 
Terbang in Pahang at an altitude of 5,000 feet. Forty-four specimens from the 
collections of Scortechini were received from Calcutta. Two hundred and seventy- 
nine Australian and Polynesian ferns and other plants were received in exchange from 
the Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 

Twenty-six specimens of Dichopsis, and Verbenaceae were received from the 
Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg. 

The following were distributed to various establisments : — 878 specimens to the 
Royal Gardens, Calcutta, 143 plants and 24 specimens of woods to Kew, 65 specimens 
and 82 samples of woods to the British Museum, 227 specimens to the Botanic 
Gardens, Sydney, 12 specimens of sea-weeds to Mr. E. Holmes for identification, 
24 specimens of Dipterocarpeae to Dr. Helm of Paris. Twelve pounds of bark 
of Roucheria Griffithiana stated to be poisonous were sent to Dr. Greshoff for 
analysis. 

A number of local wood specimens were added to the collection, including a 
specimen of Chandan presented by Mr. W. D. Barnes and specimens of Perak and 
other woods obtained by Mr. H. C. Hill, and a specimen of fossil wood presented by 
Mr. Walsh. 

Library. 

The following books were added during the year : — 

Greshoff Dr. — Indische Vergift rapporten. Presented by Author. 

„ Nuttige Indische Planten. 

Smith, E. F. — Wilt disease of Cotton, Water-melon and Cowpea. Presented by 

[Author. 

Carleton, M. A. — Cereal rusts of the United States. 

Hables, W. H. — A contribution to the Mineralogy of Wisconsin. 

Comstock, G. C. — Studies in Spherical and Practical Astronomy. 

Weidman, S. — On Quartz and Keratiphyre and Associated rocks. 

Schlundt, H. — On the speed of the liberation of Iodine. 

Barnes, C. R. — Analytic key to the Genera and species of North American Mosses. 

Vernhout, Dr. J. H. — Onderzoek over Bacteriea by de Fermentation der Tabak. 

Maiden, J. H. — A second contribution towards a flora of Mt. Koscinsko. 

,, Some exotic grasses. 

„ Native Food plants. 

„ The Noogoora-burr. 

„ A new variety of Dendrobium undulatum, Useful Australian 

plants, (eight tracts). 

Lotsy, Dr. J. P, — Physiologische Proevengenom met Cinchona. 

Schiffner, Dr. V. — Die Hepaticce von Buitenzorg. 

Knapp, S. A.— The present state of Rice-culture in the United States. 


IV 


4 


Kamer, G. and Zehnter, L.— Archief voor de Java Suiker-industrie. 

Raciborski, Dr. M. — Parasitischen Algen und Pilze Java’s. 

Zimmerman, Dr. A.- — De Nematodea der Koggie Wortels. 

Christ, L. and Warburg, O. — Filices Faurieance. 

Trimen, Dr. — Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon, part 5. 

Handbook of Jamaica. Presented by Royal Gardens, Kew. 

True, A. C. — Organization Lists of the Agricultural Colleges and experimental 
Stations of the United States. 

Flicks, G. H. — The germination of seed. 

Kramers, J. G, — Andere mededeelingen over Koffie. 

Godefroy le Beuf, A. — Les Caoutchoucaniers Du Para, Ceara, Panama, de 
Pernambouc, de Y Afrique, Le Balata, Le method de culture de Para. 
Catalogue des plantes utiles. 

Yernoh Baily. — North American Fauna. 

F'almer, T. S.— The germination of seeds. 

Shea, V. 0 . — Aspects of mental economy. 

Miller, W. S.— Contributions from the Anatomical Laboratory Wisconsin. 
Maxwell Lefroy, H. — Moth-borer in sugar-cane. Presented by the Commissioner 
for the West Indies. 

Deane, H. and S. H. Maiden — Observations on the Eucalyptus, part V. VI. 

Dyer, Sir W. Thiselton. — Flora of Tropical Africa, Vol. V. Presented by the 
Gpvernment. 

Andrews, C. W.— Monograph of Christmas Island. Presented by the Trustees of 
the British Museum. 

King, Sir George. — Materials for a flora of the Malay Peninsula. 

Woods, A. F. — Stigmonose, a disease of Carnations. 

Romburgh, Dr. P. V. — Caoutchouc en Gutta Percha in Nederlandsche Indie. 
Kearney, T. H. — The plant covering of Ocracoke Island. 

Mohr, J. — Overhet Drogen van de Tabak. 

Hart, J. H. and P. Carmody — Seedling canes of Trinidad. 

Bijlert, A. V. — Over Deli-Groud en Deli Tabak 
Boerlage, J. G. — Flora van Nederlandsche Indie. 

Beale, F. E. L. — Food of the Bobolink. 

Webber, H, J. — The immediate effect of Pollen in maize. 

Schreuk, H. V. — Two diseases of red cedar. 

Galloway, B. T — Progress of commercial growing of Plants under glass. 

Progress in the treatment of plant diseases, 

Webber, H. J. and E. A. Bessey, — Progress of plant breeding. 

Schmidt, J. — Flora of Koh Chang, part I. 

Heern, G. — Catalogue of Welwitsch’s African plants. 

Greshoff, Dr. — Beschrivingder giftige-planten bij denvischvangst. 

Merrian Hart. — Results of a Biological Reconnaissance of the Yukon River, 
W r ood, J. Medley — Natal plants, Vol. 2. Part 2. Vol. 3. Part 1. 

Hitchcock, F. — Trade of the Philippine Islands. 

)( Our Foreign Trade in agricultural products, 1890-1898. 

„ Trade of Puerto Rico. 

M Section of Foreign Markets. 

Magnussou, C. E. — Anomalous dispersion of cyanin. 

Istvanffi, Dr. G. de — Une visite au Jardin Botanique-de kolosvar. 

Wildeman, E. and Durand. — Illustrations de la Flore du Congo. 

Christ, H. — La question des petites esp&ces. 

Palmer, T. S. — Legislation for the protection of birds. 

Koorders and Valeton. — Boom sorten op Java. 

And the following serial publications: — 

Journal of the Board of Agriculture, Experimental Station Records (America). 
Annales du Jardin Botanique, Journal of Agriculture for Zanzibar, Planting Opinion, 
Notizblatt (Berlin), Queensland Agricultural Journal, Bulletin Economique dp Flndo- 
Chine, Der Tropenpflanzen, Koloniaal Museum Haarlem, Jamaica Bulletin, Agri- 
cultural Ledger, Indian Museum Notes, Chemist and Druggist. 

Agricultural Journal of the Cape of Good Hope, leones Bogorienses (fasc. 3) 
Trinidad Bulletin, Mercks Annual Report and Digests, Pharmaceutical Review, 


5 


Buiteuzorg Bulletin, West Indian Bulletin, Revue des Cultures Coloniales, Acta 
Horti Petropolitanic Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburg an “rccn 
and Forest Reports of South Australia, Queensland, Barbados, Trinidad, Myso e. 
Ceylon, Hongkong, British Guiana, Natal, Madras (horest Department), Calcutta. 
Tenasserim Agrihorticultural Society. 

Purchased. — Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, 14 volumes. Gardener s 
Chronicle Botanical Magazine. Journal of the Linnean Society. Tropical Agricul- 
turist. Dictionnairc Iconographifjue des Orchidees for the year. 


Bulletins. 


A bulletin dealing with Native Rubbers Insect Pests including the outbreak of 
the bee-hawk moth in Selangor, Kickxia Africana, notes on Para Rubber, injurious 
fungi and other subjects was published in May. A paper on Dammars and Wood-oils, 
was prepared and printed in the Journal of the Straits Asiatic Society. Another bulletin 
on the Timbers of the Malay Peninsula was prepared and will be printed in the 
following year. 

Expeditions. 


In the early part of the year I accompanied Mr. H. C. MILL in his tour of inspec- 
tion in the Colony, and in November made a botanical expedition to Batu Pahat in 
Tohore, Arriving" there on October 31st, and remaining till November 18th. During 
this time I explored the hills, Gunong Banang, Pengaram and Soga, and ascended 
the rivers Sempang Kiri and Sempang Kanan, ascending the latter as far as Tebing 
Tinggi for two days, and exploring also the rocks at the mouth of the Batu Pahat 
River at Bata. Although the collector l took with me was ill and almost useless the 
whole time 1 obtained a large series of plants from this hitherto unexplored district, 
including many new and rare plants. The highest hill in this district is Gunong 
Banang, 1,500 feet, and I had expected to find a flora resembling at lea.st the lower 
part of Mount Ophir, but there were but few hill forms to be met with. The most strik- 
ing tree was a very tall Podocarpus , evidently the same species as the one on Mount 
Ophir but attaining a very large size. A new Broniheadia y Sonefila, and a number 
of other small plants were obtained here, but the flora was much less rich and 
striking than that of Gunong Panti, a hill of no greater size on the west of the 
Peninsula. The general aspect of the flora of this district is that of Singapore with 
however a number of additional forms, and the remarkable absence of others. This 
is a great contrast to the flora of Eastern Johore which resembles that of Pahang. 
In fact the Flora of the Peninsula may be said to be divided into two by a line 
running down the centre of the Peninsula. 

Besides herbarium specimens, a number of living plants, orchids, etc., and a. 
very fine Tortoise Testudo Emys captured at Batu Pahat were brought to Singapore. 


6 


BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 
Statement of Receipts and Expenditure, for the year igoo. 


By 


Receipts. 


r- 

Expenditure. 


f c. ■ 

Salaries . 

C 

. 

Balance in Bank . . . 

2,891 42 

Clerk 

284 00 

Government Grant 

94 50 00 

Mandores (three) 

484 44 

Sale of Plants, Seeds 


Carpenters (two) 

291 66 

and Flowers 

2,703 10 

Masons, (two) 

183 36 

Interest 

49 20 

Label Printer 

120 00 


- 

Plant-collector 

118 33 



Peon 

103 28 



Aviary -keeper 

96 00 



Police 

33 * 1 65 



Coolies 

3-347 09 

n 


Rice Allowance 

662 29! 



Bills. 




Tools and Stores 

913 331 



Laterite, Gravel, S?nd, 

■ .1 



Bricks, etc. 

338 27. 



Timber, Planks, Laths, etc. 

390 41! 



Pots and Tubs 

1 n 56 



Birds' and Animals' Food 

1-539 331 



Manure and Cartage 

218 87 



Buildings and Repairs 

569 66 1 



Freight on Plants, etc. 

1S2 261 


* 

Books and Papers 

-302 65; 



Plants and Seeds 

387 4o 


- 

Subscription to the Telephone 

90 oo- 



Wardian Cases 

121 50! 



Petty Expenses 

268 22I 



Miscellaneous 

297 9o| 

1 

i 


1 

Balance in blank 

1 

1 


$M,793 7 2 




$ c. 


6,022 IO 


5.-747 36 


3,024 26 

if i4,-793 72 


Economic Gardens. 

I 

A considerable portion of ground covered with scrub lying adjacent to the Bukit 
4 imali Road was cleared and planted with Para Rubber stumps and seedlings which 
have thriven well. 'I he Merabau trees in the remaining portion of the scrub were 
cleared round and the ground opened up. A band of scrub was cleared along the 
Eastern boundary of the Garden for planting Castilloa as it seemed the most suitable 
spot tor it. A number of cuttings of Ficus elastica were planted in various spots, for 
experiment, many trees were added to the arboretum. Among the Economic plants 
received during the year were — Pachylobus ednlis from Calabar, Coffez Laurentii- 
robusta, 7 heobroma pentagona , Landolphia klainei, and L. Owariensis from Kevv ; 
hickxia elastica , of which three lots of seeds were received from different contributors, 
but unfortunately none germinated. This is the tree which produces the Kickxia Rubber 
of Africa and not the K. Africana which was previously distributed from Europe. 

The large fruited bamboo Melocanna bambusoides was sent by the Chittagong 
Forest Department. 




7 


Para rubber .— The demand for seed showed no signs of diminishing. During the 
year 145,600 seeds and 6,400 plants were distributed as follows: 6,000 plants and 
46,750 seeds to the Colony, 79,350 seeds to Selangor, 17,500 to johore and a few to 
Sumatra, in exchange for Gutta Percha, and to Pahang. 

The number of planters in the Colony does not increase and the demand for seed 
in the early part of the year when the crop was at its greatest was not large. 1 he 
interest in its cultivation generally, has however, shown no signs of diminution and is 
only checked by the insufficient supply of seed. 

• The trees fruited more or less all through the year, the largest amount of seed 
being obtained in September and October. 

The chief enemy complained of by planters was the termite, Termes Gestroi , 
which has done a good deal of damage in different parts of the Peninsula to young 
trees. It coats the outside of the tree with mud up to a height of some feet, and also 
burrows up the centre. This term be however is an inhabitant of dense jungle rather 
than of cleared ground and will probably disappear altogether when the ground has 
been under cultivation for some time. 

Further experiments were made in tapping trees, and in the preparation of t lie 
rubber by Creosote. It was found that one or two drops of Creosote dropped into 
the latex prevented decomposition and no odour was produced during drying. It 
made no difference in the colouring of the rubber which eventually became as dark 
as rubber not so treated. 

The Creosote however had a tendency to make the rubber sticky, and more than 
one or two drops produced an objectionable amount of stickiness. Whether creosot- 
ing the rubber improves it from a commercial point of view remains to be seen. 

In July an average sized tree measuring 60 feet in height, with a circumference 
at the ground of 5' 5* and a clean stem up to 10' 3" from the ground, approximate age 
1 2 years, was selected for tapping with a view of seeing what could be got out of it 
irrespective of any conditions, in other words to bleed it to death if necessary. The 
experiment began on the 5th of July, and was carried on until the 27th September, a 
period of 84 days on which date the latex ceased to flow. Throughout such a long- 
period as might be supposed all kinds of weather was experienced, from very dry to 
very wet. O11 the whole, however, it can be said that the prevailing conditons were 
comparatively dry, for out of the 84 days on 71 very little or no rain fell at all. The total 
rainfall registered during the full period being i 8'07. The method of tapping was 
that usually practised, viz :. — longitudinal incisions of a V shape fed by similar incisions 
about a foot apart. The receptacle in which the latex was collected was a small 
cigarette tin, with a lid on in such a way as to admit of the latex running in whilst 
keeping out the rain, notwithstanding this, however, a certain quantity of water did 
get in the tins during wet weather, as will be seen by the great difference in weight 
between the wet and dry states of the rubber ; the total in the wet state being seven 
and-a-half pounds and in the quite dry three pounds only. The greatest yield in 
twenty-four hours was bounces on July 12th, and the smallest 4 an ounce on the 28th of 
the same month. On four days out of the total there was no flow of latex at all, of these 
four days, three were wet and one dry. The quality of the rubber was necessarily of 
a scrappy nature, especially when quantities of less than an ounce was taken per day, 
whereas quantities over an ounce consolidated into nice little cakes. As regards 
coagulation no difficulty whatever was experienced, a few hours being sufficient to 
coagulate the latex to the consistency of soft cheese, and as regards the offensive 
odour due to the decomposition of the proteids it was found that a couple of drops 
of Creosote was sufficient to entirely get rid. of the bad smell. On the whole the 
experiment may be said to have proved — -ist, That three pounds of dry rubber can 
be obtained from an average tree — whether this quantity can be taken yearly 
remains to be seen — that it could be taken every other year, one is safe in predicting 
from our knowledge gained of the time other trees have healed of their wounds. 
2nd, That it does not appear to injuriously affect the tree in the slightest. 

Insect Pests. 

A number of injurious insects were reported on by planters and remedies for 
them suggested. Among the important ones were Batocera octomaculata , a large longi- 
corn beetle, the grubs of which bore up the stems of various species of Ficus , and 
among others the Rambong, being a very large insect it is easily caught and destroy- 
ed, but in large Rambong Estates it might prove very destructive. The life history 
of the Crinum caterpillar which destroys the Crinums cultivated for ornament was 
worked out, it proved to be the larva of a noctuid moth Calogramma f estiva . 


.0 


8 


An obscure disease of the shoots and leaves of Ficus -elastica was reported from 
Muar, It was partly due to a leaf fungus, specimens of which were sent to Kew for 
identification 


Vote for upkeep of Economic Gardens ... $2, 200 

Expenditure : — — — 

Salaries of Mandore and Coolies ... 2,002.63 

Tools and Stores 113.17 

Manure ... ... ■ 30.00 

Sand ... ... 7 > 5 ° 

Purchase of plants ... 26.40 

Balance ... • 20.30 


2,200.00 


Inspection of Coco-nut trees. 

During the year, 699 trees and 21 piles of rubbish containing or likely to contain 
beetles destructive to coco-nut trees, were destroyed, and 266 trees were destroyed 
on abandoned ground chiefly at Teluk Kurau by a coolie employed for the purpose 
till July. Notices were served on 156 persons and there were no prosecutions. 

There is, I think, no doubt that the number of red beetles has considerably dimi- 
nished in Singapore. They seem to be comparatively rare now. The destruction of 
abandoned trees and trees in neglected patches is I think responsible for this. 


Vote . . ... . ... $486.00 

Expenditure : — — 

Salaries of 

Inspector, climber and cooly ... ... 324.00 

Transport ... ... ... 141.76 

Uniforms . .. ... ... 12.75 

Balance ... ... 7.49 


$486.00 


Gutta Percha and Rubber Planting. 

The small vote for this purpose allowed of three men being employed to clear 
the forest on the lower slopes of Bukit Timah, and plant as many trees of Getah 
Taban as were procurable. The plants planted on the previous year w'ere cleared 
and replaced where they had died as far as possible, and the trees growing in the 
forest on the Eastern slope were inspected, the shrubs and jungle trees which were crowd- 
ing them out were cleared away, and a number of over-crowded young plants were 
removed from that locality and transferred to the new plantation. The ground on the 
left side of the road going up to the Bukit Timah Hill proved less suitable for the 
growth of Getah Taban than was expected, and although a few plants planted on the 
previous year made a very good growth, one attaining a height of nearly 8 feet 6 inches 
and several from 3 to 5 feet ; the others made a much slower growth, and at one part 
a large number died. It became clear that the plant requires at least, at first, partial 
shade and is better grown in secondary growth, sufficiently cleared to allow light to 
reach them. Hills sloping to water courses covered with thin wood suits the plant 
better than anything else, provided that they are not planted too close to the water. 
Suitable ground was found on the right side of the road, and here the fern was cut 
down and spaces cleared so as to plant as many as could be procured. In the 
meanwhile steps were taken to secure as many plants as possible and with the aid of 
a small vote for purchase of seeds and plants, 2,300 seedlings were obtained, and 720 
stumps were presented by M. LE Comte d’Abbans. These were not sufficiently far 
advanced in growth to plant out till the end of the year and the weather 
then being exceedingly dry was not favourable. They will be planted out in 1901. 
Besides these 1,400 stumps of Getah Sundik [Payena Leerii) were purchased and 
errown on so as to be ready for planting. This gutta is in demand for mixing with 
Getah Taban for cable purposes, the Taban not being sufficiently plastic alone. A few 
plants of Dichopsts calophylla came on previous occasions mixed with D. oblongifolia. 
This contains a valuable gutta, but less so than D. oblongifolia . It is evidently a 
stronger and more rapidly growing plant than D. oblongifolia and stands the sun 
much better. 


9 


At present it has been found impossible to procure seeds of D. oblongifolia or 
D . Gutta . Two trees in the Botanic Gardens flowered this year, one rather heavily, 
it however does not appear to have set a single fruit. At present the only wav of 
procuring plants is to have them dug up from the forests in the form of seedlings 
or more commonly as young trees about i to f inch through or less. The tops of 
these are removed and the" stumps with the tap root kept damp till they can be 
planted. These stumps after a period of 4 to 6 months put out strong shoots, but it 
is remarkable that the new rootlets do not appear usually till after the shoots have 
made some growth, and often one can find stumps quite leafy with hardly a visible 
rootlet. It is found advisable therefore to allow the stumps to remain a long time in 
the beds or boxes till they have put out strong roots as well as leaves before plant- 
ing out. The plan of planting the stumps as received in situ in the plantation is 
now being tried, so as to avoid injuring the roots by moving. 

The various forms of Marcottage have been tried on D. oblongifolia and l) . 
calophylla. These are all successful in almost every case, the time required for the 
roots to be fully emitted so that the marcot can be removed, varies from 3 to 6 
months. 

For work on a large scale this method of propagation is too slow and expensive. 
Simple cuttings were also tried but though a few thus treated grew the percentage is 
too small to be a satisfactory method of propagation. Another method of propagation 
by laying the young plant horizontally and allowing it to throw up lateral shoots and 
then cutting the stem into segments each bearing a shoot has been tried with more or 
less success. This method has however given it is said good results in Sumatra, and 
plants so propagated have been received thence which are very strong and healthy, 
but it is noticeable in this case as in the matter of stumps that the proportion of roots 
produced is very small in proportion to the size of the shoot. The young trees 
planted in various exposed positions were found to suffer very much from the attacks 
of a caterpillar which spun the leaf shoots together and destroyed them. It is rather 
difficult to deal with as it escapes the action of insecticides by concealing itself in the 
spun-up leaf. Attempts to rear the caterpillar to the moth state failed. It was 
noticed that not only were young trees freshly planted attacked but even in the jungle 
when the surrounding vegetation was cleared so as to let in light the pest appeared 
on the trees in a very short time. 

It is regrettable to have to record the destruction of five fine large sized trees in 
the Bukit Timah Forest by a party of Malays during the year, who destroyed also 
others in different parts of the Island. Two of the men were captured but with the 
present value of Gutta Percha, severer penalties and a more adequate staff of Forest 
Guards will be required to prevent the destruction of the remaining large trees. 

The question of the name of the species common in the Malay Peninsula, 
whether D. gutta or D. oblongifolia has more than a botanical importance, inasmuch 
as the values and qualities of the produce of the trees known under these names have 
been stated to be different. Dr. Romburgh who visited the Gardens during the year 
affirmed that the old trees in the Garden were D. oblongifolia and not D. gutta. 
Specimens of the two species as known in Buitenzorg were supplied to the herbarium 
by Dr. Treub, but I fail to see any tangible difference. The form of the leaves varies 
very much in different parts of the same tree and still more markedly with age, and 
the flowers of the tree identified by Dr. Romburgh as D. oblongifolia do not appear 
to differ from those figured as D. gutta in Dr. Burck's paper on Gutta Perchas. It is 
still more fe markable that the original D. gutta, which was originally obtained in Singa- 
pore and has now, according to the Buitenzorg botanists, utterly disappeared, 
although the D. oblongifolia which was discovered very much later is still comparative- 
ly abundant, and appears to have replaced it. Botanically speaking the question is of 
some importance and perhaps economically so, though it must be remembered that 
in any case at least the bulk of the trade Gutta Percha for upwards of fifty years or 
mere has been derived from D. oblongifolia . 

The trees of Para Rubber at Bukit Mandai were gone over by the men employed 
on the vote and all belukar trees which had come up among them and were interfering 
with their growth were removed. 

Vote for timber planting. 

I he vote for planting valuable timbers in the forests, viz., 300 dollars allowed of 
thiee men being employed on this work. The ground was cleared where necessary, 
in the same district of the Bukit Timah Forest Reserve which was selected for the 
planting of Gutta Percha, the ground unsuited for that plant being planted with timber 


IO 


trees. Altogether an area of About Go acres was opened up and planted and 15 acres 
planted on the previous year were cleared and the trees weeded. The chief tree?' 
planted were Mahogany (large-leaved) 17,600; Merbau 6,8oo ; Eugenias and various 
plants 98 2; Rengas, ( Melannorhea) 300, all raised from seed, and 1,380 Ralam re- 
moved from the Botanic (jrardens were also planted. 1 he Mahogany and Merbau 
made very satisfactory growth and there were but few failures. The Merbau seed 
was found to do very well, planted at stake, without the necessity ot raising in 
nursery beds and transferring later to the wood. A large quantity of seed of the small- 
leaved Mahogany was sent from Calcutta, but failed to germinate. The large-leaved 
kind is however in every way more suitable for cultivation, being more rapid in growth 
and altogether a stronger tree. A number of seeds of a Shorea found in fruit in the 
jungle were planted, "but made very slow growth, and are not yet ready for trans- 
planting, a few seeds of Xylin dolahriformis the Pynkado and seeds of 
Pterocnrpus macrocarpus the Padouk were sent from Calcutta and were 
planted and germinated well. Some thousands of seed of Kranji ( Dialium ) were 
purchased in the market where the fruit is sold for eating and germinated freely. 
This very valuable timber is of slow growth at first but increases more rapidly after 
a few years. The Merbau trees at Bukit Mandai and at the old plantation by the 
Bukit Timah Forest Station, were opened up, the scrub and other trees growing 
round them and interfering with their growth were removed, and the few billion trees 
on Bukit Timah which have survived the encroachment of fern and scrub were also 
cleared round, and have already shewn signs of increased growth, unfortunately the 
greater number planted in 1S84, succumbed to want of clearing in the follovving years. 

Mr. Hill during his visit to Singapore inspected the planting on Bukit I imah, 
and made many valuable suggestions which are being carried out as far as possible. 


Vote 

Expenditure : — 

Salary of 3 coolies 
Transport 
Cart hire 

Rent and ‘ rikisha hire 
Balance 


$ 3 °° 

252.14 

9-39 

7 - 5 ° 

21.00 

9-97 

$300.00 


Government House and. Domain. 

The Mandore, ROGERS died in May and as there was some difficulty in getting a 
suitable man to replace him, the Mandore Aniff was transferred till a man had been 
trained for the work, and remained there till the end of the year. The coolies worked 


satisfactorily and the gardens and park looked we\\. 

Vote... ... $2,360.00 


Expenditure _ 

Salaries of Mandore and Coolies. $1,974.89 

Tools and Stores ... 231.48 

HandCart... .. 29.00 

Lawn Mow r er ... ... 27.00 

Pots and Tubs . .. ... _ 87.00 

Manure ... ... ■ 7 * 6 ° 

Balance ... 3-°3 


$2,360.00 


Botanic Gardens, Penang. 


Waterfall Gardens. 

" For several years there has been no change in the staff of this Garden. MahOMAD 
H aniff, Overseer, and MAHOMAD Hussain, Propagator ; the two men on whom the 
working of this Garden devolves during my absence on other duties both served three 


i I 


- ears’ apprenticeship here before obtaining their present appointments and are 
useful men. As t have been absent from Penang about a month and-a-halt at 
<Iifferent times during the year l wish to record the satisfactory manner in which the 
work has been done during my absence. 

2. Besides other work MAHOMAD Hussain has made a considerable number ot 
drawings of new or imperfectly known plants in which he is su icient v pro cten 
make- it desirable that his whole time should be devoted to this work. 

The supply of gardeners and coolies is by no means all that could be wished. 
Changes are frequent and at times it has been difficult to obtain sufficient tabour 

owing to the demand for railway and other work where the pay is better. and this 
is the experience of most persons engaged in Agricultural pursuits. 

j Since the German line of Steamers commenced calling at this port, the 
number of European travellers visiting this Garden has increased as many as twenty 
gharry-loads sometimes coming from one of these boats, and there has always 
been something of interest for them to see. 

5. On the whole I think the Orchid House lias been brighter this year than 
usual. From July to the end of the year one of the side stages was kept full ot 
flower with large number of Calanthe veratrifolia , C . vestita , C. rosea, C. ruoens, 
Habenaria, Carnea and Phalmnopsis violacea ; with which were interspersed in lesser 
numbers as they came in flower such things as Angrecums, Cattleyas, Vandas, Den- 
drobiums, /Erides, Erias, Miltonia Roezlii, Dilochia Cantleyii and various others. 

6. While devoting a good deal of attention to the cultivation and determination 
of plants of botanical interest from the surrounding Islands and mainland, the more 
showy and to some visitors the more interesting, garden forms are not neglected. 
Caladiums of which we have a first class collection, are well grown and much admired, 
and the same may be said of Palms, Ferns, Aroids and other ornamental foliage plants. 
Flowering plants, especially Annuals, are not easy to grow during the rams but from 
November to March we can do a good many things that it is quite impossible to grow 
satisfactorily during the other months. 

7 Contributions of plants or seeds have been received during the year from the 
Royal Gardens, Kew, the Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, Ceylon, Singapore, Brisbane and 
Honcrkoncr The Agri-Horticultural Societies of Calcutta, Rangoon, and Madras ; from 
Messrs. F & Sander & Co., Messrs. Jas. Veitch & Sons, Messrs. Damman & Co., 
Messrs. Chatterjee and C. Maries. Other contributors are Messrs. Baker, Perak, 
Buttikoffer, Sumatra, Burckardt, Sumatra, Birch, Penang, Cundall, Manila, 
Derry Perak. Goldham, Perak, Hallifax, Bindings, Logan, Penang, Moore, 
Rangoon, PECHE, Moulmein, SCHMIDT, Sumatra, STEPHENS, Perak, VerSMANN, 
Sumatra, Yapp, plants from Gunong Inas. 

8. Of recently introduced economic plants, the most promising is Kickxia 
Africa na of which six small plants were brought from Kew in November, 1899. After 
nursin^ these in pots for two months they were planted out and the largest is now 
over four feet high with astern nearly an inch in diameter. Landolphia flonda, 
obtained from Kew at the same time, has made shoots twelve feet long and com- 
menced twining up the trees. Castllloa elasHca does no good in this Garden. We 
have tried it m both sun and shade but it refuses to make progress under either 

condition. 

o Improvements and extension of the Garden, so far as funds permit, have 
been carried out, but the extent is limited as the Government Grant for Maintenance 
remains the same as it was nine years ago, while labour and every article that has to be 
bought has considerably increased in price. 

IO One of the old wooden span-roofed plant-sheds in the Nursery, fifty feet 
long and eighteen feet wide, has been renewed with iron supports and roof, covered 
with bertani chicks, and the beds on which the plants are set reconstructed with 
rough soft oranite covered with Selaginella serpens. Nearly sufficient iron has been 
accumulated to construct another and larger shed during the current year when the 
land now owned by the Tramway Company has been acquired. 

11. The large iron plant-shed in which the plants are all grown in rock-work 
has been gone through, overgrown specimens removed to more suitable quarters and 
the others re-planted and manured. In this shed are some fine tree ferns and shade 
loving palms. New beds have been made and planted up with miscellaneous flow- 
ed ng^shrubs, and a great number of Palms and trees of various kinds planted out in 
different parts of the grounds. 


I 


I 2 

12. three old bridges have been reconstructed in stone and iron which is a 
permanent improvement and completes the bridging of the one and-a-half mile of 
carriage road within the Garden. There are now three bridges of stone andiron 
spanning the main stream which bisects the garden, and three on the tributary sources 
which are practically dry at certain seasons. Five hundred and fifty lineal feet of 
carriage road, thirteen feet six inches wide, have been entirely remetalled and other 
parts repaired. 

13. No special excursion for collecting botanical specimens has been undertaken 
by myself this year, but on each occasion I have gone out on forest duty, 1 have take li- 
the necessary apparatus and a collector and added considerably to the collection of 
specimens in the herbarium, and to plants in cultivation in the garden. In Septem- 
ber, the Overseer, Mahomad Haniff, went out to the Lankawi Islands for a fortnight, 
but the monsoon was blowing so strong at the time that he found it impossible to get 
far. 1 am of opinion that if one could get about there in the middle of the rains, 
there are many interesting deciduous rock plants to be collected that one never sees 
in the dry season, but I know from experience that boating at that season is difficult 
and dangerous. However, he brought, back several interesting plants some of which 
have since flowered and two of the Orchids, a Bulbophyllum and Dendrobium , have 
been described by Mr. Ridley in manuscript as new species. 

14. 1 he expenditure on this Garden during the year amounts to $4,497.44 as ' 
shown in Appendix A, and the Revenue derived from sale of plants and use of Swim- 
ming Bath to 8588.20, This expenditure covers the cost of renewal of plant-shed, 
remetalling of roads and in fact all matters except the construction of bridges which 
was a budget item and carried out by the Public Works Department. The amount 
collected as revenue has been paid in weekly to Revenue Account. 

Governor’s Hill Bungalow Garden. 

15. Mr. O'KEEFE returned from leave and resumed duty on tlfe 2nd February 
and has, in addition to his own duties, been acting as Signal Sergeant since the end 
of May. He reports having been handicapped as regards cooly labour during the last 
three months in the year, being for some time three and four men short out of a staff 
of seven, which he attributes to higher pay being obtainable elsewhere. 

1 6. The rainfall was less than in the previous year by about 30 inches, the wet- 
test month being September with 33 inches, and the driest, December with 127 inches 
only. 

17. With an adequate supply of manure and water a great many , kinds of 
European Vegetables and flowers can be grown on this hill from November to March, 
but the .present cost of carrying up manure is prohibitive, and when the rainfall falls 
to a point so low as in December last the rain water tanks on which we are depend- 
ant for gardening purposes become exhausted and it then requires all the available 
labour to carry from the nearest spring enough water to keep things alive. When 
the hill railway is made, it is hoped that the first of these troubles will be overcome, 
and I hope that the time will then not be far distant when water will also be made more 
easily available. 

18. No new work has been undertaken, the sum authorised for upkeep being 
barely sufficient to keep the grounds in order, to grow enough ornamental plants for 
house decoration when the Bungalow' is occupied, and maintain a regular small 
supply of vegetables. When the railway is made the hill will be largely visited bv 
travellers passing through as well as by residents in the Island, and in that case more 
money should be spent in making the hill attractive. 

Experimental Nursery. 

19. The experimental Nursery on Government Hill has been practically aban- 
doned for two years and steps are now being taken to re-afforest the site with useful 
trees. 

Coco-nut Tree Preservation. 

20. Mr. BALHETCHET, Inspector of Coco-nut trees, and two men have been 
employed six months in the year in Penang and six in Province Wellesley, in 
inspecting plantations, &c., and in serving notices on persons having on their pre- 
mises dead trees or other matter likely to prove breeding places for beetles. The 
number of dead trees reported is less than in previous years and I believe this is 




>3 


\ 


owing to diminution in the pest, .Altogether i j 93 1 notices were served and twenty- 
nine persons prosecuted as shown below : — 


Name of District. 

No. of dead Coco- 

nut trees des- 
troyed 

No. of pieces of 

Coco-nut Trunks 
destroyed. 

No. of heaps of 
| Cattle Manure 
j removed. 

No. of heaps of 

Paddy-husks des- 

troyed. 

No. of Notices 

issued. 

1 

i No. of Summonses 

issued. 

Amount of Fines 

recovered. 

Province Wellesley. 





. 

824 : 14 

$ r. 

Northern District, 
Province Wellesley. 

554 

2,147 

1 04 

66 

28 50 

Central District, 
Province Wellesley. 

1 94 

j 

436 

69 

49 

306 ; 5 

14 5 ° 

Southern District, 

97 | 

183 

49 

44 

94 Nil 

Nil 

Penang Island. 

634 f 

2,074 i 

J 

181 ! 

2 5 

707 10 

35 00 

Total. 

T 479 

5.047 : 

403 

184 1 

B 93 1 29 

78 00 


Forests. 


21. - In February I visited the Din ding's to inspect some proposed additions to 
the Forest Reserves in that District on which I reported on my return and of which 
I attach a copy (Appendix B). 

Visits were also made at the request of District Officer to Tassek Glugor and 
Bukit Panchor Reserves, Province Wellesley. 

22. In accordance with instructions from His Honour the Acting Governor, I 
went to Malacca in May with five hundred plants of fi Gutta Taban ” (Dichopsis Gutta 
or D. oblongifolia) and selected two sites on which to plant them. These trees were 
planted out 2o' x 20' in partial shade, the idea being to gradually cut away the surround- 
ing “ bluker ” as the plantsacquire strength. While these enquiries were made and 
samples collected of some of the local climbing rubbers, which together with leaf 
specimens were sent to Kew, and a report on these has already been published in the 
Government Gazette . The Forest tree Nursery at Ayer Kroh was also inspected 
and at the request of the Acting Resident Councillor a few simple instructions in 
writing drawn up for the guidance of the Overseer in charge. 

23. From June the 18th to July 2nd, I was detailed to accompany Mr. H. C. 
Hill of the Indian Forest Department during his tour of inspection of the Forests of 
the Colony in Penang, Province Wellesley and the Dindings. Mr. Hill has since 
reported on these Forests and the manner in which they should in future be adminis- 
tered. 

24. In September, 1 'obtained permission to visit Perak for three days to make 
some enquiries and observations in connection with Gutta Perrha, especially the hill 
forms. On my return I furnished a short report on this trip, a copy of which is 
attached (Appendix C). 

Para Rubber. 

25. In my last two Annual Reports I have furnished information as regads the 
method adopted and results obtained from tapping a single Para Rubber tree (Hevea 
brasiliensis) growing in the Waterfall Garden, and the matter is of so great importance 
to the Agricultural Community of the Colony and Native States that no apology is 
necessary for again referring to the subject and repeating to a certain extent what 
has already been recorded in these reports. The tapping of this one tree has now 
been continued over a period of two years and the result is such as to confirm the 
opinion that in this cultivation lies a source of wealth of the greatest importance. 
This particular tree is now fifteen years old and has yielded in two years twelve and 
a half pounds of dry marketable rubber without any apparent injurious result to the health 
of the tree. It is growing on a dry t gravelly bank, not at all the sort of place I should 
select from choice, and is fifty-five feet high. At three feet from the ground it is sixty-six 


*4 


inches in circumference and forks at three feet six forming two straight stems measuring 
at five feet from the ground, 42 and 32 inches in girt. The branches are not greatly 
spreading in proportion to its height and for trees of this size 20' x 20' apart gives 
ample room. This would give 108 trees to the acre and supposing them all to be 
equally as good as this one the result would be 675 tbs, of rubber per annum which 
at 3s iod per lb. the price realised for three hundred weight sold in the London market 
by Mr, Derry, Superintendent of Government Plantations, Perak, in April last, works 
out to over £i 2 g per acre. It is not probable that all the trees on an estate would 
be equally good, in fact experience proves that there is a considerable difference, but 
Mr. DeRRY informs me that in tapping once about a hundred trees in Perak, the 
average was three and-a-half pounds per tree, and much more could have been taken 
but it was feared that further tapping might interfere with the seed crcp. This 
comes fairly near the result of our one tree which shows an average of three and 
one-eighth of a pound for each of the four tappings. In addition to the experl* nee 
gained in tapping this one tree over a period of two years, two other trees in a group 
of twenty planted 12' x 12' have been tapped once, the result being 2lb. 9 oz. of dry 
rubber from the two. These are comparatively small trees about forty feet high and 
measuring 23 and 25 inches in girt at five feet from the ground. They are the same 
age as the large one but have grown slowly as might be expected in the sort of place 
they are planted. I think that this result from trees of this size will appear perfectly 
satisfactory to planters some of whom I know base their calculations on one pound 
per tree per year after the seventh or eighth year, and in good soil I believe that trees 
equal in size to these two will be grown in that time. 1 he cost of land, clearing, and 
planting, is well known to those interested in the matter and the question of more 
importance to them at present is the quantity of rubber to be expected and the cost 
and method of collecting it. 1 have already shown the result as regards quantity, and 
as regards cost the time occupied in collecting this I2.\ lbs. occupied one man about 
28 hours, but the cost of tapping small trees will be propo tionallygreater. The only 
other labour involved is smoke drving which if the rubber is rolled out into thin sheets 
is a simple* and inexpensive operation, but should be done as soon as possible after 
coagulation. A good deal has from time to time bem written about the particular 
kind of nut that is used in Brazil for this purpose but in a recent Consular Report by 
Mr. Vice-Consul TEMPLE on the state of Amazonas, I’razil, he says that it is a mis- 
take to suppose that any considerable portion of the rubber exported is prepared in 
this manner and he further states that wood chips which give less trouble to procure 
are preferred which is what might reasonably be expected seeing that the thing has 
to be done quickly. 1 find -Coco-nut husks answer the purpose admirably. The latex 
coagulates as a rule without any trouble but if it contains a large proportion of rain- 
water there are various chemical re-agents that will cause coagulation. Acetic Acid 
and corrosive sublimate-are recommended, but 1 have only tried Alum and Spirits of 
Wine. The latter is instantaneous in its action and if it does not injuriously affect 
the rubber, and I do not think it does, it may open a market to the sugar planters for 
their spirit. As regards the method of tapping I have found no better than that des- 
cribed in my last year’s report that is that after having made a certain number of V. 
shaped or herring bone incisions to continue working on the same cuts by removing 
with a sharp chisel a thin shaving from the lower surface on alternate days. Very 
little milk is obtained at the first and second operations, but after about the third 
time it begins to run freely as will be seen by the following record of each day’s 
collection : — 


Date of tap- 1 
ping. 

Weight of-Wet Rubber obtained at each 
operation in ounces. 


1 otal 

1 weight of 
wet rub- 
ber. 

Weight 

whendry. 


Ill 

|£|J_ 

5 

6 

7 

8 9 

: I O 
! 

1 1 

f 12 

*3 

1*4 

tbs. 

1 oz. [ 

tbs. 

OZ. 

Nov, -Dec., 1898 

fif 

3 ii 6 

9 


8 } 

6 b 8 b' 

6 

! 

10 

8 b 

~8 

5 1 

<*| 

1 

3 ; 

0 

April- May, 1899 


j Da 

i!y 

re 

cor 

d mis 

lap 

d 




. 

! 


2 

8 

Nov.-Dee., 1899 

7* 

,2V 3 

6! 

8 

10 

10.il 6i 

9 

1 1^ 

Hi 

ill 

8 

6 

; 4 

3 

I 4 

Oct. -Nov., 1900 

0 i 

3 4 i 

6 

1 

9 ± 

11 

9 h 12! 

14 

H 

12 

15 

12 

7 

lit 

- 

3 

12 

Total ... 

i| 3 i 

l 

8 fji 3 * 

| 

2I| 

24 

29$ 

26i 27^ 

29 

1 32 

1 

33 ij 34 i 

28 

l 

1 ^ 

| 9 * 

1 

12 

8 


It will be seen by the above that this tree yielded freely after the third opera- 
tion and continued to do so up to the end of the tapping and that there was no 
reason to discontinue the tapping oil account of falling off in the quantity of 
latex, the only reason for doing so being that the cuts were by this time from three- 
quarters to one inch wide, and although they heal rapidly it was not thought wise 
to make them wider. New bark has completely grown over the cuts of the first 
three tappings. It would appear that October to December are better months foi 
tapping than April and May, but too much importance should not be attached to an 
experiment made on a single tree either as regards the yield or best months for 
tapping. I simply record the facts for what they are worth, but as regards yield it 
should be considered in conjunction with the result obtained m Perak with a hundred 
trees, the oldest seventeen years old, and this should I think induce capitalists and 
the Government to consider whether this tree has as yet received the attention it 
deserves. In the Consular Report already referred to, it is stated that hundreds ot 
miles have to be traversed to reach the rubber districts in Brazil, and although there 
are probably fifty million acres of forests at present being worked for rubber it is 
estimated that for Districts where it is fairly plentiful, the average is only one Hevea 
tree to every two acres, and the estimated yield one to one and-a-half kilos per 
annum. In a few roughly calculated tests made here I found half a pint (to fluid 
ounces) of latex gave three ounces of dr)- rubber, and coagulated rubber weighed wet 
lost about 50 % of its weight- in drying. 

Gutta Percha. 

26. In 1899 it was decided by Government to form plantations of Gutta Percha 
in Malacca, and in May last I was instructed by His Honour the Acting Governor 
to take down 500 young trees and plant them in Bukit Bruang Reserve. I hese are 
the half ol a batch of seedlings raised in Penang. Since then Mr. H. C. Hill in his 
report on the forests of the Colony has advised that plantations on a large scale 
should, be made both in Penang and Malacca, and by way of a beginning the remain- 
ing 500 will be planted in Penang at the proper season. Consequent on this recom- 
mendation a good deal of attention has been devoted to this subject during the past 
few month-. None of the trees in Penang have fruited this year nor have we been 
able to obtain seeds elsewhere. Mr. Derky, Superintendent of Government Planta- 
tions, Perak, wrote me in November that a tree growing in the Resident's grounds at 
Kuala Kangsar was in fruit, but on a subsequent visit, a month later, he found that 
squirrels had eaten them all with the exception of two fruits which he sent me for 
herbarium specimens. These are the only fruits I have seen or heard of this season. 
All the Dichopsis are slow growers and transplant badly, great care will therefore 
be necessary in preparing plants and laying out plantations. Young plants in the 
Nursery under most favourable conditions have grown about a foot in height in a 
year. ! he tree referred to as fruiting at Kuala Kangsar is said to be eighteen years 
old and is twenty-five feet high, with a girth of twenty-four inches at three feet from 
the ground As it is uncertain when we may be able to obtain seeds in sufficient 
numbers to plant oil a large scale we have been trying recently in various ways to 
propagate fiom cuttings. It is teo soon yet to say what percentage will grow from 
cuttings but the prospect of raising a large stock by this means is not encouraging. 
Some species of Dichopsis may grow from cuttings fairly well (though seedlings, of all 
if obtainable should have the preference) but D. gutta or D. oblongifolia , whichever 
the, Penang plant may be, and there is some doubt about it, is a most difficult subject. 
To obtain cuttings and information as to the quantity of gutta to be obtained, &c., we 
cut down one tree in the Highland Reserve and collected the gutta in the native 
manner, the result being one and-a-half pounds of first class gutta percha. This tree 
was 55 feet high with a moderately clean straight stem 39 inches in circumference at 
five feet from the ground, and at least forty years old. I do not consider this method 
or the result satisfactory and some other and better way of extracting the gutta will 
have to be devised, d apping in the same way as rubber trees is not applicable to 
this tree and the solution of the problem will probably be some system of cutting the 
plantations at a comparatively early age, when they will coppice, and treating baric 
and leaves at a central factory ; unless the leaves alone are found to be of sufficient 
value and produced in sufficient numbers to render plantations remunerative 
Dichopsis gutta occurs only at low elevations and it is desirable to introduce for. 
planting the upper portions of Penang Hills the species that occur on Perak Hills up 
to 3,000 Ret. This is known locally as “ Gutta Taban Putih ” and is I believe D. 
pustulata, I have recently had an opportunity of observing this tree on the Taiping 


i6 


range and found it abundant at 2,000 to 2,500 feet, whereas the Penang tree seldom 
or never occurs above 1,000 feet. 

C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 

Penang , igth January , njoi. 

Appendix A. 

Revenue and Expenditure of the Botanic Gardens Department , Penang, rgoo. 


Revenue. 


Government Grant — 
Maintenance of Water- 
fall Garden 


Government Grant — 
Upkeep of Grounds of 
Governor’s Hill Bungalow 


Government Grant — 
Maintenance of Experi- 
mental Nursery 


Government Grant — 
Expenses of carrying out 
Provisions of Coco-nut 
Trees Preservation Or- 
dinance 


Expenditure. 


c. 


4,500 00 


1,000 00 


200 00 


736 00 



1 

c. 

r Wages ... ... . . . 

3 A 74 

6r 

Plants and Seeds ... 

87 

27 

Pots and Tubs 

153 

25 

Manure and Cartage 

3 l 

Go 

Material for Herbarium 

io 3 

70 

Books and Periodicals 

28 

00 

Planks for cases and labels ... 

147 

2 5 

Tools ... ... ... ! 

1 13 

10 

Material for repairs, &c. ... ; 

343 

1 4 

Iron for renewing sheds 

85 

64 

Road metal 

107 

OO 

^Miscellaneous Petty Expenses... 

123 

48 


4,497 

44 

Balance . ... 

2 

56 

Total 

« 4.500 

OO 

f Wages ... ... 

795 

54 

! Seeds 

33 

67 

J Tools 

61 

84 

] Pots . . 

22 

00 

j Manure ... ... 1 

33 

09 

{ Material for Repairs, &c. 

5i 

70 


997 

84 

Balance 

2 

16 

Total 

1,000 

00 

( Wages 

i55 

30 

Manure 

40 

OO 


195 

3° 

Balance ... ... 

4 

70 

Total 

200 

OO 

f Salaries and Wages 

OO 

OO 

m 

OO 

Travelling Allowances 

121 

73 


7°9 

73 

Balance 

26 

27 

Total 

73 6 

OO 


T 7 


Appendix A * — Concluded. 

Revenue and Expenditure of the Botanic Gardens, Department , Penang, r 9 oo. 


Revenue. 

1 

Expenditure. 


Government Grant — 
Travelling and Personal 
Allowances . . 

1 C. : 

462 00 

5 

1 

1 

- • I 

''Pony Allowance 

Expenses of trip to Dindings 
Expenses of sending Overseer^ 
to Lankawi * J 

Expenses of journey to Perak 
Expenses while on dutv with 3 
Mr. H. C. Hill ' J 

Miscellaneous 

Field and Personal Allowances 

c . 

225 00 

52 75 

43 54 

41 76 

60 75 

3 02 

19 96 

Total Government Grants 

6,898 00 j 

550 80 

Balance 

446 78 

15 22 

Revenue from Plant sales 

Revenue from Swim- 
ming Bath J 

Total 

462 00 

37 40 1 

Total Expenditure 

6,847 °9 

Total Collected 

588 20 




C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 


Appendix B. 

Botanic Gardens, 

Penang 28th, February 1901. 

Sir, — Jij accordance with your instructions, I went to the Din dings on the 15th 
instant, and inspected the two blocks of Forest it is proposed to add to the Reserves, 
f also took the opportunity of seeing as much as I could in the time of the already 
demarcated areas which are practically those I had the honour of suggesting in 1888, 
and in which no cutting of any importance has been authorized since that time. 

2. From the papers you sent me to see I gather that there is an impression 
that Mr. Canti.EV at some time visited this District and made certain suggestions, 
but I think this is a mistake. I have no recollection of his having been there 
subsequent to my joining the service in 1884, and 1 am pretty sure that he had not 
previously done so. 

3. The present Reserves consist of six blocks, vis : — Pangkore Island, Lumut 
Hills^ Tanjong Hantu. Bukit Segari, Gunong Tunggal, and Tanjong Burong. The 
latter is all mangrove and is reserved specially for fire wood. 

4. The two portions that it is now proposed to add are several miles apart, one 
being in the extreme North of the District, and the other in the extreme South. The 
District Officer proposes that these should be known as Ulu Bruas, and Fulloh Morah 
Reserves. 

5. Ulu Bruas Reserve is a triangular block of forest land, mainly hilly, but in- 
cluding some low wet jungle, which has been recent]}' worked by timber cutters. The 
boundaries on Two sides are well defined by the territorial boundary line which divides 
Perak and the Dindings, and the third by a cart-road fora distance of about two-and- 
a-half miles. A good deal of land has been taken up along the edge of this road for 
cultivation so that in places the 1 road will not be the actual boundary but a line run- 
ning more or less parallel with it above the line of cultivation. It is difficult to esti- 
mate the area with anything like correctness but it is safe to say that the area is not 
less than 1.500 acres. This Reserve contains the only Gutta Percha (Gutta Taban) 

I saw in the District. I actually saw only half-a-dozen trees but 1 have no doubt there 
are many more. The largest measured had a girt of 5' 6" at five feet from the 
ground. 


i8 


6. Tulloh Morah is an oblong block of well wooded hills, the boundaries of which 
will follow the base of the range leaving out the flat land suitable for cultivation 
along the coast line. With the little I was able to see of this, I should not like to 
make a guess as to the area. 

7. As regards your instructions that I should suggest new Reserves, or addi- 
tions to existing ones, there is some difficulty. There has been no survey and 
-consequently it is impossible to say what proportion of the District is already 
reserved. One thing is certain and that is that the rough estimate as given in the 
District Officer’s Report for 1898 is a very long way below the mark. Pangkore 
Island for instance which with the exception of village sites is practically all Forest 
Reserves, is put down at 1,250 acres. The total area of Pangkore Island which is 
-about 4 miles long cannot be less than 5,000 acres, probably more, and the village 
sites and cultivated portions do not I should say represent one-fifth of the whole, so 
that the Reserve must be more like 4,000 acres. 

8. There is also another matter to be considered in suggesting any considerable 
addition and that is the system it is intended to pursue in the future as regards these 
Reserved Areas. The original idea of prohibiting wood-cutting within the areas 
known as Forest Reserves was for the purpose of allowing time for them to recover 
by natural means the effects of severe and indiscriminate cutting in the past, and as 
soon as that had been accomplished to again open them for working, one or more at 
a time, in rotation, but without satisfactory maps and an intimate knowledge of the 
area and contents of each Reserve it is impossible to formulate a working plan or to 
say when the time will have arrived to put this intention into effect. 

9. The whole of the Dindings is practically forest. It appears from the District 
Officer’s Report that the Revenue from Forest produce in 1888 was over $15,000 and 
represented 70% of the Revenue of the whole District. The population is not sup- 
posed to be increasing and so far as 1 can see no appreciable increase in cultivation 
has taken place during the past ten or twelve years. Under these circumstances it is 
important that the Forest should be managed so as to derive as much Revenue as is 
■consistent with their being maintained in a state of efficiency, which is to say that the 
quantity cut each year must not on the whole exceed the annual normal increase. 

10. If I may venture to offer a suggestion it is this, seeing that the greater 
portion of the Dindings is forest and that neither population nor agriculture shows 
any appreciable increase the whole of the Crown Forests, both reserved and unreserved 
should be considered from a business point of view and supervised by one Forest 
Staff, to do this the Forest Guards would have to be increased in number and sta- 
tioned in different parts of the District, preferably in the immediate vicinity of the 
principal Reserves. Each guard should be kept informed of all licences issued for 
his part of the District and it should be his duty to see that the produce removed 
corresponds with the licence both as regards kind and quantity. It would also be his 
duty to arrest any person cutting or removing without a licence jungle produce from 
any Crown Forest whether reserved or not. This would in my opinion be simpler for 
the Officer in charge, and more economicial and effectual than keeping one staff for 
reserved and another for unreserved forest, and that without in any way rendering 
the protection of the Reserves less effective than at present. On the contrary, my 
experience in Penang has been that nine times out of ten it is professional wood-cutters 
who take out Passes that get into the Reserves and it is most important for the For- 
est Guards to know who have licences and where they are working. 

11. The principal distinction I would draw between reserved and unreserved 
Forests in this District is that no portion of the former should at any time be granted 
for agricultural purposes, while the latter is available for that purpose should a 
demand for land arise. For the present, and probably for some years yet no cutting 
should be allowed within the Reserves but the time will come when a considerable 
Revenue should be derived from these Reserves. 

12. In one of the papers you sent me to see I noticed that His Honour the 
Officer Administering the Government considers that one-fifth of the District should 
be Reserves, and I think that with the two new portions now to be added, the total 
area will not fall far short of that; but in the absence of any survey it must be more 
or less guess work. 

I have, &c., 

C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 


I * 


19 

Appendix C. 


Botanic Gardens, 
Penang , 2nd November, 1900. 


SlR, — In accordance with your verbal permission to proceed to Perak to 
or four days to obtain more definite information about the range o . 

trees, &c, on Taiping Hills, and to collect Orchids and other plants of interest 
for cultivation in the Public Garden here, 1 left for Faiping a 1 ' ^ 

October, and returned at 7 p.m. on the 30th. , , Wb1v 

2. On arrival in Taiping l proceeded first to the Museum where Mr. L. YY RAY 
the Curator, kindly allowed me to look through his herbarium specimens of 
Sapotacex, in which order are included our most important Gutta . UC1 "f 

trees, and gave me much valuable information. He also showed me samples of 
Gutta from various species, most of which have been co ected al ^ F e P^ ed y 
himself, and as the herbarium specimens were collected at the same tune and from 
the same tree these samples are of more than ordinary interest and value^ 

r. On leaving the Museum I walked up to Maxwell s Hi 1 where Mr. DERRY, 
Superintendent of Government Plantations, gave me all the information and 

assistance in his power. . /mu i 

4. During my stay in Perak I saw only two species of Uichopsis ( I aoanj 

neither of which appear to be Dichopsis Gutta, and until fiowering and fruiting 
specimens are obtainable their specific names- must remain more or less doubtful. 
I showed Mr. YVray leaf specimens^ on my return from the hill and he thought 
they corresponded with what the Malays call Taban Chaier and Taban Putih and 
which have been determined for him at Kew as Dichopsis polyantha and I). 
bust ul at a. In the absence of flowers or fruit the difference in appearance is not 
great. At a little distance they look all alike, but those in Perak and Penang, and it 
is" only on examining them closely that one sees there is a difference. 

5 . The question of the correct botanical, name, although most desirable to 
know is not of so great importance as the question of the quality of the Gutta and 
the situation in which each particular species is found growing naturally, so that in 
any planting scheme we may plant the right species and in the right place. 

6. On the Taiping Hill, Taban Putih (D. pustulata?) extends up to 3,000 teet 
and is most abundant at 2,000-2,500 feet. I collected a small sample of gutta and 
it is so far as I can judge of good quality. Mr. YVray who knows the tree well 
informs me that it is always considered very good gutta, but not so good as 

Dichopsis Gutta (Taban merah). ■ 

7. Dichopsis gutta occurs only at low elevations. Much of the available and 
uncultivated land in Penang that it is desirable to re-afforest, such, as areas within 
the Reserves and abandonted spice gardens, are at an elevation of from 1,000-2,000 
feet and it therefore seems probable that this Perak mountain form D. pustulata ? 
will prove more suitable for planting in places in Penang than D. gutta. 

8. Dichopsis polyantha? (Taban Chaier) grows at a much lower elevation than 
D. pustulata ? (T. Putih) and is found quite down to the foot of the hill, but as 
Dichopsis Gutta also grows at low elevations and is the more valuable of the two, 
this will probably be of less importance as a tree for planting unless it should prove 
that it is the quicker grower or yields a greater quantity of gutta which might com- 
pensate for the difference in price. On these and many other points more definite 
information than is at present available is wanted. 

9. Of Orchids, Palms, and other plants for cultivation in the garden, I collected 

great numbers. 

1 have, &c., 

C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 


Ml 


Annual Report on the Botanic Gardens, Singapore, 
for the year 1901. 


The Weather. 

The year 1901 was very dry since only 78*36 of rain fell in the Gardens. 
March had the smallest fall 3*93, and June the greatest 9*67. The effect on the 
vegetation was not very marked, although it is usual for a dry year to be a heavy 
seed bearing year. 

Staff. 

The Director went on long leave on March the 17th, on which date 1 took 
over charge of the Department. There were several changes in the staff owing 
to the dismissal of Zain Abdul Rasip, the Chief Mandor of the Economic Garden, 
for carrying on an illicit sale of Para Rubber seeds. This man had for twelve years 
borne an excellent character, and had also acquired a considerable knowledge of 
Economic plants and their uses, and the loss of his services to the Department, at a 
time when it was undermanned, was felt acutely. His place was filled by MoHAMED- 
Hanif, the Mandor from the Upper Gardens, who in turn was replaced by an entirely 
new, and of course untrained, man from outside. This fact emphasizes the long 
felt need of apprentices who could fill the places of trained men who leave the service. 
In connection with the subordinate staff, I am glad to record the sanction by Govern- 
ment of a Scheme for the improvement of their positions, which will result, I hope, in 
making them as a body contented, and promote the interests of themselves and the 
Department. 

2. The coolies have on the whole worked fairly well, but, as reported last 
year, the class of labour is not what it used to be ; the fact is that the coolies, as soon 
as they have picked up a smattering of Malay and the rudiments of their work, leave 
the Gardens for private employment or to labour on Public Works, with the result 
that the work of the Gardens has to be carried on with quite untrained men. There 
has been an unusual number of Beri-beri cases amongst them, no less than 29 cases 
having occurred, generally of a mild character. Three cases were however fatal. In 
May the number of cases were so numerous, and in one or two cases so serious, 
that I reported the matter to the Principal Civil Medical Officer who had the Coolie 
Lines disinfected, and gave general instructions as to treatment. 

Visitors. 

3. The number of Visitors was about the same as in the previous year, when the 
number was abnormal owing to the many Mail passengers who visited the Gardens. 
Several eminent men of science, chiefly Germans and Americans, also visited the 
Gardens, in several cases staying for some months studying questions of Economic 
Botany. 

4 . The Regimental Bands played in the Gardens from time to time, attracting 
enormous.crowds of people, especially on the occasion when the massed bands of the 
3rd, 13th, and 16th Regiments of Madras Infantry gave a performance in November... 

5. It will be a question in the near future whether the Gardens, or at least that 
portion round the Band-Stand, are not too small to accommodate such large numbers 
of people. 

Aviaries. 

6. The aviaries and animal enclosures have for some time required overhauling; 
the latter are, I regret to say, practically beyond repair. In the early part of the year 
the Public Works Department prepared a series of plans of enclosures for the better 
accommodation of the animals. The buildings thus designed would have placed the 
Zoological Department in a very efficient state, but the scheme was thrown out by 
the Legislative Council, and Government gave orders for the disposal of all the larger 
animals. 

7. The following additions were made to the collection during the year: — Two 
Wa-Was (Hylolbates lar.) presented by Miss Edith Abrams, One Javanese squirrel 


2 


(Sciums bicolor.) presented by Mr. F. W. Christian, three Pythons (Python reticula- 
tus) presented by Messrs. Romenij, Branagan, and F. Teng Quee respectively, one 
flying fox with young, presented by Mr. Urn Koon Yang; one Binturong (Arctictis 
binturong) presented by D. H. Wise, Esq,, one Christmas Island Pigeon (Carpophaga 
_ Whartonii) presented by M. Hellier, Esq., one young red Civet cat and one long tail- 
ed monkey, presented by R. Shelford, Esq., Sarawak, two storks presented by Madame 
Gorski, and two young monkeys and three parrots from the Andamans. One young 
Berok (Macacus nemestrinus) was born in the Gardens. A female Rhinoceros procured 
by the Austrian Consul was deposited in the Gardens ; it is intended for the Zoologi- 
cal Gardens at Vienna and will be shipped there in the coming spring. A female 
specimen of the rare “ Sapi-Utan ” (Anoa depressicornis) was obtained from Celebes 
by the Museum authorities. 

8. The following animals died during the year. One (Python curtus), one 
Eagle, three Phalangers, two Kijangs, one wild cat, three Christmas Island Pigeons 
one deer, and one black swan. 

Upkeep and Buildings. 

9. The chief work under this head has been the erection of a new' plant house 
near the potting shed. It consists of seven long tables of coral 48 feet long. It 
has a ridge and furrow roof, covered with Bertam chicks obtained in Penang, 
and supported by steel rafters on brick pillars; it is a most substantial, 
structure and will last for years. It has been filled with a miscellaneous 
assortment of plants, chief of which are a named collection of our various 
palms, some of the rare ferns, and some of the most recent introductions from 
Kew. All the plants have thriven well in it. The roof of the small nepenthes house 
has been entirely renewed, as also a very large part of the Aroid and Begonia house. 
The work of keeping up of the beds, borders and shrubberies has perhaps taken up a 
greater amount of time than usual, as a special effort was made to render the gardens 
more bright and attractive with flowering plants. 

10. The drives and paths have been repaired where necessary. Of the former, 
the drive from the main entrance to the deer enclosure was entirely remetalled 
during the year. 

11. The bamboo hedge surrounding the western part of the gardens and that 
from the office to the main entrance, are not in a very creditable state, owing partly 
to their being under trees, and the soil being poor, but also to the constant breaking 
through by syces, native soldiers, etc. I should be glad to see the hedge replaced 
by a low wall surmounted by an iron railing similar to that in front of the Lunatic 
Asylum. 

Plants and Seeds. (Exchanges) 

12. Exclusive of the large consignments of plants and seeds (chiefly guttas and 
Rubbers) and the monthly supply of seeds from Messrs. Carter & Co., we 
have received during the year one hundred and sixty plants and one hundred and 
eight bags or packages of seeds. The following is a list of contributors : — 

The Royal Gardens, Kew. The Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg, Calcutta, British 
Guiana, Saigon, Saharanpur, Madagascar. Messrs. Rauch, Von Pustau, Arden, 
and Schlechter. The Government Horticultural Gardens, Nagpur. The Tokio Plant and 
Seed Co. The Agri-Horticultural Society of India. Messrs. Herb & Wulle, Naples. 

13. Seven hundred and sixty-nine plants and eight hundred and four packages 
of seeds were sent to forty-two Institutions and individuals. 

14. Amongst the most useful plants introduced during the year were the true 
West African Rubber (Funtu-mia elastica), about 100 plants of which were raised 
from seed supplied by Mr. S. Arden, and some thousands of Gutta Sundik (Payena 
Leerii) supplied from Buitenzorg. From Kew came several species of Landolphia 
(the African Rubber plant) including two new species, Garcinia Kola, from old 
Calabar, and Mimusops Schimperi (the Persea of ancient writers), from Mada- 
gascar. From the same establishment came a collection of miscellaneous plants of 
striking interest chiefly selected by the Director Mr. H. N. Ridley. The Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Hose kindly presented a set of 25 varieties of hybrid Rhododendrons 
which he obtained at Kew. 

Plants in Flower. 

15. Most of the plants mentioned in former Reports have flowered during the 
year and the following for the first time. Kigelia pinnata (T. Africa) Exostemma 
cariboeum (W. Indies) Brunsfelsia nitida (T. America) Bulbophyllum grandiflorum 
(New Guinea.) 


Library. 

1 6. The following books and periodicals were added during the year. 

Hunger Dr. F. W. T. Een Bacterie-Ziekte Der Tomaat. 

„ Ziekten en Beschadigingen van het blad by Deli-Tabak. 

Lloyd C. G. — Mycological notes. 

Wood Medley, J. — Natal Plants. 

Kramers, Dr. — Mededeelingen over Koffie. 

Maiden, J. H. — Tracts on the useful Australian Plants. 

Zimmermann, Prof. Dr. A. — Over het enten van Koffie. 

Dyer-Thiselton, Sir W. T. — Flora of Tropical Africa. 

Tryon Henry, Tracts on Entomology and Pathology of Queensland Plants. 
Koningsberg, Dr. J. C. — De Vogels van Java en Hunne Oeconomische Beteekenis. 
Cook, O. F. — The Origin and Distribution of the Cocoa Palm, The Chayote (A 
Tropical vegetable.) 

King Sir Geo. — Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula Nos. n and 12. 
Cooke, Theodore, Flora of the Presidency of Bombay. 

Masters Dr. Maxwell T. — Hybrid Conifers. 

Smith, C. B. — A German Common School with a Garden. 

Rushy, Dr. H. H.— A Comparison of % the English and German works on the 
Genera of Plants. 

Ward, Dr. L, F. — Description of the species of Cycadioidea. 

Kooders, S. H. and Valeton Dr. Th. — Boomsoorten op Java. 

Schrenk, Von H. — Some Diseases of New England Conifers. 

Dorsett, P. H. — Spot Disease of the Violet. 

Pierce, N. B. — Peach Leaf Curl, Its Nature and Treatment. 

Bentham, George. — Flora Hongkongensis (Purchased.) 

Wilcox, Dr. E. M. — Glimpses of Tropical Agriculture. 

Schmidt, Johs.' — Flora of Koh Chang. 

Gifford, John. — Silvicultural Prospects of the Island of Cuba. 

Hitchcock, H. — Distribution of the Agricultural Exports of the U. S. 1894-98. 

„ Our Trade with Japan, China and Hongkong, 1889-99. 

,, Sources of the Agricultural Imports of the U. S. 1894-98. 

,, Foreign Markets for American Agricultural Products. 

,, Our Foreign Trade in Agricultural Products 1891-1900. 

Coulter, J. M. and Rose J. N. — Monograph of the North American Umbelliferae. 
Palmer, T. S. and Olds H. W. — -Laws Regulating the Transportation and Sale of 
Game. 

Engler, A. — Pflanzenreich 6 parts. (Purchased) 

Christ, Dr. H. — Ferns of Shen-Si and Costa Rica. 

De Bie, H. C. B. — De Landbouw Der Inlandsche Bevolking op Java. 

Smith, E. F. — Wakker’s Hyacinth Germ. 

Gildemeister and Hoffmann. — The Volatile Oils. (Purchased) 

£ iiordemoy, Dr. J. de. — Gommes Resines D'origine Exotique et vegetaux qui le 
. Produisent. 

.Rydberg Axel Per. — Flora of Montana. 

,, New Species from westers United States. 

„ Delphinium Carolmianum and Related species. 

,, Studies on the Rocky Mountain. 

Dougal, Mac T. — Symbiosis and Saprophytism. 

Nash, V. George.— The Dichotomous Panicums (some new species.) 

Small, J. K. — Notes and Descriptions of North American Plants. 

Blodgett, F. H. — Vegetative Reproduction and Multiplication in Erythronium. 
Williams, R. S. — Two New species of Grimm ia from Montana. 

Britton Elizabeth, G. — Life History of Schizaea Pusilla. 

James Veitch and Sons. — Manual of Coniferae (Purchased) 

Hallier, Dr. H. — Indonesische Acanthaceen. 

Dabney, C. W. Jr. Ph, D. — The Cotton Plant. 

Brannt W. T. — India Rubber, Gutta-Percha and Balata (Purchased) 

Clark, C. B. — Commelynaceae. 

Henriques, Dr. R. — Ivautschuk. 

Warburg, Dr. O. — Kautschukpflanzen. 

Loew Oscar. — A New Enzym of General Occurrence. 

Hissink, Dr. D. J. — Toelichting Behoorende bij de Grondsoortenkaart. 


4 


Weinland, Dr, C. A. F. — Reliquiae Weiulandianae. 

Preyer, Dr. Alex. — Uber Kakaofermentation. 

Chesnut, V. K, and Wilcox, E. V. — The Stock-Poisoning Plants^of Montana. 

Nanninga, Dr. A. W. — -Veranderingen Welke Deze Stoffen. 

Lefroy Maxwell. — General Treatment of Insect Pests 

Urban, Prof. Dr. Ing. — Vorgeschichte des Neuen Konige Botanischen Gartens 
Berlin. 

Prudhomme, M. L’ Agriculture sur la Cote est de Madagascar. 

17. Exchanges: — 

Bulletins of. — Kew, Jamaica, Trinidad, The West Indies, Ceylon, Buitenzorg, 
(ndo China, Land Record and Agriculture, N.W.P. and Oudh, Madagascar, Koloniaa! 
Museum te Haarlem, New York, L’ Herbier Boissier, Wisconsin (U. S. A.) 

Journals. — Journal of the Board of Agriculture, Experimental Station Records 
(America) Annales du Jardin Botanique, Annals of Royal Botanic Gardens Calcutta, 
Journal of Agriculture for Zanzibar, Planting Opinion Madras, Notizblatt Berlin, 
Queensland Agricultural, Dept : of Agriculture Western Australia, The Chemist and 
Druggist, Acti Horti Petropolitani, The Annual Report and Proceedings of the Agri- 
Horticultural Society ot Madras, Agricultural Journal of the Cape of Good Hope, Tro- 
penpflanzer (Berlin) Revue des Culture Coloniales (Paris) Journal D’ Agriculture 
Tropical (Paris). Bulletin of the Dept : Journal of Land Record and Agriduture 
Madras, The Agricutural Ledgers of India, Bulletin Du Jardin Colonial (Paris) North 
American Fauna, Indian Museum Notes, Pharmaceutical Review (America) Bulletin 
of the Ohio Agricultural and Experiment Station (U. S. A.) 

18. Purchased: — 

Indian Gardening and Planting, Gardeners Chronicle, Journal of the Linnean 
Society, The Botanical Magazine, The Tropical Agriculturist, Dictionnaire Iconograp- 
hique des Orchidees. 

19. Annual Reports : — The Forest Dept : of South Australia, Land and Agricul- 
tural Dept : Madras, Dept : of Agriculture Queensland, Merck’s Annual Report and 
Digest, Botanic Gardens : — Natal, Ceylon, Trinidad, Hongkong, British Honduras, 
Calcutta, Buitenzorg, New South Wales, Travancore, Barbados, Mysore, British Guiana, 
Gold Coast, Forest Dept : Madras, Zoological Garden, Ghizeh (Cairo), Queensland Accli- 
matization Society, Agricultural and Mechanical College, Still-water, Oklahoma (U. S. 
A.) Smithsonian Institution, The Year Book of Dept : of Agriculture, Washington, 
U.S.A. 

Herbarium and Office. 

20. Two hundred and sixty-nine herbarium specimens of Malayan Plants were 
received from Sir George King. Seventy-one species from Dr. Prain, Calcutta, and 
32 species of plants collected by Mr. CURTIS in Indragiri were received and mounted. 
One hundred and four species of plants and forty-four wood specimens were sent to the 
Royal Gardens, Kew; three hundred species of plants and one bundle of Palm leaf 
specimens were sent to the Kolonial Wirtschaftliches Komitee, Berlin. 

A collection of Malayan fruits was sent to the Director, Botanic Gardens, New York. 

One packet of Gutta specimens was taken by Dr. SHERMAN of the Forest Bureau, 
Manila. The herbarium specimens of the following Natural Orders were sent to Kew 
for critical comparison by Mr. H. N. RlDLEY, the Director; Viz : — 

Palmae. 

Aroideae. 

Agricultural Bulletin. 

21 . For seme time past a want has been felt by the Planters and others of 
having some kind of a periodical which would serve as a medium for the record and 
exchange of their experiences and also contain articles on agricultural and allied 
subjects appertaining to their interests. This want has been met by the publica- 
tion of the existing Bulletin in a somewhat different form, and by its issue regu- 
larly once a month. 

Some three numbers were issued up to the close of the year, and although it is 
somewhat early to criticise it in its infancy, I may be allowed to say that I can see 
very clearly that the Editor will have either to go about the Peninsula himself, and 
see what is going on, or else he will have to have some one with sufficient knowledge 
to do this for him, for it is obviously impossible for the Editor to write about subjects 
which require examination on the spot, when he is kept constantly in Singapore. 


3 


BOTANIC GARDENS, SINGAPORE. 


Statement of Receipts and Expenditure, for the year rgof. 


Receipts. 



Expenditure. 

' 

■ 

' 

$ c. 1 


Salaries. 

$ c. 

By Balance in Bank 
,, Government Grant 

Sale of Plants, Seeds and 
Flowers 
., Interest 

3,024 26 
9,150 00 

2,763 eg 
38 52 , 

Salaries 

Bills 

Balance 

in Bank 

5,880.40 
i 6,298.96 
2,796.51 


: $ 14,975 87 



14,975-87 


Inspection of Coco-nut Trees. 

22. l ife yood effect accruing from constant inspection of coco-nut estates, 
tanneries and saw mills, is shewn by the fact that a Palm beetle is now very rarely 
seen, while very few years ago the beetles and their larvae could be seen by the 
thousand. During the year notices were served on 253 persons calling on them to 
destroy old coco-nut stumps, piles of rubbish, etc., and in every case were readily com- 
plied with, so that there was not a single prosecution. In all there were destroyed 
835 old trees, 121 stumps and 32 piles of rubbish. 

Vote ... ... $486.00 

Expenditure ... . $441.12 


Economic Gardens. 

23. The ground opened up in 1900 for planting the Central American Rubber 
(Castilloa elastica) was planted early in the year. The growth of the plants has been 
somewhat irregular, owing probably to some parts being wetter than others ; unlike 
Para Rubber, these plants do not seem to like low damp ground, as those on the 
drier parts have made the best growth. 

24. Para Rubber. — Our trees are still the principal stock plants for the supply of 
seed, the demand for which was about the same as last year. 1 anticipate however in 
the near future a much smaller demand, as many of the oldest trees on Mr. Bailey's 
Estate have begun to fruit. It is satisfactory to record that the Chinese squatters are 
turning their attention to this cultivation. One hundred and fifty-two thousand seeds, 
and nine thousand nine hundred and seventy-five plants were distributed as shewn in 
the subjoined table, which gives the quantity distributed during the past six years: — 

/ 

Colony 
Perak 
Selangor 
Pahang 

Negri Sembilan 
Johore 
Borneo etc 


25. The usual stock of young Economic plants was maintained by propagation 
from seed and cuttings. Blanks were filled up in the arboretum, and in the section 
plots. With the exception of one demand for 1,200 plants for Cochin China not a 
single enquiry was made for Ramie. 


;8g6. 

is??. 

2,810 

2,885 

Nil. 

Nil. 

Nil. 

20,625 

Nil. 

3.650 

Nil. 


Nil. 

600 

Nil. 

4> r 5° 

2,810 

3**91° 


1898. 

1899, 

1900. 

i go 1. 

.1,800 

77.481 

52,750 

74,025 

Nil. 

7.271 

Nil. 

Nil. 

76,700 

71.507 

79.350 

66,950 

3.55o 

1,400 



600 


. • . 


21,300 

3>65o 

J 7.5oo 

11,200 

5.5oo 

1.273 

2,400 


109,450 

162,582 

152,000 

1 52, 1 75 


6 


i 


I Vote for Up-keep of Economic Gardens ... ... $2,200.00 

Expenditure. 

Salaries of Mandore and Coolies ... ... $1,911.36 

Tool s ... ... ... ... 204.40 

Timber, bricks, lime etc. ... ... ... 32 . 33 

Balance ... ... ... ... 1.91 


$2,200.00 


Gutta-Percha. 

26. More attention has been given to this subject than to any other during the 
year, and, for the first time in the history of the Colony, seeds of the true Dichopsis 
gutta were gathered, although for upwards of 15 years efforts have been made to 
obtain them both by ourselves and by the late Sultan of Johore. To Singapore 
belongs the honour of getting the first seeds from a tree in the Gardens which is the 
direct descendant of the original trees at Bukit Timah which gave the first Gutta-Percha 
brought to the notice of Science, and on which the genus (Dichopsis) wa§ founded. 
The Penang trees also furnished several thousand seeds, at near /y the same time 
Interesting as this success is, we should have made comparatively little progress had 
we been dependent on seeds alone, f am glad to say, however/that some forty-one 
thousand saplings have been obtained, and either /planted out directly in their perma- 
nent positions, or put in nursery beds for future planting. It must, of course, 
be expected that a considerable number of these will succumb, but putting 
the failures at 50 per cent., which I believe will prove an over-estimate, 1 
think we may be satisfied that a distinct advance has been made. Of the 41,660, 
16,000 were sent to Penang; a little over 10,000 to Malacca; and the balance 
16,007 have been kept for stocking Bukit Timah. I am glad to record that 
Mr. BurN-Murdoch, the Chief Forest Officer, who inspected the work at Bukit 
Timah, expressed his approval of what had been done. As regards the exact deter- 
mination of the different species much has been done, although it is admittedly a 
difficult genus to determine. The Director in last year’s report discussed the pro- 
bability that Dichopsis gutta and D. oblongifolium are one species, the leaf variation 
being more or less identical in both types. There is however no doubt on this point, 
that D. oblongifolium is the species that has yielded the chief supply of gutta Taban 
for many years, and although there is a great amount of leaf variation in that species 
the practised eye can easily recognize it from other species such as D. borneensis, D. 
pustulata, D. Treubii, and others. The critical studies of Messrs. Schlechter and 
Sherman, who spent some months studying this genus both here and in Java and 
Borneo, have been of much assistance to us. Their conclusions, which are in accord- 
ance with ours, are, that the two best sorts to cultivate are D. oblongifolium and D. 
borneensis, and of the two the former is preferable as it grows more readily, and is 
indigenous here. 

Planting in Forest Reserves. 

27. The Mandor in charge at Bukit Timah suffered severely from fever, as also 
did his wife and family, so that they were obliged to leave the new quarters erected in 
May. The quarters in question are placed on an apparently healthy site close to the 
road leading to the top of the Hill. I attribute the fever to the disturbance of the 
soil during the erection of the building, and believe that the place will gradually be- 
come healthier. The coolies who live in lines immediately behind the Mandor’s quar- 
ters also suffered from fever, but not to the same extent as the Mandor. The only 
work done with regard to the trees planted in previous years was clearing the ground 
round them, so that the coolies were chiefly employed in. prep tring ground for and 
planting out gutta percha saplings. - 

Vote. 

Planting in Forest Reserves ... ... $300 00 

Expenses of Planting Gutta-Percha and Para Rubber 

(according to the Printed Estimates) . .. 300 00 

Further extended on two occasions ... ... 4,000 00 


$4,600 00 


7 


Expenditure. 

Expended on Procuring Gutta-Percha Plants ... $2,307 40 

Coolies Wages ... ... ... 679 57 

House Rent for Mandor and Cartage on Plants ... 1 7 00 

Tools ... ... ... 26 20 

Balance ... ... ... ... 1,569 83 


$4,600 00 


Government House Grounds and Domain. 

28. A new Mandor, Tajurdin, was appointed on the first of June, after receiv- 
ing several months training in the Botanic Gardens. He relieved Mohamed Han IF 
who returned to his own post as Mandor of the Botanic Gardens. The new Mandor 
has worked well and the coolies satisfactorily, and the grounds have been kept in 
good order. The plant sheds have been repaired where necessary and the staging 
renewed. 


Vote ... ... $2,360.00 

Expenditure. 

Salary of Mandor and Coolies 
Tools and Stores 
Repairs to Plant Shed 
Balance 


$2,030.61 
I94-65 
123.70 
1 1.04 


$2,360.00 


Visit of Their Royal Highnesses The Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York. 

In April Singapore was honoured by a visit of Their Royal Highnesses The 
Duke and Duchess of York, who arrived on the morning of 21st of April and left 
oil the evening of the 23rd. During their stay the weather was intensely hot, and the 
many plants used in the decorations suffered a great deal, notwithstanding our efforts 
to keep them watered. In all some thousands of plants were used and some tons of 
greenery, chiefly (Ribu-Ribu) “ Lygodium scandens," and (Rumput-halus; “ Lycopo- 
dium cernuum.” H. R. H. The Duchess was graciously pleased to accept for the 
Royal Yacht a small collection of 36 plants. 

W. FOX, 

Acting Director of Gardens , Singapore. 


Botanic Gardens, Penang. 

The only change in the staff of this Department was the appointment of Sergeant 
Wells to take charge of the grounds of the Governor’s Hill Bungalow in succession 
to Mr. O. Keeffe, who was appointed Light-Keeper at Muka Head. Sergeant 
Wells assumed charge on bis return from leave in May. 

Waterfall Garden. 

- 2. 1 he maintenance of the Waterfall Botanic Garden in an efficient and attrac- 

tive condition occupies the greater portion of the time of the officer in charge in this 
Settlement, but although the Forests are now, and have been for some years, under the 
supervision of the Collector of Land Revenue and District Officers, a good deal of the 
work in connection therewith devolves on the Assistant Superintendent of Gardens 
also. This has been specially the case during the past year in connection with 
starting plantations of gutta percha trees in Penang and Malacca, and necessitated 
my absence from Penang for a period of about six weeks, besides the time occupied 
in the Island in connection with the same subject. 

3. So far as funds admit efficiency has been maintained, and some improvement 
effected, but the purchasing power of the dollar, both as regards labour and material 
has so greatly diminished since the time when the annual amount of the Government 
Grant was fixed at $4,500, that efforts in the latter direction are limited, and it be- 
came absolutely necessary to ask for an increase in 1902, which 1 am pleased to find 
lias been granted. 

4. '1 here being no Museum or other object of special interest in the town, the 
one place in Penang to which passing visitors resort is the Waterfall Garden. The 
majority remain here only for a few hours and have not time to go up the hill, which 
is about the only other point of interest, and it is therefore desirable that this garden 
should be made attractive as well as useful. 


8 


5- The most noticeable addition during the year is a new iron plant shed close 
to the entrance gate. The material for this has been accumulated bit by bit during 
the past three or four years, and now put together without the aid of skilled labour 
or any additional grant of money. 

With the exception of new “ Chicks ” for the roof, about every two years, this 
shed will not involve any expense in repairs for many years. It is filled with a choice 
selection of ornamental foliage and flowering plants, mostly large specimens. There 
is a water tank in the centre for the cultivation of small aquatic plants. 

6. The large iron plant shed has been re-covered with chicks as has also the 
Orchid Mouse, and a portion of the Fernery. A new hand-rail has been fixed to one 
of tlie bridges at the top of the garden, the approach to this bridge improved, and 
sundry repairs to roads, &c. effected. 

7. Some new beds have been formed, many of the old ones replanted, and 
numerous new trees and shrubs added to the collection. Twenty Kuckxia elastica 
and one hundred Palaquium gutta plants have been planted in and near the 
Garden in order that visitors may be able to see these plants without making a long 
journey to the more extensive plantation at Batu Feringgi, which is some miles distant. 

8. The show of flowering plants, especially Annuals and Orchids, has been kept 
going fairly well during the greater part of the year, and the two leading features of 
the Orchids have been Habenaria carnea and Calanthes, of which great numbers are 
grown. At one time there were upwards of two hundred plants of Calanthe vestita 
in flower, and Calanthe veratrifolia is seldom out of flower. Calanthe rubens from 
Langkawi comes in later and is now in flower. Although not so showy as vestita it 
is a charming little species. Saccolabiums and Aerides, planted on the rain trees on 
either side of the entrance drive, flowered profusely in May owing to these trees hav- 
ing cast their leaves during the long spell of drought, conditions not always attainable 
here. Gardenias too were a sheet of white during the month of May. 

9. Drawings of many new and interesting plants which flowered in the Garden 
were made during the year, and a bundle of over a hundred, done in previous years, 
was sent to the Royal Gardens Kew for inspection. Many of these we re copied before 
being returned. 

10. Considerable additions of 'Penang plants have been made to the herbarium, 
and much more might have been done had I not been absent in Malacca and Johore, 
on duty in connection with gutta percha, during a portion of the best flowering season 
for forest trees that we have had for years. There is however some compensation in 
the collections made in these two places, and during a trip to Indragiri in Sumatra 
during the early part of the year. 

11. Many strangers interested in Botany or other branches of Natural History 
have called during the year. Two of these, Mr. SCHLECHTER on behalf of the 
German Government, and Dr, -Sherman on account of the American, were specially 
intent on studying both the natural and cultivated vegetable products of this region 
with a view to introducing any new plant of commercial value, the one to German 
New Guinea, and the other to the Phillipines ; more especially gutta percha produc- 
ing trees. 

12. Plants and seeds have been exchanged to about the same extent and with 
practically the same Public Gardens, Nurserymen, and private individuals as last year, 
and plants sold locally to the value of $585.50, being a slight increase on 1900. 

13. More room for herbarium specimens, and a more extensive library are two 
things much needed in connection with this Garden. 

Government Hill Bungalow Gardens. 

14. Beyondjkeeping the grounds ina neat and presentable condition, and main- 
taining a small but regular supply of vegetables all the year round, nothing is attempted 
in this Garden. Sufficient pot plants are grown to decorate the corridor and rooms 
when the Bungalow Is occupied, and this is about all that can be done under existing 
circumstances. Water and manure, the two essentials to high class gardening, are 
neither of them available in the same manner as in the Waterfall Garden. During 
the long drought of last year there was barely enough water for domestic purposes, 
and that had to be carried such a long distance that it would require a small army of 
coolies to keep a large collection of pot plants going. A cart load of manure costing 
sixty cents at the foot of the hill costs more than ten times that amount at the 
Garden. The climate however is, apart from the heavy rainfall during certain 
months, such that, with an adequate supply of water , and manure, many plants that 
simply live down below luxuriate here. When the hill railway is constructed and 
pumping machinery for supplying the whole of the Bungalows is complete this can be 
made the most attractive spot in the whole Colony. 


9 


Experimental Nursery. 

15. It was decided in 1900 that this Nursery should be abandoned, it having 
been proved that the altitude is not sufficient for the cultivation of European fruits, 
and the sum of $300 was inserted in the Estimates for reafforesting the site. A good 
number of plants and seeds of the better class native timber trees, and some introduc- 
ed ones have been planted, but I have not deemed it necessary to spend all this 
money, as, with a little assistance, this spot, surrounded as it is with large seed beai- 
ing trees, is bound to recover itself in a natural manner. 

Coco-nuts. 

16. The cultivation of Coco-nuts is one of the most important and profitable indus- 

tries in this part of the world, and one in which perhaps a greater number of individuals 
are interested than in any other. A few Europeans in this Settlement own large 
plantations, and in the Native Malay States some have planted on a considerable 
scale, but on the whole it must be looked on mainly as a native proprietor s cropland 
in their interest it is important that the destructive beetles be kept in check. W hen 
1 first came to Penang -|ro-i 2 was about the price per 1,000 nuts and this was then con- 
sidered a paying price. In recent years the price has ranged from <§>25-3° with a ready 
market for any quantity. A large proportion of the Penang and Province Wellesley 
crop is shipped to Rangoon, where the product is used as food in the form of curries, 
sweetmeats, etc. Both in England and Germany Coco-nut butter is being manufac- 
tured on an extensive scale, but the low temperature at which it becomes liquid 
militates against it's introduction here. V - 

The Inspector of Coco-nut trees has been employed seven months in Province 
Wellesley and five months in Penang in inspecting plantations, Cow sheds, Stables 
and other places containing material forming suitable breeding places for the Coco- 
nut Beetle. The number of Notices served' trees destroyed and prosecutions under 
the Ordinance are shewn below ; — 


Name of District. 


Province Wellesley, j 
Northern District j 

Province Wellesley, -j 
Central District 

Province Wellesley, 
Southern District, 

Penang Island. 


Total. 


Weather. 

17. During the latter part of 1900, and the first three months of 1901, Penang 
experienced a period of unprecedented drought. During that time little garden work 
could be done beyond watering, and in spite of every care in this matter quite large 
trees and shrubs suffered severely. So prolonged was the drought that there was 
great danger of a water famine in the town, and auxiliary sources of supply had to 
be hurriedly extemporised in order to avert a calamity. At the time it was proposed 
by the Municipal Engineer to acquire the Waterfall Valley for the purpose of forming 
a reservoir in order to obviate the possibility of a similar occurrence. This would 
of course completely destroy the present Garden on which so much time and money 
has been spent, and would be a great misfortune, but should it become absolutely 
necessary in the future to carry out this scheme a new site in the direction of Ayer 
Etam near the starting point of the proposed Hill Railway would be the most suitable 
place "for the formation of a new Garden. 


No. of dead Coco- 

nut trees des- 
troyed 

No. of pieces of 
Coco-nut Trunks 
destroyed. 

No. of heaps of 
Cattle Manure 
removed. 

No. of heaps of 
Paddy-husks des- 
troyed. 

No. of Notices 
issued. 

No. of Summons 
! : j 

\ . " 






560 

1,864 ! 

7 1 

26 

■ 408 

1 

164 ! 

740 

61 

7 

1 S t 

! N i 







77 

201 

42 

28 

77 

Ni 

41 1 

2444 

283* 

23 

5 1 1 | 

I( 

1,2 12 

5.249 

457 

** ; 

M 77 ; 

3 


. OJ 
O <D 

18 
O tH 


< 


$ C. 


V 

X 


<D 

E 

o 

u bio 
s 

src 

+-> <u 

o j =, 


® £ 
V w - 

a c 

6 0 


Cn 


I 


, IO 

Agricultural Show. 

18. On the ioth and iith of July an Agricultural Show was held in the Date 
Kramat Gardens. As regards the site selected and the attendance on both days it 
proved a decided success, but the improvement in the quality of exhibits in any 
Division did not in my opinion show the advance that one- naturally would expect in 
a progressive Settlement. The Horticultural Division was decidedly weaker than on 
the previous occasion when a similar exhibition took place on the Race Course. 
That the season had been an unfavourable one there is no denying, a long period of 
drought being followed by torrential rain, but still the result should have been better. 
The exhibits of Produce, under which heading were included all vegetable products 
except Fruits, Flowers, and Vegetables, although containing some new and pro- 
mising exhibits in the form of Guttas and Rubbers, tending to show the new direction 
agriculture has taken since the last exhibition, was on the whole not what might be 
expected. Probably too long a time had elapsed since a Show of this kind was held 
here, and more interest would be taken in producing high class samples- if it were 
certain that similar exhibitions would be held biennially or triennialiy. An annual 
Show on the same scale is more I think than the voluntary financial resources of the 
.Settlement would stand. During the progress of the Show, advantage was taken of 
the presence of a Para Rubber tree growing in the Show ground to give a demonstra- 
tion of the method of tapping and coagulating in the presence of several planters 
interested in the cultivation of this tree. 

G-utfca Percha. 

ig. As already mentioned iq Paragraph 2, much attention has been paid to 
the question of gutta percha, especially as regards the means of obtaining a large 
supply of seeds or plants of the best type, and the best manner of forming planta- 
tions, of which a commencement was made under my supervision in Malacca in igoo, 
and has this year been commenced in Penang. Since then a new Chief Forest 
Officer from Burmah has been appointed to the Malay States and the Colony, and it 
is gratifying to learn from a private letter received from him that he approved of the 
work that has already been done. In January last, I made a trip to Indragiri (Sumatra) 
in the Dutch Residency of Rio, in order to see the method of planting and propagat- 
ing gutta percha trees as practised by a gentleman residing there, and if possible to 
arrange for a supply of seeds or plants. On my return a report was furnished for 
the information of His Honour the Officer Administering the Government, who took 
a keen interest in the subject, a copy of which - I annex (Appendix B.) Sometime 
later I was deputed, in accordance with an arrangement made with His Highness The 
Sultan of Joliore that a responsible Officer should be sent to see that no material, 
damage was done to his forests, to proceed to Muar to collect and transport to- 
Malacca young gutta percha trees from that region. Every possible assistance was 
given me. by the Johore authorities, who sent me a Steam Launch when f was readv 
to return, so that in a few days 1,750 plants were landed in Malacca in excellent 
condition. Mr. Hudson, who has been appointed Superintendent of Forests and 
Plantations, Malacca, had by this time arrived and took charge of the planting. In 
Penang we have been fortunate in getting a crop of seeds from some trees growing in 
the Waterfall Valley from which over 3,000 plants have been raised. In order to 
prevent these seeds being eaten by squirrels and monkeys it was necessary to fell all 
the adjoining trees from which they could gain access to them and to fix an arrange- 
ment of bamboo spikes round the boles of the trees themselves. Bats, however, 
which are equally fond of the sweet pulp in which these' seeds are embedded, were 
not so easy to circumvent and carried off great numbers. Netting some of the best 
branches in the manner in which bush fruits are protected in England was resorted 
to, but the effectual protection of large forest trees by this means is next to impos- 
sible. These trees flowered during February and March, and -ripened their seeds in- 
June and July. Two of them, growing side by side, I have known for years, and 
until they fruited never for a moment suspected that they were different species, 
having been accustomed to consider them both Palaquium gutta. There is however 
a difference in the fruit, one being much rounder and of a deeper colour than- 
the other. Good specimens of both flowers and fruits, together with drawino-s, 
were sent to Kew and Buitenzorg, and I am not sure that the matter is even now 
quitte satisfactorily cleared up. The Kew authorities consider one to be the true 
Palaquium gutta, and the other an unnamed species which it is proposed to name 
Palaquium Curtisii. Dr. Treub, however, hesitates as to the exact specific name and 
points out the great difficulty there is in this genus of determining what is to be 
called species and how far variation may go and his remarks on this are quite in 
accordance with my own field observations. He was also kind enough to have an 
analysis made of samples of gutta from both these trees, the result of which is more 


important than the exact determination of the species, and that is that both yield a 
gutta of first rate quality. The samples were sent marked A. and B. and the result 
as determined at the Laboratory of Agricultural Chemistry, Buitenzorg, is as follows : — 


A. 



B. 

Water 9.3 

. . . 


9.6 

Resin 1 1.8 

, , , 

. „ 

1 1*9 

Gutta 77.2 

... 


78.7 

Dirt 1.2 



traces 


Relation between resin and gutta i to 6.6. 

In undertaking plantations of such slow growing trees as Palaquium, it is im- 
portant that only the very best kinds should be planted, as it will require at least 
forty years to grow a tree large enough to yield one and-a-half to two pounds of 
gutta percha according to the present method of extraction, but 1 feel sure that some 
better system will be discovered by which much more will be obtained than is done 
at present. Last year 1 recorded the yield obtained from a tree, 55 feet high and 39 
inches in circumference at five feet from the ground, as one and-a-half pounds. This 
year there has been an opportunity of testing a tree 52 feet high and 42 inches in 
circumference that was blown down in the Forest Reserve, and the result is one and 
one-third pounds of clean gutta. So little is known of the actual yields of gutta 
percha trees that this is of some interest. >everal thousand young saplings, showing 
considerable leaf variation, have been received from the Acting Director, but what 
proportion of these will survive for eventual planting it is too soon to say. Most of 
these are in nursery beds where they will remain until the spring of 1903. 

Para Rubber. 


20. Para Rubber is a subject in which a great number of Europeans, and some 
natives, are. interested. It bids fair to become the great agricultural industry of the 
Malay Native States/and in this Settlement, in Province Wellesley, three Europeans 
are planting on a considerable scale. The rate of growth is eminently satisfactory 
in almost every place this tree has been planted, and as none of the large plantations 
are vet of an age to commence tapping, the quality and continuance of the yield that 
may be expected is of more interest to planters than the question of soil and cultiva- 
tion, and I have therefore made another tapping of the tree, now sixteen years old, 
growing in the Waterfall Garden, to which reference has been made in previous 
Annual Reports. This tree has now been tapped five times on the dates and with 


the result given below, 

o 

lb. os. 

November- December, 1898, Yield of dry Rubber ... 3 o 

April-May, 1899, Yield of dry Rubber ... 2 8 

November-December, 1899, V ield of dry Rubber ... 3 4 

October-November, 1900, Yield of dry Rubber . . 3 12 

August-September, 1901, Yield of dry Rubber ... 2 2f 


Total of five tappings ... 14 io| 


So far as can be seen no injury whatever has been done to this tree ; it looks 
healthy and produced this season a good crop of seeds. The last tapping was done 
during a period of very wet weather, the rainfall being 24-52 inches, or a little over 
an inch a day during the twenty-three days the tapping was carried on. Whether 
this affected the yield of latex or whether the tree requires a longer period of rest 
can only be ascertained by a further experiment under different weather conditions, 
and this will be done before long. At any rate the quantity of rubber is less than 
that obtained at either of the previous tappings. I have not the slightest doubt how- 
ever that during the next four years, by the end of which time the tree will be twenty- 
years old 5 lbs. 5I ozs. more rubber can easily be extracted {probably very much 
more) this bringing up the yield to twenty pounds or an average of I lb. per year 
for every year of its life. Assuming an estate with 100 trees to the acre as good as 
this one, and the value of rubber at 3/- per lb. only, below which it is scarcely likely 
to fall, and which is about 25% below the present price of fine para, we have as a 
return in twenty Years 2,000 lbs. of rubber of the value of ^300 or an average of £15. 
per acre per annum from the time the trees were planted. After deducting all 
expenses this should leave a hands6me profit without any consideration as to subse- 
quent profits. Samples of the rubber from this last tapping, jvhich was coagulated 


12 


by the addition of a few drops of acetic acid, and not smoked, was submitted for 
valuation to three quite independent experts, two in England and one in America, 
and they all agree in valuing it at from four pence to six pence per lb. less than 
previous samples from the same tree which coagulated naturally and had been smoked. 
All remark that the rubber is good, but that there appears to be something wrong in 
the curing. I was induced to try this method after seeing some nice looking samples 
prepared in this way and exhibited at the Penang Agricultural Show, but it does not 
appear to be a method to be adopted. It is possible that too frequent tapping may 
cause deterioration in the latex and whether this be so or not will be proved in the 
next tapping. The valuers however all remark that the fault appears to be in the 
curing. 

- Gfutta Jelutong. 

21. A samp e of Gutta Jelutong received from the Senior District Officer, 
Province Wellesley, was sent to the Director, Royal Gardens, Kew, who submitted it 
to the well known brokers, Messrs. Hecht, LEVIS & Khan who state that it is known 
in the London Market as “ Pontianak/’ and estimated the value in October at 
£ 19 - 20 per ton. The tree from which this is obtained (Dyera costulata) is fairly 
common throughout the Peninsula and in the Islands of the Malayan Archipelago. 

Botanical Expeditions — Langkawi. 

22. In addition to the two expeditions to Indragiri in Sumatra, and to Muar in 
Johore territory, especially in connection with the collection of guLta peroha plants 
or seeds, a short trip was made to the Lar.gkawi Islands in November for the purpose 
of collecting botanical specimens. On this occasion I was absent from Penang five 
days, the greater portion of two of them being occupied in going and returning. 
During this short trip many interesting and, 1 believe, some new plants were collected. 
I went up to a small Island called Pulau Hujong Dun which is about fifteen miles 
further North than 1 had been on any previous occasion. This Island does not 
-exactly belong to the Langkawi cluster but rather to a small group closer to the main 
land off the Malay State of Satul, from the North end of it the small village of Wala 
Bara on the mainland is distinctly visible. At this point the hills come quite close 
down to the sea, and our Langkawi pilot, who knows the place well, says they are 
inhabited by Sam-Sam. We anchored the Launch in a beautiful little bay with four 
fathoms of water and circumnavigated Pulau Hujong Duri in one of the boats. The 
Western side, which is exposed to the full blast of the South-West Monsoon, is very 
rugged, and the vegetation less varied and luxuriant than on the Eastern side. The 
striking features on the West side are giant Euphorbias and a species of Pandanus 
in great numbers. The hard woody portion of the former is in great repute as a 
medicine for bowel complaints under the name of Tras Sudu. While at Kuah l 
made some inquiries about guttas as 1 was desirous of satisfying myself as to what 
kind of tree produces the article that is exported from these Islands under the name 
of “ gutta minjato." Having now seen leaf specimens I have little doubt that it is a 
•species of Bassia. It is a low grade gutta of no great market value. Gutta Laban, 
that is to sav Palaquium species, which are the only trees yielding true gutta percba, 
do not extend so far north as these Islands. I have made careful inquiries on this 
point on this and previous visits, and have now no doubt that Penang is almost the 
Northern limit' of these trees. 1 he two largest Islands of this group, Langkawi and 
Trutau, contain some excellent timbe'r of which the greater portion comes to Penang. 
I saw on the beach at Kuah some fine straight logs over sixty feet long and fourteen 
inches square which had been cut for the new tin smelting works in Province 
Wellesley. The working of timber was also commenced some time ago at Pulau 
Adang, a large Island to the West of Langkawi, and which so far as I know has not 
yet been visited by any botanist, but the men and buffaloes have been brought away 
and the work stopped on account of fever. 

Perak. 

23. The Christmas holidays were spent on the Perak hill, and by permission of 
the Hon. Resident Councillor, I took with me a man from the Garden to assist in 
collecting plants for cultivation in the Waterfall Garden, and for the purpose of 
exchange. Few of these mountain plants grow well lor any length of time when 
brought down to the hotter and drier region of sea level, but many of them live long 
enough to produce flowers from which drawings can be made. 

The past year appears to have been a great flowering one as regards forest 
trees in Perak as well as in Penang, as can be seen from the myriads of young 
seedling plants of all kinds everywhere. We brought back a large collection of 
Orchids, Aroids, Ferns, Gingers, Gesneriaceae, Melastomiceae and other small 
growing plants suitable for pot culture. Rhododendrons, of which I collected three 
species, have, 1 am told, been a wonderful siiow, but Jhe season was over at the time 
■of my visit as was also the case with the majority of trees. 

C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Gardens, Penang . 


13 

Appendix A. 

Revenue and Expenditure of the Botanic Gardens Department , Penang , /po/- 


Revenue. 


Government Grant — 
Maintenance of Water- 
fall Garden 


Government Grant — 
Upkeep of Grounds of 
Governor's Hill Bungalow 


Grant Total 
Government Grant 


$ 


c. 


1,000 oo 


Government Grant — j 
Reafforesting Site of Ex- 
perimental Nursery 


Government Grant — 
Expenses of carrying out 
Provisions of Coco-nut 
Trees Preservation Or- 
dinance 


Government Grant- 
Travelling and Personal 
Allowance... 


300 00 


730 00 


41 1 00 



§ 


c. 


Wages of Gardeners and Coolies 3 . 394 *4 


4,500 00 


Purchase of Plants and Seeds 
,, Pots and Tubs 
„ Manure and Cartage 
,, Material for Herbarium 
,, Books and Periodicals 
,, Planks for boxes, &c. 

„ Material for repairs 
,, Material for new plant shed 
„ Tools 

Miscellaneous Petty Expenses.. 


Balance 
Total 

f Wages of Gardeners and Coolies 
j Purchase of Seeds . . 

„ Manure 
j „ Pots and Tubs 

1 ,, Tools and Materials 


Balance 

dotal 

/Wages of Coolies ... 

C Balance 

Total 

/ Salaries and Wages 
\ Balance 

Total 

/Pony Allowance 
| Expenses in connection with 
journey to Indragiri 
i Expenses of trip to Langkawi . 
/Field Allowances 


Balance 

Total 


6,941 00 ! Grand Total Expenditure 


Revenue from Plant Sales I 5^5 5 ° 

„ Swimming Bath 18 00 


101 46 
129 50 
55 00 
29 80 
32 2 2 
94 «7 


294 

5 ° 

164 

16 

86 

94 

113 

03 

4)494 

82 

5 

18 

4,500 

00 

Sot 

5 ^ 

67 

r 3 

4 *> 

25 

26 

*>0 

52 

55 

996 

3 i 

3 

1 

69 

1,000 

00 

167 

23 

132 

77 

OJ 

0 

0 

00 

708 

00 

28 

00 

736 

00 

216 

00 

168 

60 

36 

54 

l 3 

50 

434 

64 

6 

36 

441 

00 

6,8oi 

00 


Total Collected 


$603 50 


H 


APPENDIX B. 

Botanic Gardens, 

Penang , ijth February , ic/02. 

SIR, — In a separate letter I have furnished for the information of His Honour 
the Officer Administering the Government a brief general report on my journey to 
Iridragiri on the coast of Sumatra, and in this I purpose to deal exclusively with ihe 
gutta percha question which was the main object of my visit. 

2. There is not the slightest doubt that all kinds of gutta percha trees art- 
being rapidly exterminated in this part of Sumatra and it' is a difficult matter to find 
a tree over six inches in diameter. 1 made inquiries at all places touched at going 
up the river, and at the farthest point I reached, which is about one hundred and 
fifty miles up the Indragiri river, I spent three days in examining the forest 
and in making further inquiries, but in no single instance could I see or hear of a 
tree large enough to produce seeds, so that I think we may dismiss the idea of obtain- 
ing seeds from this region. Mr. BURCH ARD, the gentleman whose estate I stayed 
at, is interested in this subject and has planted some thousands of trees of Palaquium. 
He has been living over four years in the same place and is aware of the ^ value of 
seeds, but during the whole of that time has not been able to obtain one. 

3. Four kinds of gutta percha trees are found growing in this district and some 
of each kind are planted on the estate which I went to visit. They are all known as 
‘‘Balam” /.<?., Balam Merah, (Palaquium oblongifolium) which is the same thing as 
Taban Merah of the Peninsula and Ekor of Penang, Balam Putih ( Palaquium sp. ) 
and Balam Sundek (Payena Leerii). I obtained leaf specimens of all these trees 
and saw the manner in which they have been planted. ' Balam Merah” produces 
the most valuable gutta percha and is the one that it is desirable to plant in this Colony 

■ as in addition to its higher market value gutta percha is obtainable from the leaves 
as well as from the stem, anti I think it doubtful whether this is the case with 
the others. 

4. The planting has not been done in a systematic manner, but trees set out at 
varying distances apart between Coffee and Gambier. In some places they are thirty 
feet apart and in others only twelve. Owing to want of capital the greater portion 
of the estate has been practically abandoned and the jungle has grown up and ruined 
the Gambier, but where the heads of the gutta trees have been kept clear the effect 
has probably been beneficial to them rather than otherwise, A great number of trees 
appear to have died when first planted, owing largely no doubt to the inexperience of 
the coolies, but mainly from the fact that the stumps were brought direct from the 
dense damp jungle and planted in the open without any previous preparation. 

5. During the first two years all the species of Palaquium grow slowly, but after 

that appear to get away faster. The height of two years planted trees I found to be 
six to eight feet with stems in diameter at the base. Those four and-a-half 

years planted are ten to thirteen feet high and six to nine inches in circumference at 
three feet from the ground. The soil in which they are growing is excellent, much 
better than anything we have in Penang or Malacca. 

6. In the absence of seeds the difficulty of obtaining a sufficient number of suit- 
able plants to form plantation on a large scale in Malacca and Penang is a serious 
and somewhat expensive matter, but to wait for a seed crop may mean waiting for 
years. In theffirst place Palaquium oblongifolium trees do not flo\Ver annually. When 
they do flower it sometimes happens that animals take the crop. In support of 
this statement I may say that none of the trees in Penang 'flowered last year, nor 
am 1 aware ol their having flowered more than once during all the years I have 
been here, which was in 1899, when we obtained a thousand young seedling plants. 
Mr. Ridley informs me that one tree in the Botanic Gardens, Singapore, flowered 
freely but set no Iruit. Mr. Derry wrote some time ago tharia tree in the Residency 
grounds at Kwala Kangsar was in fruit, and two months later that squirrels had 
taken all except two which he sent me while still unripe. Under these circum- 
stances it does not seem advisable to sit down and wait for seeds, and the only 
course open appears to be to purchase seedling plants as young as possible from the 
jungle, or plants propagated from cuttings. 

7. The main object of my journey to Indragiri was to see how this tree is 
propagated from cuttings, for all attempts made here have proved a failure. I know 
now how the thing is done, ana it is as 1 suspected, but as the system depends on a 
large supply of small plants to work on we cannot apply it to any considerable extent 


*5 


f 


in Peuang. i am in hopes however that a fair proportion of cuttings from large trees 
treated in the same manner will succeed and experiments will be commenced as soon 
as the season is suitable. 

8. The so called young plants used for propagation (which 1 prefer to call 
stumps to distinguish them from truly young seedlings or cuttings) are found plenti- 
ful in places near where I was staying. They are in reality old suppressed seedlings 
from the size of a lead pencil to that of a man’s little finger, with a long tap root two 
to three feet long, as thick as a man’s thumb, and perhaps twenty or more years old. 
They are pulled up and cut back to within about six inghes of the point that was 
level with the ground, and then planted horizontally on a sloping bank in damp shady 
jungle until they make new erect shoots at right angles to the stem with two or three 
fully developed leaves, when they are cut oft with about two inches of the old wood 
attached, and planted in boxes until they root. The process is a slow one, and plants 
large enough to put out in plantations cannot be produced in less than eighteen 
months. When once rooted they grow well and make good plants. We -received a 
box of these cuttings last October when only a few of them had roots, and in January 
they had rooted and were potted off singly in five inch pots. Next to seedlings 
collected in a very young state these are the best plants 1 have seen. 

9- In the Singapore Gardens 1 saw a number of young seedling plants that 
had been brought from Borneo, and if plants of this stamp are obtainable they 
should be purchased in large numbers for Malacca and Penang and forwarded in 
the boxes as they arrive to Nurseries as near as possible to the places in 
which they are to be eventually planted. 1 also saw in the same place a 
number of boxes of stumps of which 1 have no very high opinion, unless they are 
utilised for propagation in the manner I have already described in paragraph 8. 1 

doubt whether these old stumps, from which one half the tap root has been cut in 
order to get them into boxes, will ever make satisfactory growth. 

■ C. CURTIS, 

Assistant Superintendent of Forests. 





Annual Report on the Botanic Gardens, Singapore, 
for the year 1902. 


Staff. 

The Director returned from leave on March 1 8th, 1902, and the Assistant left on 
long leave on March 23rd. For some months there was no Assistant in the Gardens, 
and as the available portion of the salary of the Assistant, is insufficient considerable 
difficulty was experienced in inducing anyone to take the post, ft has long been 
impossible for a single European, however energetic, to get through the work* of the 
Department and, as may be expected, almost every branch of the work had fallen 
into arrears. Mr. A. D. Machado accepted the post of Assistant on Julv 1st, and it 
then became possible to get the Department into something like its proper condition. 

1 he scheme of salaries for the man dors referred to in the last report did not ffive 
satisfaction to the employes. It amounted to a commencing salary of 20 dollars & per 
month rising 5 dollars in every fifth year to 40 dollars, the maximum previous service 
at or over 20 dollars counting. Two of the three Garden mandors and one at Govern- 
ment House sent in a petition to be raised to the maximum at once ; this was re- 
fused, and they all resigned. One of them, Mohamed Han if, had been employed for 
seven years consecutively as mandor, and for three years previously with a break 
between, so that he had had ten years training* His salary was 25 dollars. 

The mandor Sahib, who had resigned with the others, applied to be taken on 
again and this was permitted. Victor PASSANAH replaced Hanif in charge of the 
Economic Gardens, and a lad Ezekiel was taken on in place of a mandor CllINTA 
who was dismissed. Castawi, a Javanese who has been employed in the Gardens 
since boyhood, was put in charge of the flower beds, etc. 

This constant change of mandors, and the consequent work of trainino utterly 
ignorant men, adds not a little to the work of the Department. & 

, coo ^ es ’ with the exception of one or two of the older men, were a very poor 

tot, very indolent and thievish, and one of them out of spite attempted to burn down 
the mandors quarters, a design happily frustrated. 

The supply of both Javanese and Klings was by no means adequate, and it 
seems at present impossible to procure more. 

The peon Sallf.H was arrested on a charge of fraud and sent to gaol for three 
months, being the second successive peon who was thus imprisoned. Considerable 
difficulty was experienced in getting a successor, as the work is hard, and long, and 
the tact that the peon has to act also as hill-collector and has manv opportunities of 
fraud makes it essential to get a trustwocUiy man. It would be advisable to require 
the peon to find security. 

1 here was very little sickness among the coolies except that dengue fever 
ran through the whole staff, and there was one case of beri-beri which ended fatal Iv 
very suddenly. 3 


Weather. 

The weather was unusually dry and hot for many months, and this entailed a 
f r . eat . d ® aI II of . watering. All the wells being dry, water had to be fetched from the 

fake by bullock cart, employing a good many men and costing a good deal of money 
in cart hire. 00 j 

In spite of all these difficulties and drawbacks to which must be added the very 
large increase in cost of all materials used in the Gardens, the Gardens were kept 
bright and improved in many ways and before the end of the year were got into good 
condition again. & 5 

Visitors. 

The number of ordinary visitors was as great as usual, and there was an in- 
crease in the number of Scientific and Gardening Men who came to study plants and 


methods of cultivation and preparation of vegetable products. Among the latter 
were M. DUPONT sent by the Seychelles Government to study tropical products, with a 
view to introducing them into the Seychelles. Mr. MERRILL, Government Botanist for 
the U. S. A. Government at Manila ; M. BoiS of the Paris Museum ; Mr. USTERI of 
Zurich, Mr. NlTOBE, Chief of the Agricultural Bureau, Formosa; Prof. Comes, School 
of Agriculture, Portici ; Dr. P. De Tavera, Member of Philippines Commission ;'H. 
FOUKOUBA, Director of the Imperial Garden, Shinjicou, Japan ; Prof. T. Tanaka, Central 
Experiment, Station, Tokyo; Dr. Volz (Sweden) and Sir E. SATOW. 

The Regimental bands played as usual on moonlight nights and on afternoons, 
and were highly appreciated. 

Upkeep of Buildings & c 

Xo new buildings were constructed but repairs and alterations were made to the 
cooly lines, the large plant-house and the smaller buildings.. Some of the drains by 
the roads were reconstructed and more will have to be done. At the request of some 
members of the public: the paths on the bandstand were covered with a layer of white 
sand for the benefit of the children vfho play there which gave much satisfaction to 
them and their parents, though by no means beneficial to the grass. 

All garden seats have been repaired during the year and fresh seats purchased. 

Aviaries. 

In accordance with the Government instructions all the larger animals were dis- 
posed of, some being sold. The deer were sent to Cocos Island to resupply the stock 
fomerlv there. Only a few of the smaller animals and birds are now kept, chiefly 
those which have been here many years. No attempt will be made to add any more; 
indeed a number of animals offered by various persons were declined. 

The old wire netting on two sides of the monkey’s cage was replaced by iron 
bars at a cost of $260. 

One bamboo rat {Rhizomys) was presented by the Hon. R. N. Bland, Malacca. 

One pelican (. P elec anus sp.) captured in Singapore was purchased. 

One Hornbill ( Berenicornis Comatus ) was presented by a passenger. 

One squirrel ( Sciurus Prevosti) presented by Mr. A. D. Machado, 

Two silver pheasants {Euplocamus N vcthemerus) presented by Mr. Falshaw. 

One sparrow-hawk presented by Mr. Resting. 

The fine peacock was found dead one morning, having apparently been killed 
Yy a wound under the eye given by a pheasant in the next cage. 

Plants and seeds received. 

There were 332 packets of seeds, and 1,528 plants received as presents or in ex 
■change from various Institutions and private persons. I he contributors were Royal 
Gardens, Kew ; Botanic Gardens, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Calcutta, Ootacamund, 
Penang, Jamaica, Melbourne, Nagpur, Trinidad, Cape Town, Sydney, Bermuda, 
Berlin, Par Es Salam. The Agri-horticultural Societies of Calcutta and Madras, U. 
S. A. Department of Agriculture, Messrs. J. C. Harvey (Mexico,) M. Prudhomme 
(Madagascar), Dr. Schlechter (New Guinea), Messrs. Boehmer (Japan), Mr. E. S. A. 
Cohen (Java), Mr. Micholitz (East Indian^Drchids), Mr. J. C. Pereira (Orchids), R, 
Little, Mrs. O’Sullivan, Mr. S. P. Chatterjee (Calcutta), Mr. Gunn, Mr. St. V. B. Down, 
Mr. Jenkins ^Bangkok), Messrs. Herb and Wulle, Mr. Choa Kim Keat, Mr. F. 
Pears (Muai), Mr. R. Derry (Perak Orchids). 

Plants and seeds sent out. 

'There were sent out from the Gardens to various institutions and private persons 
775 packets of seeds and 2,181 Plants, besides which there were sold to various pur- 
chasers 829 Ornamental plants, 4,765 Economic plants, 125,1 10 Para rubber seeds and 
100 packets of various seeds. 

Seeds and plants in exchange were sent to the Gardens of Kew, Buitenzorg, 
Calcutta, Saigon, Bermuda, Madagascar, Uganda, U. S. Forest Bureau, Manila, 
Brisbane, Seychelles, Rockhampton, Ahuri, Trivandrum, British New Guinea (peases 
of plants), Sydney, Ceylon, British Guiana, Calcutta, Trinidad, Penang, Melbourne, 
Hongkong, Bangalore, Mauritius, Jamaica, Adelaide, Rangoon, Zanzibar, Fravancore, 
Old Calabar, Baroda, Barbados, Malta, Kuala Lumpor, Agri-horticultural Society 
of Calcutta and Madras, British Legation, Bangkok, British North Borneo Government, 
Paris Museum, Forest Department and Gardens, Malacca and Negri Sembilan, Expe- 
rimental Gardens, Batu Tiga, Administrator of Fiji, Kapalgoo Mission, Port Darwin,. 


3 


Dr. Schlechter, Messrs. Vanden Gucht, Beaufort, (Chinde E. Africa), Hemings (Fiji), 
Harvey (Mexico), Chatterjee, Pereira. F. Pears, and others. 

The number of plants and seeds received and sent out this year far exceeds that 
on any previous year in the records of the Gardens. The increase in the demand 
tor plants from these Gardens is due not only to the development of the British 
tropical colonies, especially Africa, New Guinea, Seychelles and the Malay 
States, but also to the fact that these gardens are now considered to rank among the 
most important of the equatorial tropical stations of the world, so that all questions 
and requirements of tropical cultivated plants are referred to this department 
from the various foreign Colonies as well as from those of Britain. This not only 
entails a very large stock of cultural planes being kept, but increases the correspon- 
dence enormously, so that this Department has probably by far the largest corre- 
spondence of any in the service. 

Plants in Flower. 

The following plants flowered in the Gardens, for the Hrst time, Millettia Albiflora, 
(tree) from Pahang, M . atropur purea , Napoleona imperialis (shrub) West Africa, 
hassza sp. Getah Soontai, Sumatra, Kickxia africana (tree) Africa, M ascar enhaisia 
tlastlca (Rubber tree) Madagascar, Webera asiatica (shrub) Ceylon, Allamanda 
viola cea (shrub) Brazil, Passiflora Watsoniana (climber), Posoqueria longiflora , and 
/ . latifolia (shrubs) South America, Pavetta madagascatiensis (shrub) Madagascar 
Abutilon sp. Madagascar, Landolphia hendelotii (Rubber vine) Africa. Ichnocarpus 
frittescens (climbing shrub) Penang, Dipterix odorata Tonquin Bean, Homalium 
gvandiflorum (Tree) Singapore, Coffea sp. Abbeokuta coffee, C. Laurentii robusta 
Congo Coffee. Aristalochia Duchartrei , (climber) South America. 

Sacco labium Jissum (Orchid) Lankawi, A. secundiflorum Sinkep, Ccelogyne 
kingii Perak, Renanthera coccinea , R. Imschootiana Indo-china, Vanda limbata 
Celebes, Calanthe microglossa n. sp. Sumatra, Sabal glaucesceus (Palm) Trinidad, 
Iguanura sp. “ Teruno Dibdings, Zamia pumila America, Carludovica humilis 
S. America, Calamus Lt n deni Philippines. 

Cola acuminata and Allamanda William si fruited for the first time. 

Library. 

The following books and periodicals were added to the Library : 

Niederlin, G. The State of Nicaragua ; presented by the Author. 

Agricultural and live stock Statistics, presented by the Government of S. Australia 

A public Institution devoted to the Ex- Issued and presented by the 
tension of American Commerce / Philadelphia Commercial 

l he Worlds Commerce f Museum. 

Conversion tables of Weight & Measures ) 

Merck, E. Recent clinical reports on lodopin ; presented by the Author. 

Morrison, W. K. — Bee keeping in the West Indies. 

Altord-Nicholls, Dr. H. A. — The harmfulness of Bush fires ; presented by Imperial 
Department of West Indies. 

Seedling and other canes in the Leeward Islands; presented by Imperial Depart- 
ment of West Indies. K 

Pieters, A. J. and Charles, V. K. — The seed coats of certain species of Brassica ; 
presented by U. S. A. Government. 

Howard, L. O.— The Economic Status of Insects, presented bv U. S. A. Govern- 
ment. 

, WlJ 3eman, Ede.— Observations sur les Apocynacees a latex ; presented by the 
Author. 

Hackel, E . — Neue Graser; presented by the Author. 

Wright, H.— Observations on Dracoena reflexa ; presented by the Author. 

Heim, Dr.— Recherches des Dipterocarpees ; presented bv the Author. 

Angler, A.— Monographien Afrikanische Pflanzen und Gattungen Vol. III. IV. 

V. ; presented by the Author. 

Dyer, Sir W. T.— The flora of tropical Africa; presented by the Author. 

Sack, J. — Einiger Pflanzenstoffe ; presented by the Author. 

Cook, Theo.— Flora of the presidency of Bombay; presented bv the Author. 

Henson, C.— Sugar Cane ol Madras; presented by U. S. A. Government. 

Report on the United States Philippine Commission ; presented by U. S. A. Govt. 

Berichte Land und Forstwirtschaft in Deutsch Africa. 

Appel, O. — Paul Knutb, presented by the Author. 


4 


Knuth, P.™ Bloemen biologische inededeeling aus den tropen ; presented by the 
Author. 

Preyer, Axel— Einiges uber Sudasiatische Agricultur : presented by the Author. 
Preyer, Axel. — Uber kakao-fermentation ; presented by the Author. 

Urban, J. — Vorgeschichte des Neuen kgl. Botanisch Gartens zu Dahlem-steglitz ; 
presented by the Author. 

Christ, H. — Elaphoglossum Bangii ; presented by the Author. 

,, Spicilegium pteridologicum Austro-Braziliense. 

„ Aspidium munchii. 

„ Filices setciouenses. 

,, Die Farn flora der Osttiche Riviera. 

Raciborski — Fame von Tagal. 

Agricultural Imports and Exports 1897 ; presented by U. S. A. Government. 

Our Foreign Trade 1892-1901, 

Lloyd. — Mycological notes. 

Arden, S — Report on Para Rubber, Selangor. 

King, Sir George.— Materials for the Flora of the Malay Peninsula (continuation). 
Report of Agricultural Experiment Station ; presented by U. S. A. Government of 
the University of Wisconsin. 

Moore, R. A. — Oatsmut in Wisconsin. 

Mohr — over het Oopten van Delie Tabak. 

Kramer, Dr. j. G. — Ground Analyses. . 

Koningsberger, J. C. — De Zoogdieren van Java. 

Proceedings of the Central Indigenous Drugs Committee of India — Vol. 1 ; pre- 
sented by Government of India. 

Niederlein, G.— Ressources vegetales des Colonies Francaises ; presented by the 
Author. 

Ferguson, M. C. — Germination of the spores of Agaricus Campestris. 

Green, A. O.— Tasmanian Timbers ; presented by the Author. 

Medley Wood, J.— Natal plants, Vol. 3 ; presented by the Author. 

Wilde man, — Illustrations de la Flore du Congo ; presented bv the Author. 
Kearney, Th.— Report on Botanical Survey of the Dismal Swamp region ; pre- 
sented by U. S. A. Government. 

Coulter and Rose— Monograph of the North American Umbelliferse ; presented by 
U. S. A. Government. 

Lyon, W. S. — A primer on the Cultivation of Sugar-cane ; presented by Philippine 
Bureau of Agriculture. 

Engler— Der Pflanzenreich (Purchased) 

Hannam, W. J.— Textile Fibres of Commerce » 

Blume, C. — Bijdragen tot de Flora van Nederlandsche India: Tabellen 

en Platen v. d Jav. Orchideen >> 

De Sturler, W.— Catalogue des especes de Bois de l’Archipel des In- 

de Orientales »> 

Hagen, Dr. B— Die Pflanzen und Thierwelte von Deli 
Scheffer, R. H. C. C— Observationes Phytographicae III. 


M Sur quelques Plant NouveHes » 

Choisy, J. D. — Plantse Javanicae . » 

Miquel, F. A. G. — Analecta Botanica » 

Warburg — Monsunia Vol. 1. ” 

Rodrigues, J. Barbosa — As Heveas >> 


Botanical Magazine, Journal of the Linnean Society, Indian Gardening and Plan- 
ting Gardeners Chronicle. Tropical Agriculturist, Dictionnaire Iconographique des 

Orchidees. , r, , f 

The following journals and reports were also presented —Journal of the Board o 
Agriculture, The Indian Forester, Journal of the Imperial Institute, The Chemist and 
Druggist, Botanical Survey of India, Journal of the Department of Agriculture s of VV Aus- 
tralia^, Queensland Agricultural Journal, Agricultural Journal of the Cape of Good Hope, 
Jamaica Bulletin, Saigon Bulletin, Kew Bulletin, Trinidad, West Indies, Ceylon, Annals 
of the Buitenzorg Gardens, Land record NorthWest Provinces, Bulletin of the Kolom- 
aal Museum te Haarlem, Journal d’ Agriculture Tropicale, Revue des Culture Colomales 
Tropenflanzer, The Pharmaceutical Review, Bulletin du Jardin Colonial, Agricultural 
News (Barbados), Agricultural Ledger (India), Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, 
Planting opinion of India, Bulletin Economique, Acti Horti Petropohtam, Experi- 
mental Station Record (U. S. A.), Bulletin de la Chambre d’ Agriculture, Annales du 


0 


M usee du Congo, Madagascar Bulletin, The Shamba (Zanzibar), Agri-Horticultual 
Society, Madras, and the annual reports of the Gardens of Natal, Ceylon, Trinidad, 
Hongkong, British Honduras, Zanzibar, Zurich, Calcutta, Buitenzorg, New South 
Wales, Travancore, Barbados, Antigua, Mysore, British Guiana, Gold Coast. Forest, 
Department, Madras, Uganda, Queensland Acclimatization Society, Smithsonian 
Institute, Washington. 

The Flora. 

During my stay in England, 1 examined and compared the Aroids, and^ Cala- 
meae of the Singapore Herbarium with those of Kew Gardens and published an ac- 
count of new species of Aroids from the Peninsula in the Journal of Botany. The 
volume of the Flora including the Monocotyledons having been entrusted to me, I 
have finished the Hydro charideoe and Orchidece and the manuscript has been type- 
written, the remainder of the orders with the exception of the Glumales have been 
written out and are nearly ready for the typewriter. 1 hope to finish the work in a 
few months. I have also undertaken to do the order Gesneraceoe. 

The Artist has continued to make drawings of the more interesting plants. 

Bulletin. 

The Bulletin was published 'regularly each month, and to judge by the demand 
for it mav be considered very successful. The first volume of the new series was 
-completed at the end of the year. It included 6l6 pages of letter press and 8 Plates. 

Three hundred and thirty copies were distributed to various establishments and 
private persons each month, beside separately purchased copies. It was not expect- 
ed at first that there would be so great a demand for it, so that of some numbers no 
copies remain in stock. 

Herbarium. 

* 

Comparatively few specimens were added to the herbarium this year, as owing 
to stress of work it was not possible to visit the forests. I went to Penang however 
in December, and got three days' collecting in the Perak Hills; though the time was 
short I obtained several new and little known plants including three Pandani, several 
Rattans in flower, and a remarkable Balanophoraceous plant, probably generically 
new, and such rare and little known plants as Chrysoglossum villosum, and Zingiber 
Kingii. 

Herbarium specimens were also received during the year from Mr. Curtis (Pe- 
nang and Malacca), Mr. R. Shelford (Sarawak), Dr. Prain, specimens from Scortechini 
and Ku nstler's collections, together with some copies of drawings of rare species. 
Mr. E. Merrill (plants of Labuan), Mr. Penny, specimens of wood, leaves and fruit of 
the catinga from Pahang. Mr. Craddock, Pahang plants, Mr. Micholitz, Balanophora 
n.sp. Tenimber islands, and specimens of rare plants were sent by Messrs. Derry, 
Arden, Burn-Murdoch and Machado. 

Duplicate specimens from the Herbarium were sent to Kew (146), Sydney Botanic 
Gardens (479), Calcutta (212), British Museum (120) and some palm and pandanus 
specimens to l)r. Beccari. A collection of specimens of Economic plants was prepared 
.for Prince Roland Buonaparte. t 

Economic Gardens. 

In this part of the Garden, a large piece of ground, lying between the new road 
.and the Arboretum on the east side, was cleared, stumped and partly turfed. This 
much improves the appearance of this portion of the Garden. The boundary on this 
side was also cleared, and a hedge planted. A number of new nursery beds were 
formed, and the stock of Economic plants for distribution having got very low was 
renewed as much as possible, but owing to the drought and change of mandors, it 
was difficult to get a large enough supply for the demands. 

Para rubber . — The demand for seeds and plants of this fell off materially as 
many of the trees planted in the Native States and Malacca are fruiting now, and 
the planters are now supplying themselves. The number of seeds sold or otherwise 
distributed was 126,210, young plants 

Owing to the drought the crop was very late and smaller than usual ; experiments 
were made in tapping but were not completed as owing to the drought, the latex 
escaped very slowly and in small quantities. 

Experiments were made in manuring young plants in pots, with various kinds of 
manures, including lime, cowdung, burnt earth, poudrette etc. The evidence, was in 




6 


! 


fa\ our of burnt earth and cowdung ; lime and poudrette seemed not to benefit the 
plants at all. 

Brncea Sumatrana.— This new dysentery drug was introduced to Sin^anore 
from Pahang in 1892, by myself, and its use in cases of dysentery described In the 
bulletin of this year. There was a fairly good demand for it from varied parts of the 
world especially India, and a piece of ground was planted up with it. I he shrub 
fruited in 6 months after planting, and gVevV very readily. A bag of ten pounds 
weight of seed was sent to Messrs. BURROUGHS AND WELLCOME, for experiment 

Among the plants of economic value received during the year were two species 
of Anona from Mexico with edible fruit, Eugenia owariensis ( 'Nsali” with eatable fruit 
the Nyasa Land Coffee, and the “ Masanda . an Artoearpus with edible seeds and 
some Amomums from Uganda, the Rotan Segar, Calamus sp. from Muar the best 
rattan in the Peninsula; Seeds of Bambusa spinosa, Dendrocalamus strictus and 16 
bags of Swietenia Macrophylla from Calcutta, Copernicia cerifera Wax Palm from 
Guiana, Javanese vegetable seeds from Mr. COHEN, American vegetable seed from 
U. S. A. Department of Agriculture. 

The chief demand for economic plants besides Para rubber, was for Fruit trees 
and Vanilla. Large collections of various economic plants were supplied to British 
New Guinea, the Seychelles Gardens and the experimental station of Selangor. 

Upkeep of Economic Gardens Vote $r ; 888.oo 

Expenditure ,| 1*879.50 

Balance ... §> 8.50 


Inspection of Coconut Trees. 

During, the year notices t6 cut down infected trees were served on 238 persons 
and 1,039 dead trees and 35 piles of rubbish were destroyed. 1 here were no pro- 
secutions. The number of red beetles especially has greatly diminished in Singa- 
pore, so that it was some time before I could get a couple for a correspondent & in 
Madagascar who wished to see it. 


Vote 

Transport 

Uniform 

Balance 


$210.00 


169.90 
17.^0 

22.90 


$2 1 0.00 


Upkeep of Government House Grounds and Domain. 

The man dor Tajurdin resigned early in the year and was replaced by Rappa 
who has worked very well. The coolies worked satisfactorily, a new bit of ground 
was opened as a vegetable garden, and produced a quantity of vegetables, and the 
grounds were kept in good condition. 


Vote 

Expenditure 


... $2,024.00 

••• L955-57 

Balance ... $ 68.43 


. Planting in Forest Reserves. 

There was still a good deal of fever among the men engaged at Bukit Timah 
forest, and eventually the Mandor Castawi was removed from there and transferred to 
the Botanic Gardens. The six men worked well and 14,000 trees, chiefly Gutta 
Percha, were planted. The young trees were cleaned up and the paths opened where 
they had got covered. As a portion of the reserve was alienated by Government for 
cooly lines for the quarry, all the trees on it that could be moved were transferred. 
The hot weather interfered a good deal with the planting but the Gutta plants seem- 
ed to suffer very little from it. Some of the wild Gutta percha trees fruited 
in the forest, as they did in the Gardens, and a quantity of seed was obtained which 


1L 


7 


was planted. The greatest difficulty was to prevent their being carried off even ere 
ripe by bats. These are most troublesome animals, the worst being those of the 
genus Cyndpterus, they occur in enormous numbers, and being small are impos- 
sible to shoot. 

This plantation was transferred at the end of the year to the Forest Department. 


Vote 


$600. 00 

Expenditure 


592. 13 


Balance 

... S* 7- 87 



HENRY N. RIDLEY 


Director . 


Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the year igo2 . 


Receipts. 


Expenditure. 

I 


$ c. 


$ C- 

By Balance in Bank 

2,797 5« 

; Salaries 

5.759-6; 

,, Government Grant 

8,oco 00 

Bills 

| 8,338.03 

,, Sale of Plants, and Seeds ... 
Interest 

3460 53 
33 73 

$14,29- 77 

Balance 

194,07 

14,291.77 


Botanic Gardens, Penang. 


The year was an unusually dry one for Penang, the total rainfall on Govern- 
ment Hill, which is always greater than in the plains, being only 1 15.5 1 in., whereas 
the average for a number of years is about 150 inches. 

Waterfall G-arden. 

For several weeks during the early part of the year a Surveyor was employed by 
the Municipal Commissioners in taking levels in this Garden, and a number of coolies 
in sinking a shaft outside the Garden limits to ascertain the nature of the foundation, 
their idea being to apply to Government for permission to convert the Waterfall Valley, 
the present site of the Garden on which much labour and money has been expended, 
into a reservoir. No definite decision has as yet been come to, but the chalk line 
and level pegs put down by the Surveyor to show the height to which the water will 



8 


rise, supposing this scheme is carried out, shows that there will be nothing left worth 
preserving as a Government garden, and that an entirely new site will have to be 
selected if Penang is to have a garden of any interest. Under this circumstance of 
uncertainty no extension has been made during the year, not have certain much 
needed improvements of permanent nature, such ‘as increased Office and herbarium 
accommodation and Quarters for employes within a reasonable distance of their work, 
been put before Government as was intended in preparing the Ksti mates for 1903; 
as it would be wasting money if the garden is to be abolished within a year or two. 
it is most important that this question should be settled as soon as possible so that 
works of improvement may be carried on with a certainty that the labour and 
money is not being spent in vain. 

2. I his garden, as is often remarked both by resident and visitors, is the one 
show place in Penang, and in addition to this much work of a more utilitarian nature 
is done here in connection with Forestry, Economic Botany, &c. A large proportion 
of the trees are now too large to be removed and every year the difficulty and also 
the expense of removing is enhanced, so that I cannot too strongly urge the necessity 
of a decision being arrived at as soon as possible as to whether this is the only 
possible site for an adequate water supply ; and if so that steps should be at once 
taken to provide for another suitable site* for a garden. 

3 - 1 be main attraction to the majority of visitors are the plant sheds, especially 

the Orchid shed, which generally contain a number of interesting plants in flower. In 
tin's respect there has been no falling off during the past year, and there is at the pre- 
;?>ent time (January 8th) a bank of Calanthes and other Orchids in flower that is most 
attractive. The. attention of plant lovers has been called to this easily grown and 
attractive genus in an article to be published in the Agricultural Bulletin, with hints as 
to their culture, so that there is no necessity to dilate on the subject here further 
than to say that since the beginning of September there has been a continuous show 
of those plants in flower which will continue for at least another month or six weeks. 
H abenarza carnea is another Orchid that served to keep the house gay during the 
months of July and August, there being at one time about 100 plants in flower, and 
the individual flowers last from a month to six weeks. Some of the Cattleyas, On- 
•cidiums, and other S. American Orchids do fairly well and are greatly admired, but 
for the greater number of species of these genera the temperature is too high 
to grow them to perfection. 

4. Beds, borders, and shrubberies were maintained in a satisfactory manner, 
jnd many plants and trees were more than usually floriferous when the rain came 
after the prolonged drought. The Lagerstroemia and Cassia trees were exceedingly 
show r y as were also many flowering shrubs. ( annas are grown in large numbers and 
some three dozen new Varieties were received from Messrs. Dammann & Co., Naples, 

1 his is one of the best flowering plants to grow for the wet season, but to obtain the 
best results they require to be transplanted frequently, and manured heavily. Many 
Palms and other trees were planted out in different parts of the grounds and more 
would have been done in this line but for the uncertainty as to what is to happen to 
this garden as already mentioned. Nearly the whole of the collection of pot plants 
were gone through and repotted during the months of April and May. 

5. Numbers of new plants were contributed to the collection already in cul- 
tivation bv the Officers in charge of Botanic Gardens, Nurseries, and other establish- 
ments, with which we are in correspondence; and a good many by residents in the 
Malay States, Sumatra and Penang. A trip to Selangor in the month of May, in con- 
nection with forestry, afforded an opportunity of adding many plants that are quite 
mew, and others not previously recorded from the Peninsula. Among the former is a 
most beautiful Didymocarpus with snow' white flowers, found growing at an altitude 
of about 3,000 feet ; and among the latter, Cypripedium Lowii, which had hitherto 
been recorded only from Borneo, where it was first discovered by Sir Hugh Low, and 
in Sumatra. The mountain range on which these and many other interesting plants 
were collected divides the Native States of Selangor and Pahang, and is a region 
that from a botanical point of view will repay further exploration. 

6. 1 he principal contributors of plants and seeds are the Directors of the Royal 
Botanic Gardens Kew, and Calcutta ; Botanic Gardens Buitenzorg, Glasnevin, Gold 
Coast, and Singapore. Among others may be mentioned Messrs. F. Sander & Co., 
Messrs. Dammann & Co., S. P. Chatterjee, C. Maries, Hon. J. K, Birch, J. de Voogt, 
D. Aeria, Khoo Joo Keat, Khaw Joo Tok, A. B. Stephens, A. Lens, J. Irving, L. Haw- 
kins, D. Blaze, C. Goldham, A. Runge, Dr. Wright, Mrs. Rivis, P. Laurie, C. H. 
.Sprenger and Mr. Stiedel. 


9 


y. The recipients were about equal in number to contributors and to a great 
extent the same individuals, but there are others, of which the Curator of the Botanic 
Station Seychelles, and H. H. the Rajah Muda of Kedah received the largest collec- 
tions. Plants of Kickxia (Funtumia) elastica raised from seeds obtained direct 
from West Africa by the Superintendent of Go\ eminent Plantations Selangor were 
divided between the Superintendents cf Government Plantations Perak and Selan- 
gor, a few given to private planters, and some planted in Penang in the Forest 
Reserve at Batu Feringgi. 

8. Plants to the value of $>741 were sold, the greater proportion being orna- 
mental plants in pots; but included some 3,000 rubber plants of sorts. The greatest 
demand in the way of decorative plants is for Palms, the taste for which has greatly 
extended during recent years. The increase in revenue over the previous year’s 
collection amounts to $167. 

9. Drawings of many new and interesting plants that have flowered in the 
garden have been added during the year, and it is hoped that more work of this kind 
will be done in the future as the Artist's time has hitherto been largely taken up with 
typewriting and other clerical work for which a man is provided in Estimates 1903. 

10. Numerous additions have been made to the herbarium, which although con- 
fined exclusively to Malayan plants, has outgrown the accommodation provided. New 
Cabinets have been purchased but a larger and more suitable building is much needed. 

Governor’s Hill Bungalow Gardens. 

11. This garden suffered much during the early part of the year from want of 
water. The rain-water tanks were all dry and the pump out of order. All the men 
employed could only carry enough water to keep the pot plants alive, and in many 
cases failed to do even that. Until there is some more satisfactory arrangement for 
supplying water it will not be possible to do much more in the way of growing choice 
plants here than is done at present. 

Coco-nut Tree Preservation- 

12. The Inspector of Coco-nut trees complains that in too many cases persons 
summoned for infringing the Ordinance are let off with a caution, or fined in so small 
amounts as to be non-deterrent. In view of the increasing importance of Coco nut 
cultivation, and the necessity for keeping the beetle in check, for which it has recent- 
ly been found necessary to take steps in the Federated Malay States on the same 
lines as in the Colony, I think too lenient treatment is a mistake. 

The number of Notices &c., issued are shown below. 


Name of District. 

No. of dead Coco- 
nut trees des- 
troyed 

No. of pieces of 
Coco-nut Trunks 
destroyed. 

No. of heaps of 
Cattle Manure 
removed. 

1 

No. of heaps of 
Paddy-husks des- 
troyed. 

No. of Notices 
issued. 

No. of Summonses 
issued. 

Amount of Fines 
recovered. 

! 

1 

Remarks. 

Province Wellesley, 
Northern District 

480 

2,770 

168 

89 

383 

7 | 

S C. 

r 5 50 


Province Wellesley, 


f ' 







Central District 

149 

j 1,089 

103 

54 

185 1 

10 1 

33 00 


j 

Province Wellesley, 


J 



. i : 




Southern District 

49 

231 

35 

22 

85 

Nil | 

Nil 


Penang Island. 

380 

3 > 7 l6 

3^9 

70 

596 ; 

27 

o< 

Gj 

O 

O 


Total. 

1,058 

7,806 

1 

695 

235 | 

' 

■ 1,249 

I 

44 1 

IOI 50 



Economic Products. 



13. Information regarding economic products, with which it has been customary 


IO 


to deal at some length in successive annual reports, appears now in the regular 
monthly issue of the Agricultural Bulletin so that it is unnecessary to do more than 
refer briefly to the more important points in this branch of the work. 

Para Rubber. 

14. Para Rubber still holds the field and bids fair to recoup Agriculturists some 
of the money that has been lost in other cultivations. The largest tree in the Water- 
fall Garden, of which mention has been made from year to year in annual reports, 
has been tapped for the seventh time, the yield of dry rubber being 2 lbs. 13^ ozs; 
which makes a total of r8 lbs. 7 ozs. from this tree in seven years, ur an average of 
2 lbs. 10 oz. per year ; and I see no reason why this average should not be maintained 
or even exceeded without injuring the tree. According to a note in the xAgricultural 
Bulletin, two of the oldest P*ara rubber trees in Perak that had not previously been 
tapped gave 50 lbs. of dry rubber at one tapping. Mr. Stanley Arden, Superin- 
tendent of Experimental Plantation Selangor, has just published his report on the 
tapping of trees in various manners and at different ages, and 1 believe the conclu- 
sions arrived at coincide in all material points with my own experiments, which 
though dealing with only a few trees have been spread over a much longer period. 
The extension of plantations is pushed on, especially in the Native States, and it is 
proposed to commence tapping this year on two Estates that 1 know of, Hut 1 fear 
that the return from very young trees will be disappointing after deducting cost of 
collecting. 

Ramie. 

15. A short note on Ramie in the Agricultural Bulletin somewhat revived the 
interest in this fine fibre producing plant, and has resulted in eliciting some inform- 
ation that may be of practical value. 

A correspondent in Scotland who is thoroughly conversant with the methods of 
cleaning and preparing this fibre, and to whom a parcel of ribbons was sent for 
treatment, suggests that the kind we sent, and which I believe to be the same that 
has been planted on the two or three estates in which the cultivation on ramie has 
been attempted on any considerable scale, is a very inferior variety which he terms 
black ramie. It is a very strong and quick growing form and on this account it has 
no doubt been selected in preference to others, but if our correspondent’s views are 
correct this is its sole recommendation. We have in cultivation in the nursery here 
a smaller and shorter variety with hollow stems which will, I have little doubt, give 
more than double the weight of fibre from an equal weight of stems as compared with 
the large growing kind. The nature of the stem too, I think, simplifies the decorti- 
cating process, for instead of stripping the bark from the wood, which is never a 
complete process, there being always a certain amount of fibre adhering to the wood, 
that cannot be removed with the bark, by simply beating the stems while in a green 
state and washing in water, every particle of fibre is obtained. From this variety 
two pounds weight of green stems without leaves gave 4 oz. of roughly cleaned fibre 
which has been sent home to ascertain what further loss occurs in completing the 
process of preparing the finished article, and the approximate value if shipped as per 
sample. 

Grutta Pureha. 

16. Gutta Percha trees growing in the Waterfall valley, from which a good 

crop of seeds was obtained in 1901, produced not a single fruit this year though one 
tree flowered freely. Imported saplings both from Borneo and Sumatra are decided 
failures, and until seeds are obtainable the cost of forming large plantations is too 
great to justify the undertaking. This however is a matter to be dealt with more 

fully in a report on the Forest department which I have been asked by the Chief 

Forest Officer to write, and I merely refer to the subject here as the preparations 

of Gutta Percha plants for planting in the Forest reserves has hitherto been done 

in the Botanic Gardens. 

Imperial Institute. 

17. Early in the year samples of different kinds of “Gutta Percha” including 
Taban Puteh ” from Perak were forwarded to the Scientific Department of the Impe- 
rial Institute with the request that these might be examined and their commercial 
value reported on. 

Later, a case of Blumea balsamifera, and seeds of Hevea brasiliensis, was sent. 


1 t 


Receipt of these packages has been acknowledged and an investigation of the con- 
tents promised as soon as an opportunity occurs. The Hevea seeds were sent at the 
request of the Superintendent of Government Plantations, Selangor, who anticipates 
that in the near future the supply will be enormous and that it is therefore desirable 

to ascertain whether they can be utilized in the production of oil, or for any other 

purpose. 

Forests. 


18. Up to the end of the year the Forests were directly under the District 
Officers and Collector of Land Revenue, the Superintendent of Gardens and horests 
actios as adviser especially in the matter of planting operations, and additions or 
alterations in the area of reserved Forests. From the 1st January 1903, a somewhat 
different system comes into operation whereby more direct control is taken by the 
Superintendent of Gardens and Forests. 

Expenditure; 


jo. The total amount of Government Grants under the heading of Botanic 
Gardens amount to $6,906, of which $6,769.64 were expended, particulars of which a-e 
given in Appendix A annexed. 


C. CURTIS, 

Superintendent of Gardens and Forests . 


Appendix A. 


Revenue and Expenditure of the Botanic Gardens Department , Penang, ig 0 2 


Revenue. 

; 



Expenditure. 

■ 


Government Grant — 

Maintenance of Water- 
fall Garden 

9 c. 

j 

; 

4,960 00 

1 

! i 

! 

1 

Wages ... 

Stores, Tools and Material 
Material for Herbarium 

Books and Periodicals 

Pots and Tubs 
j Manure and Cartage 
j Road Metal 
<{ Freights 

Typewriter 

Office Furniture 

Cabinets for Herbarium 

Chicks for Plant Sheds 

Iron for renewing Plant Shed ... 
^Miscellaneous & Petty Expenses 

1 r 

3.173 75 

6 53 33 
166 90 

19 90 

65 51 

8l 80 
69 OO 

48 89 

211 75 
20 00 

77 00 
33 43 
190 16 
144 56 


f 

j 

Balance 

4)955 9 « 

4 02 



Total 

4,960 00 

uuvernment uraiic — 
Upkeep of Grounds of 
Governor's Hill Bungalow 

i, 1 80 00 

f Wages 

J Seeds, Plants and Tools 
j Manure 

l^Pots and Plant Tubs 

943 59 
123 29 

64 89 

45 49 


i 

Balance 

1,177 26 

2 74 

Government Grant — 
Reafforesting Site of Ex- 
perimental Nursery 

■ 

Total ... j 

0 

0 

0 

00 

200 00 

f Wages ... ... j 

\ Balance 

101 78 
98 22 

t 

Government Grant-- 

• 

Total 

200 00 

Travelling and Personal ; 
Allowa nee ... ... j 

416 00 

( Pony Allowance 

•j Passages, Personal and Field Al- 

t lowance 

* 

216 00 

199 22 



Balance 

415 22 
78 

1 

Expen ses of carrying out 
Provisions of Coco-nut 
Tree Preservation Or- 
dinance 

i 


Total 

416 00 

150 00 

^Allowance to Inspector of Coco- 
1 nut trees 

' Destruction of dead Coconut 
_ trees... 

120 00 

4 00 


1 

Balance 

124 00 
26 00 

Total Government Grant 

6,906 00 

Total 

150 00 


Revenue from Plant Sales $ 741 90 

„ Swimming Bath 32 20 


Total Collected 


$ 774 


Annual Report of the Botanic Gardens, Singapore, 
for the year 1903. 


Staff. 

Mr. A. D. Machado, Acting Assistant during the absence of Mr. FOX, having 
accepted a position on an estate in Perak, resigned his post at the end of July. His 
services were so highly appreciated by the Government that he received a gratuity 
of §500 from the Government. He was succeeded by Mr. C. B. Kloss who 
remained till the end of the year, when Mr. Derry was expected to return from Eng- 
land, which he did early in January. The salary provided for an Acting Assistant 
Superintendent is too small for an European to live on, about $125 a month, 
so that it is by no means easy to get any one at all to act during the absence .of either 
of the Superintendents, so that the Department was very fortunate in procuring the 
services of the above-mentioned gentlemen. 

The Mandor VICTOR PASSANAH, who was employed last year, was dismissed, and 
his place was not filled up. 

The collapse of the labour supply throughout the East was felt very severely in 
the Gardens. All the better class of the ordinary coolies left, and it was discovered 
late in the year that certain licensed cooly-brokers had been crimping the men and 
shipping them to Bangkok and Borneo. The men usually ran away immediately 
after receiving their pay and were not heard of again. This was discovered by one 
of the men who had been kidnapped against his will escaping from the house in 
which he had been locked up. In this way a very large number of men had dis- 
appeared. In fact, during the year, no less than 176 men ran away or were discharged 
for worthlessness out of a staff of 71 men, and this does not include a large number 
who came for a single day. The attention* of the Chinese Protector in charge of the 
Emigration Department was called to the matter, the licence of one of the worst of 
the cooly-brokers re\oked, and the running away of the men immediately stopped. 
The result of this wholesale exportation of labour was that the only coolies procurable 
were lads of 15 or 16 or old worn-out or diseased men rejected by the cooly-brokers, 
and lor a good portion of the year the supply of these was inadequate. These coolies 
were not only lazy, but knew no Malay nor could most of them handle any tools. It 
was useless to discharge them as no others could be procured. At the end of the year 
matters got a little better, but many of those employed were of very little value. 

The watchmen, although their wages were raised considerably, were almost equally 
troublesome, and several lots w ? ere dismissed during the )ear. 

There w'as very little sickness throughout the year and none of any importance. 

Visitors. 

The number of ordinary visitors was as large as ever, but the residents do not 
make as much use of the Gardens as would be expected, except on occasions on 
which the regimental band plays. Performances took place not only on moonlight 
nights but also on Sunday afternoons on two occasions, and were highly appreciated 
especially the Sunday performances to which large crowds came. 

The number of scientific visitors and those studying agriculture increases largely 
each year, as the Gardens are becoming more widely known throughout the world. 
Among this class of visitors may be mentioned : — Colonel LUMSDEN, Mr. DuNN (Hong- 
kong Gardens), Dr. Halljfr, M Bonnechaux, Mr. C. D.Cobham, (H. M. Commis- 
sioner of Larnaca), Professor HochreuTINER, Dr. NILS SwEDELIUS, Baron de 
SostEN, Professor C. S. SARGENT, and Mr. A. R. Sargent, Dr. Treub, Mr. W. R. 
Tromp de Haas, Dr. Heinricher, Professor Preuss, M. Jacquet. 

The tapping and other experiments w ith Para rubbey attracted many planters 
And others interested in rubber planting, and there were often six or seven bersons a 
cay present while the rubber was being collected and prepared. 


Thefts. 


There were no thefts of any importance during . the year, except those of a 
quantity of garden materials, evidently stolen for u-;e in private gardens. A notice 
was published in the papers warning residents to be careful as to what their gar- 
deners obtained, and the thefts whicli had been going on for some time immediately 
ceased. 

Gardens Committee. 

The meetings of the Committee for the management of the Gardens, after being 
long in abeyance, were recommenced at the request of a member of the Legislative 
Council. The members for the year were Dr. Ellis, Hon'ble W. J. NAPIRR, W. 
Evans and Mr. JAGO who was during the year replaced by Mr. SHELFORD. Ten 
meetings were called, of which six were attended by the Committee. » 

Aviaries. 

In accordance with Government instructions most of the remaining animals were 
sold; a few of the birds, some monkeys and a few other animals which had been 
a long time in the Gardens being kept. An unusually large number of animals were 
offered as presents to the Gardens, including a line tiger offered by the Sultan of 
Johore, hut almost all had to be refused. The abolition of the Menagerie caused 
many expressions of regret among the visitors with whom it was the most popular 
part of the Gardens. The funds however made it impossible to keep it up even if 
the dispersal of it had not been ordered. 

It may be hoped that at some future time the Government might found a .quit- 
able Zoological Garden, in Singapore, which with a low charge for admission would 
easily be made to pay for its upkeep as is done in many colonies where the expenses 
of procuring the animals and keeping them are very much greater than they would 
be here. 

The only animals accepted during the year were: — - 

A binturong ( Arctictis binturong) presented by Mr. C. A. Kroessen, (Celebes.) 

A common Berok Monkey ( Macacus nemestrinus ). 

A pair of Crowned Pigeons ( Goura Victoria ) presented. 

An Ibis ( Ibis melanocephalus ) presented by Captain C. E. Remmers. 

A young pelican, presented by Tee Gay. 

A Monitor Lizard {Varanus salvator) caught in Singapore Town, presented by 
Mr. C. A. Ribeiro. 

A tortoise-shell turtle ( Chelone imbricata ) presented by Mr. Klinteberg. 

The two fine black storks from Pahang were accidently killed by a swarm of 
bees which appear to have stung both birds in the throat. 

Upkeep of Buildings, etc. 

The most important building work was the erection of a new herbarium and 
museum building by the Public Works Department. This is an ornamental building 
too feet in length and 28 feet wide, divided inti two rooms, one for the herbarium 
6q feet in length, and the other 31 feet long for a museum of economic specimens 
and laboratory. A verandah five feet wide runs round the whole building. 

The cost of the whole structure was 85,926. 

A building of this nature has long been required, as the office building was far 
too small to contain the library and herbarium, both of which have increased so 
• ‘Xtensively -during the last few years, and it was impossible to make a proper col- 
lection of our economic products still less to exhibit them, as there was not a corner 
in which they could be stowed. The transfer of the herbarium from the office build- 
ings will permit of the extension of the overcrowded library shelves, and the proper 
arrangements of papers and correspondence so as to be easilv accessible. 

On the site of the old deer-sheds, a small rustic summer house of tembusu posts, 
walls of split bamboo, and Liang roof was erected with seats inside and a veran- 
dah running round it. This has proved very useful as a shelter in rainy weather for 
people caught in storms at that end of the gardens. 

The Cooly-Iines, Clerk's quarters and potting shed were re-atapped and four 
small detached houses were, made for married coolies ; some of the woodwork of the 
plant-houses was renewed, but a good deal which required attention could not be 
done for lack of funds ; some of the soads were patched, and one or two of the 
main drains re-made. 


3 


in spite of the labour difficulties and scanty funds, the Gardens were kept in a 
fairly good and bright condition and were highly admired by many visitors who ex- 
pressed themselves as quite unprepared for such picturesque gardens. 

Plants in Flower. 

A mono- the more interesting plants which flowered in the Botanic Gardens for the 
first time wer y.— Acanthus Mont anus , Ocimum viride , the Mosquito plant, Dracaena 
phrynioides and the Uganda Coreopsis from Africa. Diospyros argentea \ Calamus 
scipionum , the Malacca cane, Parabaea capitata , Den drocolla , two new species collected 
by Mr. Machado. Coscinum fene stratum, Raphidophora Korthalsi , Mapania triquetra 
n.sp. from the Malay Peninsula. 

Schismaio glottis multiflora, n.sp. Curculigo racemosa , n.sp. Homalomena fasciata 
n.sp. Haplochorema uniflorum and Dracaena au cuboefolia n.sp. from Borneo. ^ Alpima 
^calaarata, Ceylon, Dendrohium taurinum var Album, New Guinea. A new Strobilau- 
t%es from India, presented by Mr. Micholitz. The Wistaria pea, Dolichos sp. from 

Zephyr anthes citrina, Chamcedorea Marticma , Astrocarynm tecumoides , Hibiscus 
lunar iifolius, Calliandra Ca racasana, Aphelandra puimla , D ich o yi sand v*a thyrsijfora , 
from South America. A hybrid Crinum from Italy also flowered, and Eugenia 
hraziliensis , fruited for the first time. This latter is an excellent little sweet black fruit, 
well worth cultivation. 

Plants and seeds received. 

The number of plants received during the year by presentation or in exchange was 
510 together with 442 packets of seeds. 

The donors were Mr. J. C. Harvey (Mexico), Dr. Bus se (German hast Africa), 
Mr. Erichsen (Sweden), J. Waterstradt (Borneo), Mr. Micholitz (Burmah and Malay 
Islands), Bishop Hose (Borneo), Mr. Von Uslar (Borneo Orchids), Mr. St. V. B. 
Down (Southern Siam plants), Mr. Dupont (seeds of Lodoicea seychellarum), Mr. 
Lyons (Manila), Dr. Abbott (Sumatra), Mr. G. L. Lucas (Jamaica pineapples), Mr. 
Pritchard (Cotton seed), Messrs. Choa Kim Keat, Chatterjee, Dunman, Wulle 
Sutton, Harmsen and Boehmer (various ornamental plants), Mr. Machado (Perak 
plants)' and the Conservator' of Forests, Darjiling, Southern Californian acclimatization 
Society, the Botanic Gardens of Kew, Gold Coast, Lagos, Uganda, Barbados, Mysore, 
Madagascar, Lagos, Calcutta, Sierra Leone, Selangor, British Guiana, Mauritius, 
Baroda, Sydney, and Dehra Dun. 

During a short excursion on leave to Sarawak, I obtained a number of new and 
interesting Borneo plants. 

Flants and seeds sent out. 

During the year, exclusive of plants sold, there were sent out 233 plants and 234 

packets of seeds. . _ . , T 

AmotF the recipients were, Mr. Choa Ixim Keat, Mi. I ereira, Mr. Harvey, 
Messrs. Dunman, Dr. Busse, Mr. Frizell, Mr. Meissner, Mr. Craddock, Mr. Down, 
Mr. Bland, M. Boehmer. and Bishop Hose. 

The District Officers of Tampin, Kuantan, Kuala Kubu, Temerloh, Kuala Lipis, 
Raub, District Surgeons of Pekan, Kwala Lipis, Malacca, Province Wellesley, Negri 
Sembilan, Kwala Lumpur, Tcluk Anson, Parit Buniar, Batu Gajah, Taiping, and 
Conservator of Forests. 

The Botanic Gardens of Kew, Uganda, Seychelles, Gold Coast, Madagastai, 
Zanzibar, British Central Africa, British Guiana, British Honduras. Jamaica, Mauri- 
tius, Sierra Leone, Old Calabar, Southern Nigeria, Trinidad, Baroda, P.mang, Selangor, 
Southern Californ'a, Acclimatization Society. 

The Flora. 

'fhe portion of the Flora dealing with the Monocotyledons was finished and the 
o-reater part is type written and ready for publication. The Gesneraceoe were also 
finished during the year. The collection of Utricularias was loaned to Dr. PRAIN at 
Calcutta who is undertaking the Leutibulariece for the flora, and he on his part sent 
the collection of Gesneraceoe of the Calcutta herbarium to be studied for the Flora. 
The herbarium specimens of I mpatiens were sent on loan to Sir JOSEPH Hooker at 
Kew who is writing an account of those of the Indo-Malayan region. 

The Artist continued to make drawings of plants for the flora and to finish the 
unfinished drawings. He however is resigning his post in January. The loss of his 
services is regrettable in the cause of botanical science, as these drawings are of the 


M 


4 


greatest value in a country where specimens of many plants are almost impossible to 
preserve satisfactorily, and it is the more unfortunate inasmuch as the Malay Artist at 
Penang, trained carefully in botanical drawing, has also left for a post of an inferior 
class of work, but higher pay. 

The Agricultural Bulletin. 

The Bulletin was published regularly each month. It contained 419 pages and 
nine plates. The Government of the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay 
States contributed as before $600 to its cost. The demand for it increased to nearly 
double what it was last year, 600 copies being distributed, each month, Nos. f, 8, 9 and 
10 of the first volume being all sold out are being reprinted to supply the demand for 
them. The old series was also much in request and several numbers- have had also 
to be reprinted. 

The Herbarium. 

During the year l had little opportunity of getting any collecting expeditions as it 
was not possible to leave the Gardens while the temporary Assistants were new to the 
work. But in July I visited Sarawak on leave and taking a plant-collector obtained 
a large series of herbarium specimens as well as living plants, many of which were new 
to Science. Herbarium specimens were received in exchange or by presentation from — ■ 

Hose, Miss. — Bornean Grasses. 

Shelford, Mr. R. — Bornean plants. 

Prain, Dr. — -Malay Peninsula plants collected by Wray, Scortechini and Kunstler. 

Micholitz, Mr. — Borneo plants. 

Merrill, Mr. — Philippine plants. 

Buru-Murdoch, Mr. —Peninsula plants. 

Machado, Mr.— Perak plants. 

Barton, Capt. F. R. — New Guinea plants. 

Moorhouse, Mr — Specimens of rattans from Negri Sembilan. 

Engler, Dr.— New Guinea plants. 

Napier, Mr. — -Negri Sembilan plants. 

Duplicate specimens were sent to Kew, Calcutta, Berlin and Sydney Gardens and 
to Mr. Merrill in the Philippines and Dr. Beccari. 

Eight new Cabinets for herbarium specimens were made. 

The Herbarium is now without doubt the finest for Malay Peninsula plants in 
the world, and contains many types and cotypes of plants from the Peninsula, Borneo, 
Sumatra and Siam. Although it is chiefly confined to the local plants it also con- 
tains valuable series from the islands of the Malay Archipelago and Australia, and a 
tew from Europe, America and India. Named Garden plants are often added for 
reference, in identifying cultivated plants. 

Library. 

The Library has so much increased that the small accommodation it had proved 
far too small, so that the new building destined for the herbarium was much required, 
so that the rooms in which the herbarium is packed will be in future available for the 
extension of the library Although the money which could be annually offered for 
the purchase of books has been very limited, the collection is an excellent working 
one, and several professional botanists have come to study the catalogue, and pro- 
fessed themselves well pleased with the library. A very large number of books and 
papers are received in exchange for the Gardens Reports and especially the Agricul- 
tural Bulletin. 

The following books were presented by their respective authors or Governments:— 

Nanninga, Dr. A. W. J. — -Invloed van den Boden op de Samenstellung van Het 
Theeblad. 

Koningsberger, Dr. J. C. — -Ziekten van Ryst Tabak en andere Culturgewassen. 

Hunger, Dr. F. W. J. — De Mosaick Ziekte bij Deli. 

Hissink, Dr. G. J. — Tabaks Cultur. 

Koorders and Valeton — Boomsorten op Java, part 7-9 

De Bie, H. C. H. — De Landbouw der inlandsche Bevolkung. 

Der Botanischer Garten und die Botanische Museum der Universitat Zurich. 

Penzig, O. and Saccardo, P. A— Diagnoses Fungorum Novorum in Insula Javae, 
presented by the Authors. 

Maiden, J. H. — Eucalyptus tereticornis and E, rostratus. 

Notes on some unrecorded plants collected by \\ . \ . Fitzgerald. 

Critical revision of the Genus Eucalyptus. 


I 


0 

Maided, j. H. Is Eucalyptus variable. 

On Eucalyptus polvanthemos. 

Fairchild, D. G,- Spanish Almonds and their introduction into America 
Berseem, the great forage crop of the Nile valley. 

1'hree new plant introduction from Japan. Japanese Bamboos. 
Letters on Agriculture, West Indies, Spain and the Orient. 
Wiley, H. W, — Official Method for analysis of Tanning materials. 

Satow, Sir Ernest. The cultivation of Bamboos in Japan.. 

1. Macoun— Catalogue of Canadian Plants; Part VI I, presented by Government 
of Canada. 

hi de Wildeman. — Annales du musee de Congo, presented by the Author. 
Thiselton Dyer. -Flora of Tropical Africa, vol. iv,.Part ii, vol. viii, p. 2. 
Medley-Wood.- — Natal Plants it. 3, iv. i. presented by Natal Government. 
Prudhomme, E. — Le Quinquina. 

Targioni Tozzetti. — Le Collezione di Georgio E. Rumpf.. presented by the Author. 
Jlaffncr, Dr. E. — Rapport sur le champ d’essai de Ong-Jeno. 

Maxwell, Lefroy. Scale Insects of the lesser Antilles. 

Stebbing, E. P.- -Nice Sapper. 

Bengal Rice Hispa, 

Sugar cane borer. 

Rhinoceros or Date Palm Beetle. 

North west or migratory Locust. 

Cut worm. 

Presented by the Trustees of India Museum. 

Cook, Theo. — Flora of the presidency of Bombay. 

Dultin, T. G. — Flora of the Upper Gangetic plain, vol. i., part i. 

Vines, S. — Proteolytic Enzymes in Plants. 

Christ, H. — Filices Chinae centralis. 

Sur quelques Fongeres. 

Le Pteris longifolia. 

Fougeres de Madagascar. 

Spicilegium Pteridologicun Austrobraziliense. 

Zur Flora des Obern Lago Maggiore. 

Filices Novae. 

Filices Bodmierianao. 

Frubiings flora der Tremezzina. 

Filices Setcio ue uses. 

Filices . in Shensi collectae, all presented by Author. 

Zimmermann, A. — Johaniiisbrot (Ceratonia Siliqua.) 

Bermuda grass (C'ynodon Dactylon.) 

Hallier, PI. Uber Kautschukpflanzen, presented by Author. 

Watt George and Mann H. -Pests and Blights of the Tea plant, presented by the 
Indian Government. 

Allot t. a, Dr. A. — Rivis'.a critica del Genere Gossypium, presented by the Author. 
Wiley, H. W. — Manufacture of Table Syrups from Sugar Cane. 

Gardner Annual Report of Porto Rico Experiment Stations. 

Collins, G. N. — Mango in Porto Rico. 

Collins and O. F. Cook — -Economic plants of Porto Rico. 

Barrett, O, W — The Changa or mole cricket in Porto Rico. 

Kearney, Th. H. — Report on a botanical survey of the dismal swamp. 

Rose, J. NT. — Studies of Mexican and Central American plants. 

Maxon, W. R. — Study of certain Mexican species of Polvpodium. 

Preble, E. A. — North American fauna. 

Coulter and J. M. Rose. — Monograph of the North American Umbellifene. 
Ramaley, F. — Distribution of plants in Colorado. 

Hitchcock, F. H. — Distribution of the Agricultural Exports of the United States. 
Sources of the Agricultural Imports of the United States. 

Trade of Denmark. 

Lyon, W. S. — Primer on the Cultivation of Sugar Cane. 

The Coconut. 

Report on the introduction and distribution of seeds and plants, 
Cacao cultivation in the Philippines. 

"Pierce, N. B. — California Vine disease. 

Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers. 

Sedgewick,— Root-rot of Taroby. 


6 


Boudreau, W. J. — Modern rice culture. 

Marlatt, C. L.— -Woolly aphis of the apple. 

Couter, J. E. — Cultivation of Sisal in Hawaii. 

Wilcox Mead, E. — A Leaf-curl disease of oaks. 

McFarlane, John J. — The World’s Commerce. 

Trelease Annual Report of Missouri Gardens Experimental Station Record. 

Report on the United States Philippines Commissioners. 

Annual Reports on the Department of Agriculture, U. S. A. 

Journal of the New York Botanical Gardens, 

Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Report on the Agricultural Soils of Luzon. 

Gilmore, Report on Commercial fibres of the Philippines. 

Report on the Government Laboratories of the Philippine Islands. 

Musgrave, W. E. and Clegg, M. T. — Trypanosoma and Trypanosomiasis. 

All presented by the U. S. A. Government. 

The following Journals, etc., have been presented by their respective Institutions : — 
Jamaica Bulletin, Dominica Agriculturist, Journal of the Department of Agriculture, West 
Australia, Bulletin du Jardin Botanique (Brussclls), Forest Department of Australia (An- 
nual Report), Acti Horti Petropolitani, Planting opinion, presented by Editor, Indian 
Forester, Pharmaceutical Review, Chemist and Druggist, lournal D'Agriculture Tropi- 
cale, Agricultural news of the West Indies, Journal of the Board of Agriculture, Revue 
des Cultures Coloniales, Bulletin de la Societe d' Etudes Coloniales, Bulletin Economique 
de Madagascar, Agricultural Journal of ihe Cape of Good Hope, Bulletin Economique 
de lTndo-Chine, Bulletin Economique de Hanoi, Trinidad Bulletin. Report on the Agri- 
cultural work in the Botanic Gardens of British Guiana, The Dominica Agriculturist, 
Records of the Botanic Survey of India, New York Bulletin, Report ofi the Experiment 
Stations, Montserrat, Annual Reports of the Forest Department, Madras, Proceedings 
of the Agrihorticultural Society of Madras, Indian Museum notes, Ceylon Garden report, 
Ceylon Circulars, Annual Report of the Taj and other Gardens at Agra, Merck’s An 
nual Report, Transvaal Agricultural Journal, Journal of the British Honduras Society 
of Agriculture and Commerce, Annual Report of the Cape of Good Hope, leones 
Plantarum, Kew Bulletin, Journal of the Imperial Institute, Agricultural Ledger, 
Bulletin de 1’ Institute Botanique de Buitenzorg, Queensland Agricultural Journal, 
Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Land Record of the 
N. W. Provinces, Calcutta Botanic Garden Reports, Calcutta Report of Cinchona 
Plantations, Bulletin of the Koloniaal Museum of Harlem, Der Tropenpflanzer, 
Annales tlu Musee du Congo, The Shamba, Meteorological observations of Zomba, 
Rainfall Forecasts and estimates of British Central Africa, Annual Garden Reports of 
the Botanic Gardens of Gold Coast, Uganda, Natal, Lagos, Zanzibar, Sierra Leone, 
Seychelles, Mauritius, Ceylon, Calcutta, Saharunpore, Travancore, Mysore, Lucknow, 
Buitenzorg, Hongkong, Fiji, New South Wales, Queensland, Acclimatization Society, 
Adelaide, Brisbane. Melbourne 1 , British Honduras, British Guiana, Trinidad, Jamaica, 
Barbados, Antigua, Bermuda. 


Purchased. 


Diet ion nai re 1 conographi q ue des Orchidees. 

Das Pfianzenreich (Engler). 

Warington. — Physical properties of Soil. 

Yeitch. — Manual of Coniferae. 

Index Ke wen sis (supplement). 

Hossfielcl’s Dutch Dictionary. 

Journals : — 

Indian Planting and Gardening; Gardeners Chronicle, Botanical Magazine, 
Journal of the Linnean Society, Tropical Agriculturist. 


Receipt and Expenditure. 


By balance in Bank 
Government Grant 
By Sale of Plants and Seeds 
Interest 


$ c. 

964.01 


8.407.00 

2,562.96 

24.18 


Total ... $11,958.15 




/ 


$ c - 
4*627.26' 
6.716.47 
614.42 


Total ... $11,958.15 


Economic Gardens. 

A considerable tract of land lying, along the Cluny Road was felled and stumped 
to plant Para rubber on it. This land lies between two blocks of Para rubber and 
had many years ago been planted up with Merbau, Inga Saman, Calophyllurn 
inophyllum, Cedrela Toona, and Mesua ferrea, with a few other trees. The whole 
had grown into a dense scrub of secondary growth, all of whirh was cleared out 
leaving the more valuable trees. The Calophyllurn is useless for foresting in this 
way, and had made little growth, nor were the Inga Saman much better. Owing to 
the difficulty of getting labour this work was not quite finished by the end of the 
year. 

On the hill behind the policemen's quarters the trees were thinned and Castilloa 
planted through the wood, and outside along its edge, to compare the growth of this 
plant with and without shade. 

A piece of secondary jungle along the Cluny Road between the cooly lines and 
the entrance to the lower gardens was thinned an 1 planted through with Gutia perchar. 
Dichop sis oblongifolia and also D. obovata. 

The toad from the Dalvey entrance to the main entrance through the garden was 
widened, strong drainpipes put in the culverts and kept in good condition as a riding 
road, and has been very popular. Beds were made and planted with Cotton, 
and a number of new vegetables were cultivated together with several species of 
Ocimum including the mosquito plant, Ocimum viride. Experiments made with these 
especially the last mentioned proved their complete uselessness in driving away Mos- 
quitoes. Ramie beds were renewed and the stock replanted, and a new bed of 
Patchouli under partial shade was made. 

The experiments in manuring Para rubber were continued, the plants bring 
planted out in beds manured with different kinds of manure. The experiments con- 
firmed those made on pot plants in the previous year — those manured with cow-dung 
making the greatest growth and those with burnt earth and leaves came next, while 
lime appeared to injure the plant. A number of plants of Para Rubber were manured 
also with different kinds of phosphate manures, but no very apparent result has yet 
appeared. 

A* number of Para Rubber trees well grown were mulched with cut grass, as an 
experiment but the results of this will not be shown for some time. 

The most important experiments were thos • made by tapping the adult Para 
rubber trees. Experiments were made as to the best method of cutting the tree with 
the least injury, in the flow of latex as taken from different heights on the tree, at 
different times and under different weathers, also as to preparing the rubber from the 
latex. A quantity of rubber prepared in the Gardens, 143 tbs was sold to various 
buyers at home who spoke highly of it, and gave an average price of 4 shillings a 
pound for biscuit and 3 shillings for scrap. Samples of well prepared rubber, were 
given to various planters and others interested in the business and some specimens 
were sent to the Imperial Institute and to Kew. Latex was supplied to the Govern- 
ment Analyst for examination and analysis. 

Experiments were also made in the acidity or alkalinity of all laticiferous trees 
in the Gardens, bv which it was shown that Para rubber latex was unique in posses- 
sing a distinctly alkaline latex. 

The account of these experiments was published in the Agricultural Bulletin. 
During the progress of the experiments in tapping a large number of residents, 
planters, and others came to see the work carried out. During the year 94,235 seeds 
and 12,454 plants of Para rubber were supplied to planters. 

The crop of seed was very irregular this year, probably due to the irregularity of 
the weather (or the past two years. Many of the trees fruited very late, and some 
apparently not at all. 

Probably for similar reasons the fruit crop, especially Durians and Mangosteens, 
was very short this year. 


Expenditure. 

Wages of Coolies, &c. 

Bills 

Balance 


The chief demands besides Para rubber were for fruit-trees, Vanilla, chocolate, 
shade trees and pepper plants. There was a large demand from New Guinea, the 
Seychelles, and the Native States. Pepper was wanted chiefly for Madras where a 
disease had destroyed a large quantity of the Estates. Mr. G. B. Cerruti conceived 
the idea of teaching the Sakais to make Panama hats and a small number of plants 
was supplied him with instructions as to their use, and a number of plants were 
planted out to observe their growth. 

Vegetable seeds were in demand for Cocos and Christmas Islands and elsewhere. 

The stock of economic plants was re-arranged, and a good number propagated to 
supply demands. 

Among the important economic plants added to the Gardens were Eugenia pitang- 
go , a fruit tree from Mexico sent by Mr. Harvey ; a large variety of Guava, from 
Trinidad Botanic Gardens; a number of Mangos from Madagascar, and some grafted 
kinds from ChATTERJEE (Calcutta). Cardamum seed from Ceylon; Cotton seed from 
Egypt, presented by Mr. PRITCHARD (Penang). Ocimurn viride from Sierra Leone 
Gardens; eight kinds of pineapple suckers from Mr. Lucas (Jamaica) and one kind, 
the Spineless Guatemala pine from Mr. Harvey of Mexico, and plants of a very large 
Ceylon variety from Mr. Carey.